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Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي,; born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the current sixth President of Egypt, in office since 2014.
Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi (‘Abdrabbuh Manṣūr Hādī; عبدربه منصور هادي Yemeni pronunciation:; born 1 September 1945) is a Yemeni politician and former Field Marshal of the Yemeni Armed Forces.
Abdullah Ensour (عبد الله النسور; born 20 January 1939) is a Jordanian economist who was Prime Minister of Jordan between October 2012 and May 2016.
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود,, Najdi Arabic pronunciation:; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Abu Kamal or Al-Bukamal (البوكمال) is a city on the Euphrates river in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate of eastern Syria near the border with Iraq.
Sir Adam Roberts (born 29 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, a senior research fellow in Oxford University's Department of Politics and International Relations, and an emeritus fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
afrol News is an independent news agency, established in 2000, that exclusively covers the African continent, publishing an online news portal in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese languages.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Ahmed Nazif (أحمد نظيف,; born 8 July 1952) served as the Prime Minister of Egypt from 14 July 2004 to 29 January 2011, when his cabinet was dismissed by President Hosni Mubarak in light of a popular uprising that led to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.
Ahmed Mohamed Shafik ZakiAlso spelled: Shafiq.
Ajdabiya (أجدابيا, Agedábia), previously known as Agedabia or Ajdabya, is a town in and capital of the Al Wahat District in northeastern Libya.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Alsumaria News (السومرية نيوز) is an independent Iraqi satellite TV network that transmits on Nilesat, Hotbird, and Noorsat/Eurobird.
Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.
Al-Hirak (الحراك, El Hirak,Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri. — ORSAM Rapor № 83. ORSAM – Ortadoğu Türkmenleri Programı Rapor № 14. Ankara — November 2011, 33 pages. also spelled al-Hrak or Herak) is a small city in southern Syria, administratively belonging to the Izra' District of the Daraa Governorate.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Al-Qusayr (القصير) is a city in western Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate.
ar-Rastan (الرستن) is the third largest city in the Homs Governorate, located north of its administrative capital Homs and from Hama.
Al-Zabadani or Az-Zabadani (الزبداني) is a city and popular hill station in southwestern Syria in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, close to the border with Lebanon.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ali Abdullah Saleh (ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947There is a dispute as to Saleh's date of birth, some saying that it was on 21 March 1942. See:. However, by Saleh's own confession, he was born in 1947. – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.
Ali Mohammed Mujawar (Arabic: علي محمد مجور; born 26 April 1953) served as Prime Minister of Yemen between 7 April 2007 and December 10, 2011 and prior as electricity minister.
The American University (AU or American) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C., United States.
An American-led intervention in Iraq started on 15 June 2014, when President Barack Obama ordered United States forces to be dispatched to the region, in response to offensives in Iraq conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab News is an English-language daily newspaper published in Saudi Arabia.
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab Winter is a term for the resurgence of authoritarianism and Islamic extremism evolving in the aftermath of the Arab Spring protests in Arab countries.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Armed Forces & Society is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic publication that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews on political science, civil–military relations, military sociology, military psychology, military institutions, conflict management, arms control, peacekeeping, conflict resolution, military contracting, terrorism, and military ethics.
(الشعب يريد إسقاط النظام, "the people want to bring down the regime") is a political slogan associated with the Arab Spring.
Asharq al-Awsat (الشرق الأوسط, meaning "The Middle East") is an Arabic international newspaper headquartered in London.
The Assembly of the Representatives of the People (مجلس نواب الشعب, Assemblée des représentants du peuple; ARP) is Tunisia's legislative branch of government.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh (عون الخصاونة) (born 22 February 1950) was the prime minister of Jordan from October 2011 to April 2012.
Bab al-Azizia, "The Splendid Gate", is a military barracks and compound situated in the southern suburbs of Tripoli, the capital of Libya.
Baba Amr (بابا عمرو/ALA-LC: Bâba ʿAmr) is a city district (hayy) in southwestern Homs in central Syria.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bahrain's Bloody Thursday (خميس البحرين الدامي) is the name given by protesters in Bahrain to 17 February 2011, the fourth day of their national uprising.
The Military of Bahrain popularly known as Bahrain Defence Force (BDF) is under Bahrain's Ministry of Defence and a part of the government and is simply Bahrain Defence Force under a field marshal who is the commander-in-chief.
The Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), also known locally in Bahrain as the Bassiouni Commission, was established by the King of Bahrain on 29 June 2011Bahrain News Agency,, 'International Reaction 'Bahrain News Agency, 29 June 2011 tasked with looking into the incidents that occurred during the period of unrest in Bahrain in February and March 2011 and the consequences of these events.
The Bahraini uprising of 2011 was a series of anti-government protests in Bahrain led by the Shia-dominant Bahraini Opposition from 2011 until 2014.
Bani Walid (Anglicized:; بني وليد, Libyan pronunciation) is a town in Libya.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Battle of Bani Walid was a military operation in the Libyan Civil War conducted by anti-Gaddafi forces in September and October 2011, in an effort to take control of the desert city of Bani Walid from pro-Gaddafi forces.
The Battle of Brega–Ajdabiya road was a battle during the Libyan Civil War between forces loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and anti-Gaddafi forces for control of the towns of Brega and Ajdabiya respectively and the Libyan Coastal Highway between them.
The Battle of Misrata (معركة مصراتة), also known as the Siege of Misrata, was a battle of the 2011 Libyan Civil War for the control of Misrata.
The Battle of Sabha was a battle between forces loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi and rebel anti-Gaddafi forces for control of the desert oasis city of Sabha and a part of the Libyan Civil War.
The Battle of Sirte (also spelled Surt) was the final battle of the Libyan Civil War, beginning when the National Liberation Army attacked the last remnants of the Libyan army still loyal to Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown and designated capital of Sirte, on the Gulf of Sidra.
The Battle of Tripoli (ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ) was a military confrontation in Tripoli, Libya, between loyalists of Muammar Gaddafi, the longtime leader of Libya, and the National Transitional Council, which was attempting to overthrow Gaddafi and take control of the capital.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Mohamed Beji Caid Essebsi (or es-Sebsi, محمد الباجي قائد السبسي,; born 29 November 1926) is a Tunisian politician who has been President of Tunisia since December 2014.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The current borders of the State of Israel are the result both of war and of diplomatic agreements among Israel, her neighbors, and colonial powers.
Brega, also known as Mersa Brega or Marsa al-Brega (مرسى البريقة, i.e. "Brega Seaport"), is a complex of several smaller towns, industry installations and education establishments situated in Libya on the Gulf of Sidra, the most southerly point of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Cabinet of Bahrain is the chief executive body of the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.
As of 15 March 2013, the Bahraini uprising of 2011 and its aftermath resulted in 122 deaths.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
The civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, or as it was sometimes called by the media the Syrian Revolution of Dignity was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian Arab Republic authorities – lasting from March to 28 July 2011.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt.
The Constitution of Tunisia is the supreme law of the Tunisian Republic.
The Constitution of Yemen was ratified by popular referendum on May 16, 1991.
The Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia, also known as Majlis Ash-Shura or Shura Council, is the formal advisory body of Saudi Arabia, which is an absolute monarchy.
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn that is used as a biomass.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crossing Continents is a half-hour BBC Radio 4 documentary strand focusing on foreign affairs issues.
Crowd psychology, also known as mob psychology, is a branch of social psychology.
The Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia is the second most important position in Saudi Arabia, second to the king, and is his designated successor.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daraa (درعا, Levantine Arabic:, also Darʿā, Dara’a, Deraa, Dera'a, Dera, Derʿā and Edrei; means "fortress", compare Dura-Europos) is a city in southwestern Syria, located about north of the border with Jordan.
Dara`a Governorate (مُحافظة درعا / ALA-LC) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Day of Rage (يوم الغضب) is the name given by protesters in Bahrain to 14 February 2011, the first day of their national uprising.
Abdulredha Mohamed Hasan Buhmaid (or Buhamaid, عبدالرضا محمد حسن بوحميد) was a 28-year-old Bahraini protester shot by a live bullet in the head on 18 February 2011.
Khaled Mohamed Saeed (خالد محمد سعيد; 27 January 1982 – 6 June 2010) was an Egyptian man whose death in police custody in the Sidi Gaber area of Alexandria on 6 June 2010 helped incite the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.
Muammar Gaddafi, the deposed leader of Libya, was captured and killed on 20 October 2011 during the Battle of Sirte.
In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state.
Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
According to the Democracy Index 2016 study, Israel (#29 worldwide) is the only democracy in the Middle East, while Tunisia (#69 worldwide) is the only democracy in North Africa.
The Democratic Constitutional Rally or Democratic Constitutional Assembly (التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطي, Rassemblement Constitutionnel Démocratique, sometimes also called Constitutional Democratic Rally in English), also referred to by its French initials RCD, formerly called Neo Destour then Socialist Destourian Party, was the ruling party in Tunisia from independence in 1956 until it was overthrown and dissolved in the Tunisian revolution in 2011.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Egypt.
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was the former constitution of Egypt.
A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt on 14 and 15 January 2014 and with Egyptians abroad voting between 8 and 12 January.
The Egyptian crisis began with the Egyptian revolution of 2011, when hundreds of thousands of Egyptians took to the streets in an ideologically and socially diverse mass protest movement that ultimately forced longtime president Hosni Mubarak from office.
The Egyptian parliamentary elections of 2010 first voting round was held in Egypt on 28 November 2010 and the second round was held on 5 December 2010.
A presidential election was held in Egypt in two rounds, the first on 23 and 24 May 2012 and the second on 16 and 17 June.
A presidential election in Egypt took place between 26 and 28 May 2014.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
El Mahalla El Kubra (المحلة الكبرى) – commonly shortened to – is a large industrial and agricultural city in Egypt, located in the middle of the Nile Delta on the western bank of the Damietta Branch tributary.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
Elections in Yemen take place within the framework of a presidential system, with both the President and House of Representatives elected by the public.
An emergency law was first enacted in Egypt in 1958, as Law No.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
The Ennahdha Party (حزب حركة النهضة; Mouvement Ennahdha), also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahdha, is a Muslim democratic political party in Tunisia.
Essam Abdel-Aziz Sharaf (عصام عبد العزيز شرف,; born 1952) is an Egyptian academic who was the Prime Minister of Egypt from 3 March 2011 to 7 December 2011.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Since the end of the 2011 Libyan Civil War, which overthrew Muammar Gaddafi, there has been violence involving various militias and the new state security forces.
Fayez Tarawneh (فايز الطراونة) (born 1 May 1949) is an independent Jordanian politician, who served twice as prime minister of Jordan.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Gulf of Sidra offensive was the second major rebel offensive of the Libyan Civil War.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Gafsa (ڨفصة), originally called Capsa in Latin, is the capital of Gafsa Governorate of Tunisia.
The Gdeim Izik protest camp was a protest camp in Western Sahara, established on 9 October 2010 and lasting into November that year, with related incidents occurring in the aftermath of its dismantlement on 8 November.
The General People's Congress (GPC; المؤتمر الشعبي العام; transliterated: Al-Mo'tamar Ash-Sha'abiy Al-'Aam) is a political party in Yemen.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Gulf of Sirte (خليج سرت, Khalij Surt), or Gulf of Sidra (خليج السدرة, Khalij as-Sidra) after the port of Sidra, is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya.
Habib Ibrahim El-Adly (حبيب إبراهيم العادلي,; born 1938) is a former Egyptian politician.
Habitability is the conformance of a residence or abode to the implied warranty of habitability.
Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi (or al-'Ibadi; حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who has been the Prime Minister of Iraq since September 2014.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (حمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة; born 28 January 1950) is the first King of Bahrain (since 14 February 2002), having previously been its second Emir (from 6 March 1999).
Harasta (حرستا), also known as Harasta al-Basal or Hirista, is a city and northeastern suburb of Damascus, Rif Dimashq, Syria.
The Hashid (حاشد; Musnad: 𐩢𐩦𐩵𐩣) is a tribal confederation in Yemen.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Bahrain's record on human rights has been described by Human Rights Watch as "dismal", and having "deteriorated sharply in the latter half of 2010".
Human rights in Yemen are seen as problematic in numerous ways.
Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.
Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Idlib) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The impact of the Arab Spring concerns protests or by the way attempts to organize growing protest movements that were inspired by or similar to the Arab Spring in the Arab-majority states of North Africa and the Middle East, according to commentators, organisers, and critics.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
Interface: a journal for and about social movements is an open access academic journal that covers original research and reviews of books concerned mainly with protests, social movements, and collective behavior.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet activism (also known as web activism, online activism, digital campaigning, digital activism, online organizing, electronic advocacy, cyberactivism, e-campaigning, and e-activism) is the use of electronic communication technologies such as social media, e-mail, and podcasts for various forms of activism to enable faster and more effective communication by citizen movements, the delivery of particular information to large and specific audiences as well as coordination.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict (sometimes referred to as the Iran–Saudi Arabia Cold War or the Middle East Cold War) is the ongoing struggle for influence in the Middle East and surrounding regions between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Civil War is an armed conflict which began in January 2014.
The Iraqi insurgency, later referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated after the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.
Islah or Al-Islah (ألإصلاح,إصلاح) is an Arabic word usually translated as "reform", in the sense of "to improve, to better, or to put something into a better position." It is used in religion and politics (including as a name for political parties), and is also used as a personal and place name.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.
Joel S. Migdal is the Robert F. Philip Professor of International Studies in the University of Washington's Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Early general elections were held in Jordan on 23 January 2013.
Joseph Andoni Massad (جوزيف مسعد; born 1963) is Professor of Modern Arab Politics and Intellectual History in the Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies at Columbia University, whose academic work has focused on Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli nationalism.
Juan E. Méndez (born December 11, 1944) is an Argentine lawyer, former United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and human rights activist known for his work on behalf of political prisoners.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The King of Bahrain (ملك البحرين) is the monarch and head of state of Bahrain.
Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.
Korotayev or Korotaev (Коротаев) is a Russian masculine surname, its feminine counterpart is Korotayeva or Korotaeva.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kuwaiti protests refers to the series of 2011–12 demonstrations for government reforms in the state of Kuwait.
Laayoune (Maghrebi Arabic: لعيون Al-ʿAyyūn/El-Aiun,; El Aaiún; Laâyoune; Berber: ⵍⵄⵢⵓⵏ, Leɛyun; Literary Arabic: العيون, literally "The Springs") is the largest city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara currently administered by Morocco.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
The Libyan Crisis refers to the ongoing conflicts in Libya, beginning with the Arab Spring protests of 2011, which led to the First Libyan Civil War, foreign military intervention, and the ousting and death of Muammar Gaddafi.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
Facebook is a social network service website launched on February 4, 2004.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Madaya (مضايا) is a small mountainous town in Syria, located at an altitude of around.
Maher al-Assad (ماهر الأسد, born 8 December 1967) is a Syrian general and commander of the Republican Guard and the army's elite Fourth Armored Division, which together with Syria's secret police form the core of the country's security forces.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Manama (المنامة Bahrani pronunciation) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people.
Marc Lynch is a Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University, where he is also director of both the Institute for Middle East Studies and the Middle East Studies Program.
The March of loyalty to martyrs (مسيرة الوفاء للشهداء masīra al-wafāʾ ash-shuhadāʾ) was a protest on 22 February 2011 in Manama, Bahrain.
Marouf Suleiman al-Bakhit (معروف البخيت; born 1947) was a Jordanian politician and two-time Prime Minister.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Media activism is a broad category of activism that utilizes media and communication technologies for social and political movements.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Misurata (مصراته, Misurata, ⵎⵉⵙⵓⵔⴰⵜⴰ) is a city in the Misrata District in northwestern Libya, situated to the east of Tripoli and west of Benghazi on the Mediterranean coast near Cape Misurata.
Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi (محمد البوعزيزي; 29 March 1984 – 4 January 2011) was a Tunisian street vendor who set himself on fire on 17 December 2010, which became a catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution and the wider Arab Spring against autocratic regimes.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
Mohamed Ghannouchi (محمد الغنوشي Muhammad Al-Ghannushi; born 18 August 1941) is a Tunisian politician who was Prime Minister of Tunisia from 1999 to 2011.
Mohamed MorsiThe spellings of his first and last names vary.
Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.
A referendum on constitutional reforms was held in Morocco on 1 July 2011.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
The Nafusa Mountains (Berber: Adrar n Infusen (Nafusa Mountain), (Western mountain)) are a mountain range in the western Tripolitania region of northwestern Libya.
Nasser Mohammed Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (الشيخ ناصر المحمد الأحمد الصباح, born 22 December 1940) is a Kuwaiti politician who served as Prime Minister of Kuwait from 7 February 2006 until resigning on 28 November 2011.
The National Assembly (مجلس الأمة), is the unicameral legislature of Kuwait.
The National Democratic Party (الحزب الوطني الديمقراطي Al-Ḥizb Al-Waṭanī Ad-Dīmūqrāṭī), often simply called in الحزب الوطني Al-Ḥizb al-Waṭaniy – the "National Party", was an Egyptian political party.
The National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is a U.S. non-profit soft power organization that was founded in 1983 with the stated goal of promoting democracy abroad.
The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.
Nidaa Tounes (حركة نداء تونس, Appel de la Tunisie; usually translated as "Call of Tunisia", "Call for Tunisia", or "Tunisia's Call") is a big tent secularist political party in Tunisia.
A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone, is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Oman Daily Observer is an English-language daily broadsheet published from Muscat, the capital of the Sultanate of Oman.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (عمر حسن أحمد البشير; pronunciation:; born 1944) is a Sudanese politician who is currently the seventh president of Sudan and head of the National Congress Party.
Omar Mahmoud Suleiman (عمر محمود سليمان,; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer.
Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight.
The political party that has the majority is called ruling party and all other parties or their members are called the Opposition.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
The Parliament of Egypt is currently a unicameral legislature.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Participatory design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable.
Patrick Oliver Cockburn (born 5 March 1950) is an Irish journalist who has been a Middle East correspondent for the Financial Times since 1979 and, from 1990, The Independent.
Pearl Roundabout or Lulu Roundabout (Arabic:, "Roundabout of the pearl(s)") was a roundabout located near the financial district of Manama, Bahrain.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
The Peninsula Shield Force (or Peninsula Shield) (دِرْعُ الجَزيرَة) is the military arm of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Pluto Press is a British independent book publisher based in London.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In political science and political history, the term power vacuum, also known as a power void, is an analogy between a physical vacuum, to the political condition "when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them." The situation can occur when a government has no identifiable central power or authority.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
The President of Tunisia, formally known as the President of the Republic of Tunisia (رئيس الجمهورية التونسية, Président de la République tunisienne) is the head of state of Tunisia.
A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy.
The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government.
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations.
Protest camps are physical camps that are set up by activists, to either provide a base for protest, or to delay, obstruct or prevent the focus of their protest by physically blocking it with the camp.
Protests in Sudan, also nicknamed as the Sudanese Intifada, began in January 2011 as part of the Arab Spring regional protest movement.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Sayyid Qaboos bin Said Al Said (قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد,; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman.
Qantara.de (قنطرة qanṭarah, meaning "bridge") is an Internet portal in German, English, and Arabic, designed to promote intercultural dialogue between the Western and Islamic worlds.
Rached Ghannouchi (راشد الغنوشي; born 7 June 1941), also spelled Rachid al-Ghannouchi or Rached el-Ghannouchi, is a Tunisian politician and thinker, co-founder of the Ennahdha Party and serving as its "intellectual leader".
Radio Netherlands Worldwide (RNW; Radio Nederland Wereldomroep) was a public radio and television network based in Hilversum, producing and transmitting programmes for international audiences outside the Netherlands.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another.
In political science and international relations theory, a rentier state is a state which derives all or a substantial portion of its national revenues from the rent of indigenous resources to external clients.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Armed Forces of Yemen include the Yemen Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), 1st Armored Division, Yemeni Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Yamaniya, which includes the Air Defense Force) (2008).
Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in many countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rif Dimashq Governorate (محافظة ريف دمشق, literally, the "Governorate of the Countryside of Damascus") is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
Robert David Putnam (born January 9, 1941) is an American political scientist.
Ruaridh Arrow is a British journalist and film-maker known for his 2011 feature documentary How to Start a Revolution about Nobel Peace Prize nominee Dr Gene Sharp.
Sabha, or Sebha (سبها Sabhā), is an oasis city in southwestern Libya, approximately south of Tripoli.
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure.
Salam Fayyad (سلام فياض,; born 2 April 1951) is a Palestinian politician and former Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority and Finance Minister.
Samir Zaid al-Rifai (سمير زيد الرفاعي) (born 1 July 1966) is a Jordanian politician who was Prime Minister of Jordan from 14 December 2009 to 9 February 2011.
Samuel Aranda (born 1979 in Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain) is a Spanish photojournalist.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
Saqba (سقبا; also spelled Sakba or Siqba) is a town in southern Syria, administratively part of the Markaz Rif Dimashq District of the Rif Dimashq Governorate, 7 km east of central Damascus.
Saraqib (سراقب also spelled Saraqeb or Saraqueb) is a city in northwestern Syria, administratively belonging to the Idlib Governorate, located east of Idlib.
Sarmin (سرمين also spelled Sarmeen) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located 15 kilometers southeast of Idlib.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Municipal elections in Saudi Arabian towns and cities, initially planned for 31 October 2009, were held on 29 September 2011 (a week after the initial date of 22 September 2011).
Elections were held in Saudi Arabia on 12 December 2015 for municipal councils, which have limited decision-making powers on local issues such as rubbish collection and street maintenance.
The Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain began on 14 March 2011 to assist the Bahraini government in suppressing an anti-government uprising in the country.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scoop.co.nz is a New Zealand internet news site run by Scoop Media Limited, part of the Scoop Media Cartel.
The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sidi Bouzid (سيدي بوزيد), sometimes called Sidi Bou Zid or Sīdī Bū Zayd, is a city in Tunisia and is the capital of Sidi Bouzid Governorate in the centre of the country.
Silent protest is an organized effort where the participants stay quiet to demonstrate disapproval.
The Sinai insurgency is an ongoing conflict in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, between Islamist militants and Egyptian security forces, which has included attacks on civilians.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society.
The spillover of the Syrian Civil War is the impact of the Syrian Civil War in the Arab world.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The State Security Investigations Service (مباحث أمن الدولة) was the highest national internal security authority in Egypt.
A state within a state or a deep state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and branches of government bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership.
Over the past two decades, state-building has developed into becoming an integral part and even a specific approach to peacebuilding by the international community.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Suheir al-Atassi (Suhair al-ʾAtāsī; born 1971) is the leading female secular activist in the Syrian opposition, and co-vice-president of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces between November 2012 and December 2013.
The Supreme Constitutional Court (المحكمة الدستورية العليا, El Mahkama El Dustūrīya El ‘Ulyā) is an independent judicial body in Egypt, located in the Cairo suburb of Maadi.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF; المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة,, also Higher Council of the Armed Forces) is a statutory body of between 20 and 25 senior Egyptian military officers and is headed by Field Marshal Abdul Fatah al-Sisi and Lieutenant General Sedki Sobhi.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Tahrir Square (ميدان التحرير,, English: Liberation Square), also known as "Martyr Square", is a major public town square in Downtown Cairo, Egypt.
Taiz (تعز, Taʿizz) is a city in southwestern Yemen.
A takfiri (تكفيري) is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim (or an adherent of another Abrahamic faith) of apostasy.
Tawakkol Abdel-Salam Karman (توكل عبد السلام خالد كرمان Tawakkul ‘Abd us-Salām Karmān; also Romanized Tawakul, Tawakel) (born 7 February 1979) is a Yemeni journalist, politician, and human rights activist.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
An election for a constituent assembly in Tunisia was announced on 3 March 2011 and held on 23 October 2011, following the Tunisian revolution.
The Tunisian Constitution of 2014 (2014 دستور تونس) was adopted on 26 January 2014 by the Constituent Assembly elected on 23 October 2011 in the wake of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution that overthrew President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
Legislative elections were held in Tunisia on 26 October 2014.
A presidential election was held in Tunisia on 23 November 2014, a month after the parliamentary election.
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.
The “Turkish model” refers to the focus on Republic of Turkey as "an example of a modern, moderate Muslim state that works." Turkey has been seen as combining a secular state and constitution, with a government run by a political party or political parties (Justice and Development Party, AKP) with "roots in political Islam".
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Wael Ghonim (وائل غنيم. born 23 December 1980) is an Internet activist and computer engineer with an interest in social entrepreneurship.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Women played a variety of roles in the Arab Spring, but its impact on women and their rights is unclear.
During the late 20th and early 21st centuries, women's rights in Saudi Arabia were limited in comparison to the rights of women in many of its neighbor countries due to the strict sharia law in place in Saudi Arabia.
World Press Photo Foundation is an independent, non-profit organization based in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions, each claiming to constitute the Yemeni government, along with their supporters and allies.
The Yemeni Crisis began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had led Yemen for more than two decades.
Presidential elections were held in Yemen on 21 February 2012.
The Yemeni Revolution, initially named the Yemeni uprising (intifada), and also known as the Yemeni Revolution of Dignity followed the initial stages of the Tunisian Revolution and occurred simultaneously with the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and other Arab Spring protests in the Middle East and North Africa.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zeynep Tufekci (Zeynep Tüfekçi) is a Turkish writer, academic, and techno-sociologist known primarily for her research on the social implications of emerging technologies in the context of politics and corporate responsibility.
Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي,; born 3 September 1936) is a Tunisian former politician who served as President of Tunisia from 1987 until his ousting in 2011.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.
The 2010–12 Algerian protests was a series of protests taking place throughout Algeria, lasting from 28 December 2010 to early 2012.
The 2011 Djiboutian protests were widespread demonstrations and riots that took place between January and March 2011 in Djibouti, situated in the Horn of Africa.
The 2011 Iraqi protests came in the wake of the Tunisian revolution and 2011 Egyptian revolution.
The 2011 Israeli border demonstrations started on 15 May 2011, to commemorate what the Palestinians observe as Nakba Day.
The 2011 Khuzestan protests, known among protesters as the Ahvaz Day of Rage, relates to violent protests, which erupted on 15 April 2011 in Khuzestan Province, to mark an anniversary of the 2005 Ahvaz unrest, and as a response to the regional Arab Spring.
The 2011 Lebanese protests were seen as influenced by the Arab Spring.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded to three female political activists.
The 2011 Omani protests were a series of protests in the Persian Gulf country of Oman that occurred as part of the revolutionary wave popularly known as the "Arab Spring".
The 2011 Western Saharan protests began on 25 February 2011 as a reaction to the failure of police to prevent anti-Sahrawi looting in the city of Dakhla, Western Sahara, and blossomed into protests across the territory.
The Jordanian protests was a series of protests in Jordan that began on January 2011, and resulted in the firing of the cabinet ministers of the government.
The 2011–12 Mauritanian protests are a series of protests in Mauritania that started in January 2011, concurrent with the Arab Spring, and continued into 2012.
The Moroccan protests are a series of demonstrations across Morocco which occurred from 20 February 2011 to the spring of 2012.
2011–12 Palestinian protests were a series of protests in the Palestinian National Authority and the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip, staged by various Palestinian groups as part of the wider Arab Spring.
The protests in Saudi Arabia were part of the Arab Spring that started with the 2011 Tunisian revolution.
The 2012–13 Egyptian protests were part of a large scale popular uprising in Egypt against then-President Mohamed Morsi.
On 3 July 2013, Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution.
A political crisis evolved in Tunisia following the assassination of leftist leader Mohamed Brahmi in late July 2013, during which the country's mainly secular opposition organized several protests against the ruling Troika alliance that was dominated by Rashid al-Ghannushi's Islamist Ennahda Movement.
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