195 relations: Abjad, Abjad numerals, Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Adjective, Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi, Aleph, Algerian Arabic, Algerian Braille, Allah, Ancient South Arabian script, Aqaba, Arabi Malayalam, Arabic, Arabic (Unicode block), Arabic alphabet, Arabic Braille, Arabic calligraphy, Arabic chat alphabet, Arabic definite article, Arabic diacritics, Arabic Extended-A, Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols, Arabic numerals, Arabic phonology, Arabic Presentation Forms-A, Arabic Presentation Forms-B, Arabic script, Arabic script in Unicode, Arabic Supplement, ArabTeX, Aramaic alphabet, Arwi, Austronesian languages, Ayah, Ayin, AZERTY, Ḍād, Ḏāl, Ḫāʾ, Ṯāʾ, Ẓāʾ, Že, Balochi language, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Bet (letter), Bi-directional text, Cantillation, Chad, Character encoding, Che (Persian letter), ..., Chronogram, Cipher, Cluster reduction, Collation, Consonant, Cursive, Dalet, Dhour El Choueir, Diacritic, Diphthong, Dravidian languages, Eastern Arabic numerals, Egypt, Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Epigraphy, ʾIʿrab, ʿilm al-Ḥurouf, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, French language, Gaf, Gematria, Gemination, Ghayn, Gimel, Glottal stop, Glyph, Grammatical case, Greek Orthodox Church, Gulf Arabic, Hafiz (Quran), Hamza, He (letter), Hebrew alphabet, Hejazi Arabic, Heth, History of the Arabic alphabet, IMFI, Indic Siyaq Numbers (Unicode block), Indo-Aryan languages, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iranian languages, ISO/IEC 8859-6, Isopsephy, Jabal Ram, Jawi alphabet, Johannes Gutenberg, Jordan, Kaph, Kitab salat al-sawai, Kurdish alphabets, Kurdish languages, Lamedh, LaTeX, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Lettering, Maghreb, Maghrebi script, Malayalam, Maronite Church, Mashriq, Mater lectionis, Medici Oriental Press, Mem, Mesopotamian Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Modifier letter left half ring, Modifier letter right half ring, Moroccan Arabic, Mount Ararat, Mount Lebanon, Movable type, Nabataean alphabet, Nabataeans, Napoleon, Nasal vowel, Ng (Arabic letter), Nile, North Africa, Noun, Nun (letter), Nunation, Open front unrounded vowel, Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Ottoman Turkish language, Pahlavi scripts, Papyrus, Pashto, Pashto alphabet, Pe (letter), Pe (Persian letter), PERF 558, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Phoenician alphabet, Printing press, Proto-Semitic language, Proto-Sinaitic script, Qoph, Quran, QWERTY, Rasm, Rendering (computer graphics), Resh, Robert Granjon, Romanization of Arabic, Rub el Hizb, Rumi Numeral Symbols, Samekh, Shadda, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shin (letter), SIL International, Sindhi language, Syllable, Syria, Syriac alphabet, Syriac language, Taw, Teth, TeX, Tiberian vocalization, Tsade, Tunisian Arabic, Turkic languages, Typographic ligature, Umayyad Caliphate, Unicode, Unicode block, Urdu, Urdu alphabet, Uyghur Arabic alphabet, ڼ, Varieties of Arabic, Ve (Arabic letter), Vowel, Vowel length, Waw (letter), Web browser, Windows-1256, Yodh, Zayin, Zero-width joiner, Zero-width non-joiner. Expand index (145 more) » « Shrink index
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values.
Abū 'l-Aswad Ẓālim ibn ‘Amr ibn Sufyān ibn Jandal ibn Yamar ibn Hīls ibn Nufātha ibn Adi ibn ad-Dīl ibn Bakr, surnamed ad-Dīlī, or ad-Duwalī, or Abū 'l-Aswad al-Du'alī (أبو الأسود الدؤلي),(ca.-16/603–69/689), was the poet companion of 'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and grammarian.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī (أبو عبدالرحمن الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي; 718 – 786 CE), known as Al-Farahidi, or simply Al-Khalīl, famously compiled the first known dictionary of the Arabic language, and one of the first in any language, Kitab al-'Ayn (كتاب العين).
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.
Algerian Braille was a braille alphabet used to write the Arabic language in Algeria.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian 𐩣𐩯𐩬𐩳 ms3nd; modern المُسنَد musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Arabi Malayalam (Malayalam: അറബി മലയാളം, Arabi Malayalam: عَرَبِ مَلَیَاۻَمٛ) is a writing system - a variant form of the Arabic script with special orthographic features - for writing Malayalam.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic is a Unicode block, containing the standard letters and the most common diacritics of the Arabic script, and the Arabic-Indic digits.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic Braille (بريل عربية, /) is the braille alphabet for the Arabic language.
Arabic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy based on the Arabic alphabet.
The Arabic chat alphabet, also known as Arabish, Araby (عربي, Arabī), Arabizi (عربيزي, Arabīzī), Mu'arrab (معرب), and Franco-Arabic (عرنسية), is an alphabet used to communicate in Arabic over the Internet or for sending messages via cellular phones.
(ال), also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic, is the definite article in the Arabic language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite.
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.
Arabic Extended-A is a Unicode block encoding Qur'anic annotations and letter variants used for various non-Arabic languages.
Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols is a Unicode block encoding characters used in Arabic mathematical expressions.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Arabic Presentation Forms-A is a Unicode block encoding contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages.
Arabic Presentation Forms-B is a Unicode block encoding spacing forms of Arabic diacritics, and contextual letter forms.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
As of Unicode 11.0, the Arabic script is contained in the following blocks.
Arabic Supplement is a Unicode block that encodes Arabic letter variants used for writing non-Arabic languages, including languages of Pakistan and Africa, and old Persian.
ArabTeX is a free software package providing support for the Arabic and Hebrew alphabets to TeX and LaTeX.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Arwi (لسان الأروي or; lit. "the Arwi tongue"; அரபு-தமிழ் or) is a written register of the Tamil language that uses an Arabic alphabet.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
AZERTY is a specific layout for the characters of the Latin alphabet on typewriter keys and computer keyboards.
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In name and shape, it is a variant of.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
(خ, transliterated as (DIN-31635), (Hans Wehr), (ALA-LC) or (ISO 233)), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is based on the ح. It represents the sound or in Modern Standard Arabic.
() is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents the voiceless dental fricative, also found in English as the "th" in words such as "think" and "thin".
, or (ظ), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic it represents a pharyngealized or velarized voiced dental fricative or.
Že, or žayn/žāy (ژ), is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet, based on zayn (ز) with two additional diacritic dots.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב, Universitat Ben-Guriyon baNegev) is a public research university in Beersheba, Israel.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Bi-directional text is text containing text in both text directionalities, both right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral).
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Che, or čīm (چ), is a letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet, used to represent, and which derives from (ج) by the addition of two dots.
A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals, stand for a particular date when rearranged.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
In phonology and historical linguistics, cluster reduction is the simplification of consonant clusters in certain environments or over time.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).
Dhour El Choueir (ضهور الشوير) is a mountain town in Lebanon ('dhour' meaning 'summit, top ').
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Arabic–Hindu numerals, Arabic Eastern numerals and Indo–Persian numerals) are the symbols used to represent the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Mashriq (the east of the Arab world), the Arabian Peninsula, and its variant in other countries that use the Perso-Arabic script in the Iranian plateau and Asia.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
(إِﻋْﺮَاب) is an Arabic term for the system of nominal, adjectival, or verbal suffixes of Classical Arabic.
ʿilm al-Ḥurouf or science of letters is an Arabic esoterism science which is interested in the symbolism that the letters of the Arabic alphabet may contain.
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (30 July 1549 – 17 February 1609) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gaf, or gāf, may be the name of different Perso-Arabic letters, all representing.
Gematria (גמטריא, plural or, gematriot) originated as an Assyro-Babylonian-Greek system of alphanumeric code or cipher later adopted into Jewish culture that assigns numerical value to a word, name, or phrase in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other or bear some relation to the number itself as it may apply to Nature, a person's age, the calendar year, or the like.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية, local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, as well as parts of eastern Saudi Arabia (Eastern Province), southern Iraq (Basra Governorate and Muthanna Governorate), and south Iran (Bushehr Province and Hormozgan Province) and northern Oman.
Hafiz (ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur'an.
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt, Hebrew Ḥēt, Aramaic Ḥēth, Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic Ḥā'.
The history of the Arabic alphabet concerns the origins and the evolution of the Arabic script.
IMFI is an acronym for Initial, Medial, Final, Isolated, a writing system in which each character has four different potential shapes.
Indic Siyaq Numbers is a Unicode block containing a specialized subset of the Arabic script that was used for accounting in India under the Mughals by the 17th century through the middle of the 20th century.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
ISO/IEC 8859-6:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 6: Latin/Arabic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987.
Isopsephy (ἴσος isos meaning "equal" and ψῆφος psephos meaning "pebble") or isopsephism is the practice of adding up the number values of the letters in a word to form a single number.
Jabal Ram is a mountain in Jordan.
Jawi (Jawi: Jāwī; Pattani: Yawi; Acehnese: Jawoë) is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia.
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (– February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the printing press.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
The Kitab salat al-sawai is widely considered the first book in Arabic printed using moveable type.
The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
In art, graphic design and typography, lettering refers to the creation of hand-drawn letters to apply to an object or surface.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi (or Maghribi) script is a cursive form of the Arabic alphabet influenced by Kufic letters that developed in the Maghreb (North Africa) and later in Spain, particularly Andalusia.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.
The Mashriq (مَـشْـرِق, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the historical region of the Arab world to the east of Egypt.
In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.
The Medici Oriental Press (also Typographia Medicea) was a press established by Ferdinand de Medici in the 16th century.
Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The modifier letter left half ring (ʿ) is a character of the Unicode Spacing Modifier Letters range, used to transliterate the letter ayin, representing the sound.
is a character of the Unicode Spacing Modifier Letters range, used to transliterate.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from kāf with the addition of three dots above the letter.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).
In some Semitic languages, such as Arabic, nunation (تَنوِين) is the addition of one of three vowel diacritics (حَرَكَات) to a noun or adjective to indicate that the word ends in an alveolar nasal without the addition of the letter nūn.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Pashto / Pukhto alphabet (پښتو الفبې or پښتو الپبې – Eastern dialect: pux̌to alifbe pukh'hto / pukhhto alifbe; Western dialect: paṣ̌to alipbe) is a modified form of the Persian alphabet known as Perso-Arabic, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet, with letters added to accommodate phonemes used in Pashto that are not found in either Arabic or Persian.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Pe (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet for.
PERF 558 is the oldest surviving Arabic papyrus, found in Heracleopolis in Egypt, and is also the oldest dated Arabic text using the Islamic era.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.
Rasm is an Arabic writing script often used in the early centuries of Arabic literature (7th century - early 11th century AD).
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
Robert Granjon (1513-November 16, 1589/March 1590) was a French type designer and printer.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
The Rub el Hizb (ربع الحزب) is a Muslim symbol, represented as two overlapping squares, which is found on a number of emblems and flags.
Rumi Numeral Symbols is a Unicode block containing numeric characters used in Fez, Morocco, and elsewhere in North Africa and the Iberian peninsula, between the tenth and seventeenth centuries.
Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.
Shaddah (شَدّة " emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate).
Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi,, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē, Hebrew Ṣādi, Aramaic Ṣāḏē, Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez Ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic.
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
In Unicode, a block is defined as one contiguous range of code points.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China.
ڼ is the twenty-ninth letter of Pashto alphabet.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Ve or Vāʼ is a letter of the Arabic-based Sorani, Comoro, Wakhi, Malay Arabic, Karakhanid alphabets derived from the Arabic letter (ﻑ) with two additional dots.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Windows-1256 is a code page used to write Arabic (and possibly some other languages that use Arabic script, like Persian and Urdu) under Microsoft Windows. This code page is not compatible with ISO 8859-6 and MacArabic encodings.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.
The zero-width joiner (ZWJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerized typesetting of some complex scripts such as the Arabic script or any Indic script.
The zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerization of writing systems that make use of ligatures.
Additional Arabic Letters, Alif maqsura, Arabic Alphabet, Arabic abjad, Arabic additional letters, Arabic letters, Arabic orthography, Arabic writing, Arabic-based alphabet, ابتثجحخدذرزسشصضطظعغفقكلمنهوى, ابتثجحخدذرزسشصضطظعغفقكلمنهوي, لا, ى, ﯨ, ﯩ, ﻯ, ﻰ, ﻻ, ﻼ.