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Arabic literature

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Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language. [1]

392 relations: 'A'isha al-Ba'uniyya, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz, Abdul Rahman Munif, Abiogenesis, Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Adab (Islam), Adunis, Afro-Arab, Afterlife, Ahmad al-Tifashi, Ahmad Faris Shidyaq, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Ahmed Shawqi, Aisha Taymur, Al-Ba'uni, Al-Baladhuri, Al-Farabi, Al-Ghazali, Al-Hariri of Basra, Al-Jahiz, Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi, Al-Khansa, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Muqaddasi, Al-Mutanabbi, Al-Mutawakkil, Al-Nahda, Al-Tha'ālibī, ALA-LC romanization, Alaa Al Aswany, Aladdin, Aleppo, Alexander the Great, Ali, Ali Baba, Alifa Rifaat, Anbara Salam Khalidy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anecdote, Antarah ibn Shaddad, Anthropology, Antoine Galland, Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, Arab culture, Arab world, Arabian mythology, Arabic, ..., Arabic epic literature, Arabic grammar, Arabic poetry, Arabic short story, Arabist, Arabs, Archaeology, Arib al-Ma'muniyya, Aristotle, Ash-Shu'ara, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Attar of Nishapur, Authoritarian literature, Autobiography, Autodidacticism, Automaton, Averroes, Avicenna, Ayah, Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, Badr Shakir al-Sayyab, Baghdad, Bashar ibn Burd, Basra, Battle of Karbala, Beast fable, Bible, Biography, Cairo, Cairo Trilogy, Castaway, Cave, Christiaan Huygens, Classical Arabic, Close reading, Comedy, Coming of age, Corpse Bride, Cosmos, Courtly love, Crime fiction, Crusades, Damascus, Daniel Defoe, Dark Ages (historiography), Delegation, Delhemma, Desert island, Detective fiction, Diary, Drama, Dutch language, Early Islamic philosophy, Economics, Edward Pococke, Egypt, Egyptian nationalism, Elixir of life, Elizabethan era, Emile, or On Education, Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity, English language, Etiquette, Exegesis, Fable, Fadl Ashsha'ira, Fadwa Tuqan, Fatema Mernissi, First novel in English, Folklore, Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, Fort William, India, Frame story, Francis Marrash, Free verse, French language, Friedrich Rückert, 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al-Mustakfi, Whodunit, William Shakespeare, Women's literary salons and societies in the Arab world, Women's rights, World War II, Ya'qubi, Zainab al Ghazali, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Zaynab (novel), Zaynab Fawwaz, Zoology. Expand index (342 more) »

'A'isha al-Ba'uniyya

ʿĀ’ishah bint Yūsuf al-Bāʿūniyyah (born Damascus; died Damascus on the sixteenth of Dhū al-Qa‘dah 922/December 1517) was a Sufi master and poet.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or الخلافة العباسية) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك بن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad Caliph.

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Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz

Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz (861 – 908) (عبد الله بن المعتز / ALA-LC: ‘Abd Allāh bin al-Mu‘utaz) was persuaded to assume the role of caliph of the Abbasid dynasty following the premature death of al-Muktafi.

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Abdul Rahman Munif

Abdel Rahman Munif (May 29, 1933 – January 24, 2004) (عبد الرحمن منيف) was a Jordanian-born Saudi novelist.

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Abiogenesis

Abiogenesis (Brit.: U.S.), or biopoiesis, is the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.

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Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali

Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali (أبو الأسود الدؤلي) (ca. 603CE/16BH – 688 or 689CE/69AH) was a close companion of Ali ibn Abi Talib and a grammarian.

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Adab (Islam)

Adab (أدب) in the context of behavior, refers to prescribed Islamic etiquette: "refinement, good manners, morals, decorum, decency, humaneness".

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Adunis

Ali Ahmad Said Esber (علي أحمد سعيد إسبر, romanised: ʿAlī Aḥmad Saʿīd Aṣbar, born 1 January 1930), also known by the pen name Adonis or Adunis (Arabic: أدونيس, Adūnīs), is a Syrian poet, essayist and translator considered one of the most influential and dominant Arab poets of the modern era, He led a modernist revolution in the second half of the 20th century, exerting a seismic influence on Arabic poetry comparable to T. S. Eliot's in the anglophone world.

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Afro-Arab

Afro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa who are of partial Arab descent.

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Afterlife

In philosophy, religion, mythology, and fiction, the afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the Hereafter) is the concept of a realm, or the realm itself (whether physical or transcendental), in which an essential part of an individual's identity or consciousness continues to exist after the death of the body in the individual's lifetime.

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Ahmad al-Tifashi

Ahmad al-Tifashi (or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī), born in Tiffech, a village near Souk Ahras in Algeria (1184- died 1253 in Cairo) was an Arabic poet, writer, and anthologist, best known for his work A Promenade of the Hearts.

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Ahmad Faris Shidyaq

Ahmad Faris Shidyaq (1805 – 20 September 1887, known also as Fares Chidiac, Faris Al Chidiac, أحمد فارس الشدياق.) was an Ottoman scholar, writer and journalist.

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Ahmad ibn Fadlan

Ahmad ibn Fadlān ibn al-Abbās ibn Rāšid ibn Hammād (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد) was a 10th-century Arab traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars.

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Ahmed Shawqi

Ahmed Shawqi (1868–1932) (أحمد شوقي), also written as Ahmed Chawki, nicknamed Amīr al-Shu‘arā’ (The Prince of Poets, أمير الشعراء), was one of the greatest Arabic poets laureate, an Egyptian poet and dramatist who pioneered the modern Egyptian literary movement, most notably introducing the genre of poetic epics to the Arabic literary tradition.

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Aisha Taymur

Aisha Taymur (عائشة تيمور; full name: Aisha E'ismat Taymur or Aisha 'Esmat al-Taymuriyya, عائشة عصمت تيمور or عائشة التيمورية) (1840-1902) was a notable Egyptian social activist, at Egyptian State Information Service poet, novelist, and feminist.

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Al-Ba'uni

Al-Bā'ūnī is an Arabic family name (or nisba) most famously denoting the prominent dynasty of scholars and jurists descending from Nāṣir b. Khalīfa b. Faradj al-Nāṣirī al-Bā'unī al-Shāfi'ī, who began life as a weaver in the village of Bā'ūn (or Bā'ūna) in Hauran.

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Al-Baladhuri

ʾAḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī Arabic (أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري) was a 9th-century Persian historian.

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Al-Farabi

Al-Farabi (ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی; for other recorded variants of his name see below), known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 872 in Fārāb – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951 in Damascus), was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in areas of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.

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Al-Ghazali

Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالي; c. 1058–1111), known as Al-Ghazali or Algazel to the Western medieval world, was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian descent.

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Al-Hariri of Basra

Muhammad al-Qasim ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Hariri (محمد القاسم بن علي بن محمد بن عثمان الحريري), popularly known as al-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122) was an Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk Empire.

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Al-Jahiz

al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born in Basra, 776 – December 868/January 869) was an Arabic prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.

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Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi

Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī (أبو عبدالرحمن الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي; 718 – 786 CE), more commonly known as Al-Farahidi or simply Al-Khalīl, was one of the earliest Arab lexicographers and philologists.

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Al-Khansa

Tumāḍir bint ʿAmr ibn al-Ḥarth ibn al-Sharīd al-Sulamīyah (تماضر بنت عمرو بن الحرث بن الشريد السُلمية), usually simply referred to as al-Khansā’ (الخنساء) (translated from Arabic as either "gazelle" or "short-nosed") was a 7th-century Arabic poet (said to have died in 646 CE).

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Al-Ma'mun

Abū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Maʾmūn ibn Harūn (also spelled Almamon, Al-Maymun, Al-Ma’moon, Mahmoun and el-Mâmoûn (ابوجعفر عبدالله المأمون) (September 786 – 9 August 833) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. He succeeded his brother al-Amin who was killed during the siege of Baghdad (813).

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Al-Muqaddasi

Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Muqaddasī or al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsim fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions).

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Al-Mutanabbi

Abu at-Tayyib Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Mutanabbi al-Kindi (أبو الطيب أحمد بن الحسين المتنبّي الكندي ''Abū aṭ-Ṭayyib ʾAḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Mutanabbī al-Kindi''.) (915 – 23 September 965) was an Arab poet.

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Al-Mutawakkil

Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Muʿtasim bi'llah (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿala Allah (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.

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Al-Nahda

Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.

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Al-Tha'ālibī

Al-Tha'ālibī (Abu Manşūr 'Abd ul-Malik ibn Mahommed ibn Isma'īl) (961–1038), Arabic: الثعالبي, a writer, was born in Nishapur, Iran.

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ALA-LC romanization

ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, or the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.

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Alaa Al Aswany

Alaa Al-Aswany (علاء الأسواني,; born 26 May 1957) is an Egyptian writer, and a founding member of the political movement Kefaya.

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Aladdin

Aladdin (علاء الدين) is a Middle Eastern folk tale.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is the largest city in Syria and serves as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.

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Ali

Ali ibn Abi Talib (t,; 13th Rajab, 22 or 16 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; September 20, 601 or July 17, 607 or 600 – January 27, 661) was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.

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Ali Baba

Ali Baba (علي بابا) is a character from the folk tale Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (علي بابا والأربعون لصا).

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Alifa Rifaat

Fatimah Rifaat (June 5, 1930 – January 1996), better known by her pen name Alifa Rifaat (أليفة رفعت), was an Egyptian author whose controversial short stories are renowned for their depictions of the dynamics of female sexuality, relationships, and loss in rural Egyptian culture.

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Anbara Salam Khalidy

Anbara Salam Khalidy (Arabic: عنبرة سلام الخالدي)(1897–1986) was a Lebanese feminist, translator and author, who significantly contributed to the emancipation of Arab women.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anecdote

An anecdote is a short and amusing but serious account, which may depict a real/fake incident or character.

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Antarah ibn Shaddad

Antarah ibn Shaddad (عنترة بن شداد العبسي, ʿAntarah ibn Shaddād al-ʿAbsī; 525–608), also known as ʿAntar, was a pre-Islamic Arab soldier and poet, famous for both his poetry and his adventurous life.

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Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humanity.

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Antoine Galland

Antoine Galland (April 4, 1646 – February 17, 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, most famous as the first European translator of One Thousand and One Nights which he called Les mille et une nuits.

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Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction

Apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction and horror fiction that is concerned with the end of human civilization.

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Arab culture

Arab culture refers to the culture in the countries in which the official language is Arabic (although the Arabic language in some of minority), and the west officials and scholars used to call them "Arab countries" of Western Asia and North Africa, from Morocco to the Arabian Sea.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab Nation (الأمة العربية), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.

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Arabian mythology

Arabian mythology is the set of ancient, pre-Islamic beliefs held by the Arab people.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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Arabic epic literature

Arabic epic literature encompasses epic poetry and epic fantasy in Arabic literature.

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Arabic grammar

Arabic grammar (النحو العربي or قواعد اللغة العربية) is the grammar of the Arabic language.

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Arabic poetry

Arabic poetry (Arabic: الشِعْر العَرَبي / ALA-LC: ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.

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Arabic short story

With the development of the printing press in the 19th century, the Arabic short story (Arabic القصة القصيرة) first appeared in 1870 in daily newspapers and weekly magazines, perhaps because it is compact enough to be published and can be read without much expense.

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Arabist

An Arabist is someone normally from outside the Arab World who specialises in the study of the Arabic language and culture (usually including Arabic literature).

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Arabs

Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.

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Archaeology

Archaeology or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind by past human populations, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).

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Arib al-Ma'muniyya

Arib al-Ma'muniyya (797-890) was one of 'three early ‘Abbasid singing girls...

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Ash-Shu'ara

Sūrat ash-Shuʻarāʼ (سورة الشعراء, "The Poets") is the 26th sura of the Qurʾan with 227 ayat.

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Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.

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Attar of Nishapur

Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1110 – c. 1221; ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, "the perfumer"), was a PersianFarīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012.

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Authoritarian literature

Authoritarian literature is a term used by John Gardner to designate the body of literature written by persons living under an authoritarian governmental regime.

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Autobiography

An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a written account of the life of a person written by that person.

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Autodidacticism

Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education is the act of self-directed learning about a subject or subjects in which one has had little to no formal education.

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Automaton

An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to follow automatically a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

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Averroes

Averroës (April 14, 1126 – December 10, 1198) is the Latinized form of Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد), full name (أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد), a medieval Andalusian polymath.

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Avicenna

Avicenna (Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (پور سینا / ابن سینا; ابن سینا), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā (Arabic: أبو علي الحسين ابن عبد الله ابن سينا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath and jurist who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine – a medical encyclopedia. which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy, geography and geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics and poetry.

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Ayah

Ayah (آية; plural: ayat (English), آيات (Arabic)) means "evidence" or "sign".

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Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani

Badi' al-Zamān al-Hamadāni or al-Hamadhāni (بديع الزمان الهمذاني; 969 CE – 1007 CE) was a medieval Arab man of letters born in Hamadan, Iran.

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Badr Shakir al-Sayyab

Badr Shakir al Sayyab (بدر شاكر السياب) (December 24, 1926 – 1964) was an Iraqi and Arab poet.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.

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Bashar ibn Burd

Bashār ibn Burd (714-783) (بشار بن برد) nicknamed "al-Mura'ath" meaning the wattled, was a poet in the late Umayyad and the early Abbasid periods.

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Basra

Basra, also written Basrah (البصرة; BGN: Al Başrah), is the capital of Basra Governorate, located on the Shatt al-Arab river in southern Iraq between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of Karbala

The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, situated in present-day Iraq.

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Beast fable

The beast fable or beast epic, usually a short story or poem in which animals talk, is a traditional form of allegorical writing.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity.

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Biography

Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.

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Cairo Trilogy

The Cairo Trilogy (الثلاثية (The Trilogy) or ثلاثية القاهرة (The Cairo Trilogy)) is a trilogy of novels written by the Egyptian novelist and Nobel Prize winner Naguib Mahfouz, and one of the prime works of his literary career that the Nobel committee cited as justification for his being awarded the prize.

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Castaway

A castaway is a person who is cast adrift or ashore.

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Cave

A cave or cavern is a hollow place in the ground, especially a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens, FRS (Hugenius) (14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist.

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Classical Arabic

Classical Arabic (CA), also known as Quranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries).

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Close reading

Close reading describes, in literary criticism, the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of text.

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Comedy

In a modern sense, comedy (from the κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or to amuse by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film and stand-up comedy.

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Coming of age

Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult.

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Corpse Bride

Corpse Bride, often referred to as Tim Burton's Corpse Bride, is a 2005 British-American stop-motion-animated musical fantasy film directed by Mike Johnson and Tim Burton with a screenplay by John August, Pamela Pettler, and Caroline Thompson based on characters created by Burton and Carlos Grangel.

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Cosmos

The cosmos is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.

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Courtly love

Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

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Crime fiction

Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, and their motives.

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Crusades

The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق) is the capital and the second-largest city of Syria after Aleppo.

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Daniel Defoe

Daniel Defoe (c. 166024 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe.

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Dark Ages (historiography)

The Dark Ages is a historical periodization used originally for the Middle Ages, which emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.

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Delegation

Delegation is the assignment of responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities, Such as starting on proper tires during a wet race.

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Delhemma

Delhemma or Sirat Delhemma ("Tale of Lady Delhemma") is a popular epic of the Arabic literature regarding the Arab–Byzantine wars of the Umayyad and early Abbasid periods.

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Desert island

A desert island or uninhabited island is an island that is not populated by humans.

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Detective fiction

Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional or amateur—investigates a crime, often murder.

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Diary

A diary (sometimes referred to as journal or notebook) is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period.

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Drama

Drama is the specific mode of narrative, typically fictional, represented in performance.

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Dutch language

Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Islamic philosophy

Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

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Economics

Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

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Edward Pococke

Edward Pococke (baptised 8 November 1604 – 10 September 1691) was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian nationalism

Egyptian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Egyptians and Egyptian culture.

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Elixir of life

The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a mythical potion that, when drunk from a certain cup at a certain time, supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.

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Elizabethan era

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).

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Emile, or On Education

Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important of all my writings".

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Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity

The Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (رسائل اخوان الصفا) also variously known as the "Epistles of the Brethren of Sincerity", "Epistles of the Brethren of Purity" and "Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends" was a large encyclopedia"The work only professes to be an epitome, an outline; its authors lay claim to no originality, they only summarize what others have thought and discovered.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Etiquette

Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group.

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Exegesis

Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι 'to lead out') is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

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Fable

Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as verbal communication) and that illustrates or leads to an interpretation of a moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim.

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Fadl Ashsha'ira

Fadl Ashsha'ira (died 871) was one of 'three early ‘Abbasid singing girls...

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Fadwa Tuqan

Fadwa Tuqan (فدوى طوقان, also transliterated as Fadwa Tuqan, Fadwa Tuqan, Fadwa Touquan and Fadwa Tuqan; 1917 in Nablus – 2003), was well known for her representations of resistance to Israeli occupation in contemporary Arab poetry.

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Fatema Mernissi

Fatema (or Fatima) Mernissi (b. 1940; فاطمة مرنيسي) is a Moroccan feminist writer and sociologist.

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First novel in English

The following works of literature have each been claimed as the first novel in English.

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Folklore

Folklore can be described as traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are passed on in large part through oral communication and example.

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Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot

Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot (21 May 1833 – 25 May 1901) was a notabled British Orientalist and translator.

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Fort William, India

Fort William is a fort built in Calcutta on the eastern banks of the River Hooghly, the major distributary of the River Ganges, during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India.

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Frame story

A frame story (also known as a frame tale or frame narrative) is a literary technique that sometimes serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, whereby an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories.

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Francis Marrash

Francis bin Fathallah bin Nasrallah Marrash (Arabic: فرنسيس بن فتح الله بن نصرالله مرّاش / ALA-LC: Fransīs bin Fatḥ Allāh bin Naṣrallāh Marrāsh; June 1836 – 1873), also known as Francis al-Marrash or Francis Marrash al-Halabi, was a Syrian writer and poet of the Nahda movement—the Arabic renaissance—and a physician.

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Free verse

Free verse is an open form of poetry.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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Friedrich Rückert

Friedrich Rückert (16 May 1788 – 31 January 1866) was a German poet, translator, and professor of Oriental languages.

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Futures studies

Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.

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Galaxy

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.

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Garden of Eden

The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.

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Genealogies of the Nobles

Genealogies of the Nobles (أنساب الأشراف; transliterated: Ansab al-Ashraf) is a history book related to Islam, authored by Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri (d. 892 CE).

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, lit. "earth description") is a field study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geography and cartography in medieval Islam

Medieval Arabian and Persian geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.

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George Keith (missionary)

George Keith (1638/9 – March 27, 1716) was a Scottish missionary.

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George Peele

George Peele (baptised 25 July 1556 – buried 9 November 1596) was an English translator, poet, and dramatist, who is most noted for his supposed but not universally accepted collaboration with William Shakespeare on the play Titus Andronicus.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Ghada al-Samman

Ghada Al-Samman (غادة السمّان) is a Syrian writer, journalist and novelist born in Damascus in 1942 to a prominent and conservative Damascene family, she is remotely related to Nizar Qabbani the famous poet.

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Ghazal

The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.

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Girls of Riyadh

Girls of Riyadh, or Banat al-Riyadh (بنات الرياض), is a novel by Rajaa Alsanea.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz,; or; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher, and to this day he occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Guide book

A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place, designed for the use of visitors or tourists".

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Hadith

Hadith (or; حديث, plural: أحاديث) are the collections of the reports purporting to quote what the Islamic prophet Muhammad said verbatim on any matter.

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Hadith Bayad wa Riyad

Hadith Bayāḍ wa Riyāḍ (Arabic,حديث بياض ورياض The Story of Bayad and Riyad) or Qissat Bayad wa Riyad is a 13th-century Arabic love story.

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Hafez Ibrahim

Hafez Ibrahim (حافظ إبراهيم, Ḥafeẓ Ibrāheem) (1871-1932) was known as the Poet of the Nile, and sometimes the Poet of the People, as his writings were widely revered by ordinary Egyptians.

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Hafsa Bint al-Hajj al-Rukuniyya

Ḥafṣa bint al-Ḥājj ar-Rakūniyya (born c. 1135, died AH 586/1190×91 CE) was an Granadan aristocrat and one of the most celebrated female poets of medieval Arabic literature.

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Hajib

A hajib or hadjib (الحاجب., tr. al-ḥājib) was a court official, equivalent to a chamberlain, in the early Muslim world, which evolved to fulfil various functions, often serving as chief ministers or enjoying dictatorial powers.

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Haloxylon persicum

Haloxylon persicum, the white saxaul, is a small tree belonging to the family Amaranthaceae.

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Hamda Khamis

Hamda (or Hamdah) Khamis is a poet and a freelance columnist from Bahrain.

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Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد, Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph.

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Hasan ibn Ali

Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب., 625–670 CE), commonly called Hasan, was the second Shiite Imam, succeeding his father Ali and preceding his younger brother Husayn ibn Ali.

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Hassan ibn Thabit

Hassan ibn Thabit (Arabic: حسان بن ثابت) (died 674) was an Arabian poet and one of the Sahaba, or companions of Muhammad.

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Hayy ibn Yaqdhan

Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān (حي بن يقظان "Alive, son of Awake"; Philosophus Autodidactus "The Self-Taught Philosopher"; The Improvement of Human Reason: Exhibited in the Life of Hai Ebn Yokdhan), the first Arabic novel, was written by Ibn Tufail (also known as Aben Tofail or Ebn Tophail), a Moorish philosopher and physician, in early 12th century Islamic Spain.

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Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of text interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik

Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.

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Historical fiction

Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.

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History

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past, particularly how it relates to humans.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the religion of Islam and its adherents, Muslims.

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Hoda Barakat

Hoda Barakat (هدى بركات) (born 1952) is a Lebanese novelist.

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Homily

A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.

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House of Wisdom

The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) was a major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age.

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Human penis size

The most accurate measurement of the human penis comes from several measurements at different times since there is natural minor variability in size due to arousal level, time of day, room temperature, frequency of sexual activity, and reliability of measurement.

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Humanoid robot

A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble that of the human body.

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Husayn ibn Ali

Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب; 8 January 626 AD – 10 October 680 AD) (3rd/4th Sha'aban 4 AH – 10th Muharram 61 AH), also spelled as Husain, Hussain or Hussein, was the son of Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib (fourth Rashidun Caliph of Sunni Islam, and first Imam of Shia Islam) and Fatimah Zahra (daughter of Muhammad) and the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali.

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I'jaz

In Islam, i'jaz or inimitability of the Qur'an is the doctrine which holds that the Qur'an has a miraculous quality, both in content and in form, that no human speech can match.

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Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur

Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur (b.819/d.August 893) was an Iranian linguist and poet of Arabic language.

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Ibn al-Azraq

'Abū 'Abd-Allāh Ibn al-Azraq was a Muslim jurist born in Granada, Al Andalus in 1427.

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Ibn al-Muqaffa'

Abū Muhammad ʿAbd Allāh Rūzbih ibn Dādūya (ابو محمد عبدالله روزبه ابن دادویه), original Persian name Rōzbih pūr-i Dādōē روزبه پور دادویه, known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (ابن المقفع),, was a Persian translator, author and thinker.

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Ibn al-Nadim

Abu'l-Faraj Muhammad bin Is'hāq al-Nadim (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم) (died September 17, 995 or 998) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer, possibly of Persian origin.

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Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

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Ibn Battuta

(أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة), or simply Muhammad Ibn Battuta (ابن بطوطة) (February 25, 1304 – 1368 or 1369), was an explorer of Berber descent, who is widely recognised as one of the greatest travelers of all time.

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Ibn Hawqal

Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Muslim Arab writer, geographer, and chronicler.

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Ibn Hazm

Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم; also sometimes known as al-Andalusī aẓ-Ẓāhirī; November 7, 994 – August 15, 1064Ibn Hazm.. Trans. A. J. Arberry. Luzac Oriental, 1997 ISBN 1-898942-02-1Joseph A. Kechichian,. Gulf News: 21:30 December 20, 2012. (456 AH) was an Andalusian polymath born in Córdoba, present-day Spain. He was a leading proponent and codifier of the Zahiri school of Islamic thought, and produced a reported 400 works of which only 40 still survive, covering a range of topics such as Islamic jurisprudence, history, ethics, comparative religion, and theology, as well as The Ring of the Dove, on the art of love. The Encyclopaedia of Islam refers to him as having been one of the leading thinkers of the Muslim world, and he is widely acknowledged as the father of comparative religious studies.

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Ibn Ishaq

Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldūn (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; May 27, 1332 – March 19, 1406) was an Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, regarded to be among the founding fathers of modern sociology, historiography, demography, and economics.

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Ibn Khallikan

Shams al-Dīn Abū Al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Khallikān (شمس الدين أبو العباس أحمد بن محمد بن خلكان., in Kurdish "Ibn Xelikan", the Khallikans are a kurdish tribe) (September 22, 1211 – October 30, 1282) was a 13th Century Shafi'i Islamic scholar of Arab or Kurdish origin.

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Ibn Khordadbeh

Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh (ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خردادبه) (c. 820 – 912 CE), better known as Ibn Khordadbeh, was the author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.

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Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (also known as Ibn al-Qayyim ("The son of the principal") or Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah ("Son of the principal of the (school of) Jawziyyah") (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH) was an Arab Islamic jurist, commentator on the Qur'an and theologian. Although he is sometimes referred to as "the scholar of the heart", given his extensive works pertaining to human behaviour and ethics, Ibn al-Qayyim's scholarship was focused on the sciences of Hadith and Fiqh. He has been called "one of the most important thinkers in the Hanbali tradition", and Ibn Taymiyya's most "passionate advocate" who like his teacher sought to defend "the established Sunnah of Islam" from innovations (Bid‘ah) of "Christian saint-worship, Aristotelian metaphysics", astrological divination, and alchemical transmutation.

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Ibn Qutaybah

Ibn Qutaybah (828 – 13 November 885 CE / 213 – 15 Rajab 276 AH) (Arabic: ابن قتيبة) was a renowned Islamic scholar of Persian origin.

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Ibn Tufail

Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.

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Ibn Zaydún

Abu al-Waleed Ahmad Ibn Zaydún al-Makhzumi (1003-1071) known as Ibn Zaydún (Arabic full name,أبو الوليد أحمد بن زيدون المخزومي) was a famous Arab poet of Cordoba and Seville.

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Iman Mersal

Iman Mersal (إيمان مرسال) (born November 30, 1966 Mit 'Adlan, Egypt) is an Egyptian poet.

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Immortality

Immortality is the ability to live forever or eternal life.

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Injunction

An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islamic eschatology

Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyāmah (pronounced yome-ul-key-ah-mah; يوم القيامة "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (pronounced yome-ud-dean; يوم الدين "the Day of Judgment").

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.

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Islamic literature

Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.

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Ja'far ibn Yahya

Ja'far ibn Yahya Barmaki, Jafar al-Barmaki (جعفر بن یحیی برمکی, جعفر بن يحيى, ja`far bin yaḥyā) (767–803) was the son of a Persian vizier (Yahya ibn Khalid) of the Arab Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid and from whom he inherited that position.

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Jabra Ibrahim Jabra

Jabra Ibrahim Jabra (1919–1994) (Arabic: جبرا ابراهيم جبرا) was a Palestinian author of Syriac-Orthodox origin born in Bethlehem at the time of the British Mandate.

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Jahannam

Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα), is one of the names for the Islamic concept of Hell. Other names for hell (or the different gates of hell) occurring in the Quran include: an-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. The hadith of Islamic prophet Muhammad, and some writings of later Islamic scholars also describe Jahannam. According to the Qur'an, on the Last Day the world will be destroyed and all people and jinn will be raised from the dead to be judged by Allah as to whether they deserved to be sent to paradise (Jannah) or hell. Hell will be occupied by those who do not believe in God (Tawhid), have disobeyed His laws, and/or reject His messengers. One group that will not have to wait until the Last Day to enter hell are "Enemies of Islam", who are sentenced immediately to Hell upon death. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century.

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Jihad

Jihad (جهاد) is an Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion.

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Jinn

Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies, are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.

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John Locke

John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".

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John Wallis

John Wallis (23 November 1616 – 28 October 1703) was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.

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Jurji Zaydan

Jurji Zaydan (1861–1914, in Arabic script جُرْجي زَيْدان also transliterated Jorge Zaydân, Georgie Zeidan, or Jirjî Zaydan) was a prolific Lebanese novelist, journalist, editor and teacher most noted for his creation of the magazine al-Hilal, which he used to serialize his 23 historical novels.

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Kahlil Gibran

Khalil Gibran (Full Arabic name Gibran Khalil Gibran, sometimes spelled Kahlil; جبران خليل جبران / ALA-LC: Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān or Jibrān Khalīl Jibrān) (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese-American artist, poet, and writer of the New York Pen League.

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Kitab al-I'tibar

Kitab al-I'tibar (كتاب الاعتبار, The Book of Learning by Example) is the autobiography of Usāmah ibn-Munqidh, an Arab Syrian diplomat, soldier of the 12th century, hunter, poet and nobleman.

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Kufa

Kufa (الكوفة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.

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Labīd

Labīd (Abu Aqil Labīd ibn Rabī'ah) (Arabic لَبيد بن ربيعة بن مالك أبو عقيل العامِري) (c. 560 – c. 661) was an Arabian poet.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin translations of the 12th century

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in Christian Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

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Layla al-Akhyaliyya

Layla Bint Abullah Bin Shaddad Bin Ka’b Al Akheeliyya (d. c. AH 85/704 CE), or simply Layla Al Akheeliyya (Ar. ليلى الأخيليّة) was a famous Umayyad Arab poet who was renowned for her poetry, eloquence, strong personality as well as her beauty.

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Layla and Majnun

Layla and Majnun (Possessed by madness for Layla; لیلی و مجنون عامری (Leyli o Majnun); مجنون لیلی (Majnun Layla)) is a love story that originated as poem in ancient Arabia, later was adopted by the Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi who also wrote "Khosrow and Shirin".

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Lebanon

Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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List of Islamic texts

The Qur'an is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God and the final divine revelation.

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List of stories within One Thousand and One Nights

This is a list of the stories in Richard Francis Burton's translation of One Thousand and One Nights.

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Literary criticism

Literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.

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Love

Love is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection ("I love my mother") to pleasure ("I loved that meal").

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Magic carpet

A magic carpet, also called a flying carpet, is a legendary carpet that can be used to transport humans who are on it instantaneously or quickly to their destination.

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Mahjar

Mahjar is the diaspora of Arabs around the world.

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Mahmoud Darwish

Mahmoud Darwish (محمود درويش., 13 March 1942 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who won numerous awards for his literary output and was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.

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Mail

The mail or post is a system for physically transporting documents and other small packages, as well as a term for the postcards, letters, and parcels themselves.

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Malak Hifni Nasif

Malak Hifni Nasif (25 December 1886 – 17 October 1918) was an Egyptian feminist who contributed greatly to the intellectual and political discourse on the advancement of Egyptian women in the early 20th century.

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Maqama

Maqāma (literally "assemblies") are an (originally) Arabic prosimetric literary genre of rhymed prose with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous.

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Marionette

A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.

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Marwa and al-Majnun al-Faransi

The madman of Marwa - known in Arabic as: مروة و المجنون الفرنسي (Marwa and Al Majnoon al Faransawi), and in Persian, simply: مروة والمجنون (Marwa and Al Majnun) - is a classical Middle Eastern love story.

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Mary 'Ajami

Mary 'Ajami (1888−1965) was a feminist and pioneering Arabic-language writer.

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Maryana Marrash

Maryana bint Fathallah bin Nasrallah Marrash (Arabic: مريانا بنت فتح الله بن نصرالله مرّاش / ALA-LC: Maryānā bint Fatḥ Allāh bin Naṣrallāh Marrāsh; 1848–1919), also known as Maryana al-Marrash al-Halabiya, was a Syrian writer and poet of the Nahda movement—the Arabic renaissance.

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May Ziade

May Ziade (née Marie, with Ziade also written Ziadé, Ziyada or Ziadeh) (مي زيادة) (February 11, 1886. – 1941), was a prolific Christian Lebanese-Palestinian poet, essayist and translator.

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Mecca

Mecca (مكة), also transliterated Makkah, is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, Arabic medicine, Greco-Arabic and Greco-Islamic refer to medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Medieval literature

Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).

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Melchisédech Thévenot

Melchisédech (or Melchisédec) Thévenot (c. 1620 – 29 October 1692) was a French author, scientist, traveler, cartographer, orientalist, inventor, and diplomat.

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Mermaid

A mermaid is a legendary aquatic creature with the upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,Geisler, Norman L. "Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics" page 446.

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Mikha'il Na'ima

Mikha'il Na'ima (also spelled Mikhail Naimy; Arabic: ميخائيل نعيمة) (b. 1889 in Mount Sannine in modern day Lebanon, d. 1988) was a Lebanese author and poet of the New York Pen League.

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Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.

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Modernist poetry

Modernist poetry refers to poetry written, mainly in Europe and North America, between 1890 and 1950 in the tradition of modernist literature, but the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors, including the nation of origin, the particular school in question, and the biases of the critic setting the dates.

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Moors

The Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Morocco

Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.

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Mowgli

Mowgli is a fictional character and the protagonist of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book stories.

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Muhammad

Muhammadfull name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (محمد; – 8 June 632 CEElizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam, and almost universallyThe Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet.

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Muhammad al-Bukhari

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who authored the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded by Sunni Muslims as the most sahih (authentic) of all hadith compilations.

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Muhammad al-Idrisi

Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti, or simply Al Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1099 – 1165 or 1166), was a Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Sicily at the court of King Roger II.

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Muhammad Husayn Haykal

Muhammad Husayn Haykal (also spelled Haikal or Heikal or Heykal محمد حسين هيكل; August 20, 1888 – December 8, 1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt.

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Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was a prominent and influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Tabaristan, modern Mazandaran in Iran.

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Mule

A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).

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Mummy

A mummy is a deceased human or other animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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Muqaddimah

The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (ἡ Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the North African Muslim Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.

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Music

Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence.

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Muslim

A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī (أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith).

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Naguib Mahfouz

Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ,; December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Nahj al-Balagha

The Nahj al-Balagha (نهج البلاغة,; "The Peak of Eloquence") is the most famous collection of sermons, letters, tafsirs and narrations attributed to Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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Narrative

A narrative or story is any report of connected events, actual or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images.

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Nawal El Saadawi

Nawal El Saadawi (نوال السعداوى, born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer, activist, physician and psychiatrist.

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Nazhun al-Garnatiya bint al-Qulai’iya

Nazhun al-Garnatiya bint al-Qulai’iya (eleventh-century) was a Granadan courtesan and poet, noted for her outrageous verse, her learning, and her low-status origins (possibly as a slave).

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Nazik Al-Malaika

Nazik Al-Malaika (August 23, 1923 – 20 June 2007) (نازك الملائكة), Al-Malaika in English: Angels, she was an Iraqi female poet and is considered by many to be one of the most influential contemporary Iraqi female poets.

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Nizar Qabbani

Nizar Tawfiq Qabbani (نزار توفيق قباني) (21 March 1923 – 30 April 1998) was a Syrian diplomat, poet and publisher.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).

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Novel

A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story.

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Omar Khayyám

Omar Khayyám; born (غیاث‌الدین ابوالفتح عمر ابراهیم خیام نیشابورﻯ,; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131), was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet, who is widely considered to be one of the most influential scientists of all time.

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One Thousand and One Nights

One Thousand and One Nights (كِتَاب أَلْف لَيْلَة وَلَيْلَة kitāb ʾalf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern, West Asian and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.

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Orientalism

Orientalism is a term that is used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, African and East Asian cultures (Eastern cultures).

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Othello

Othello (The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in the year 1603, and based on the short story Un Capitano Moro ("A Moorish Captain") by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in 1565.

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Othello (character)

Othello is a character in Shakespeare's Othello (c. 1601–1604).

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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Panchatantra

The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, पञ्चतन्त्र, 'Five Principles') is an ancient Indian collection of interrelated animal fables in verse and prose, arranged within a frame story.

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Parable

A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse, which illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.

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Passion Play

The Passion Play or Easter pageant is a dramatic presentation depicting the Passion of Jesus Christ: his trial, suffering and death.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire is any of a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia (now Iran).

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Persian people

The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.

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Petrifaction in mythology and fiction

Petrifaction, or petrification as defined as turning people to stone, is also a common theme in folklore and mythology, as well as in some works of modern fiction.

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Philosophical fiction

Philosophical fiction refers to works of fiction in which a significant proportion of the work is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy.

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Philosophy and literature

Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature).

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Platonic love

Platonic love is a type of love that is chaste and non-sexual.

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Play (theatre)

A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.

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Plot twist

A plot twist is a radical change in the expected direction or outcome of the plot of a novel, film, television series, comic, video game, or other work of narrative.

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Poetics (Aristotle)

Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς, De Poetica; c. 335 BCEDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and the first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory.

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Poetry

Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Political satire

Political satire is a significant part of satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics; it has also been used with subversive intent where political speech and dissent are forbidden by a regime, as a method of Political satire is usually distinguished from political protest or political dissent, as it does not necessarily carry an agenda nor seek to influence the political process.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much")The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Pre-existence

Pre-existence, preexistence, beforelife, or pre-mortal existence refers to the belief that each individual human soul existed before mortal conception, and at some point before birth enters or is placed into the body.

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Primitive communism

Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.

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Prose

Prose is a form of language that exhibits a grammatical structure and a natural flow of speech rather than a rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).

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Prose poetry

Prose poetry is poetry written in prose instead of using verse but preserving poetic qualities such as heightened imagery, parataxis and emotional effects.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek προσῳδία prosōidía, "song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable") is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual vowels and consonants but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Protagonist

The protagonist or main character is a narrative's central or primary personal figure, who comes into conflict with an opposing major character or force (called the antagonist).

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Proverb

A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity.

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Psychology in medieval Islam

Islamic psychology or ʿIlm al-Nafs (Arabic,علم النفس), the science of the Nafs ("self" or "psyche"), refers to the medical and philosophical study of the psyche from an Islamic perspective and addresses topics in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and psychiatry as well as psychosomatic medicine.

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Pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood back to the heart.

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Puppet

A puppet is an inanimate object animated or manipulated by a puppeteer.

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Qadiriyya

The Qadiriyya (Arabic: القادريه, Persian:قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri), are members of the Qadiri Sufi order (tariqa).

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Quakers

The Quakers (or Religious Society of Friends) is a Christian movement which professes the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine it derives from.

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Qudama ibn Ja'far

Qudama ibn Ja'far al-Katib al-Baghdadi (قدامة بن جعفر الكاتب البغدادي; ca. 873 – ca. 932/948), also known as Abu'l Faraj, was an Arab scholar and administrator for the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (الله, Allah).

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Quraysh

The Quraysh (قريش,; other transliterations include Qureish, Quraish, Quresh, Qurish, Kuraish, and Coreish) were a powerful merchant tribe that controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba and that according to tradition descended from Ishmael.

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Rabia Basri

Rābiʻa al-ʻAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (رابعة العدوية القيسية) or simply Rābiʿah al-Baṣrī (رابعة البصري) (717–801 C.E.) was a female Muslim saint and Sufi mystic.

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Rajaa al-Sanea

Rajaa al-Sanea (رجاء بنت عبد الله الصانع Rajāʾ bint ʿAbdallāh al-Ṣāniʿ; born 1981) is a Saudi writer who became famous through her novel Girls of Riyadh (بنات الرياض Banāt al-Riyāḍ).

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Reason

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Resurrection

Resurrection (from Latin resurrectio) is the concept of a living being coming back to life after death.

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Revelation

In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Rhetorical device

In rhetoric, a rhetorical device or resource of language is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading him or her towards considering a topic from a different perspective, using sentences designed to encourage or provoke a rational argument from an emotional display of a given perspective or action.

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Rhymed prose

Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes.

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Richard Francis Burton

Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.

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Riddles (Arabic)

Riddles are historically a significant genre of Arabic verse, and extensive scholarly collections have also been made of riddles in oral circulation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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Rifa'a al-Tahtawi

Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy; رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي / ALA-LC: Rifā‘ah Rāf‘i al-Ṭahṭāwī; 1801–1873) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual.

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Robert Barclay

Robert Barclay (23 December 1648 – 3 October 1690) was a Scottish Quaker, one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Religious Society of Friends and a member of the Clan Barclay.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

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Robert of Ketton

Robert of Ketton (Latin: Robertus Ketenensis; c. 1110 – c. 1160) was an English medieval theologian, astronomer and Arabist.

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Robinson Crusoe

Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.

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Robot

A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.

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Romance (love)

Romance is the expressive and pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person associated with sexual attraction.

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Romantic poetry

Romantic poetry is the poetry of Romanticism, a philosophical, literary, artistic and cultural era which reacted against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day in favor more natural, emotional, and personal artistic themes.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Romeo and Juliet

The play Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.

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Rudyard Kipling

Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist.

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Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mawlānā/Mevlânâ (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Saadallah Wannous

Saadallah Wannous (سعد الله ونوس), (1941–1997) Syrian playwright.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Greatest Desert') is the largest hot desert and third largest desert after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Sailor

A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.

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Saj'

Saj‘,(Arabic: سـجـع) is a form of rhymed prose in Arabic literature.

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Salma Jayyusi

Salma Khadra Jayyusi (born 1926 or 1927) is a Jordanian-Palestinian poet, writer, translator and anthologist.

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Samuel Hartlib

Samuel Hartli(e)b (ca. 1600 – 10 March 1662) was a German-British polymath.

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Satire

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.

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Scheherazade

Scheherazade, or "Shahrazad" (شهرازاد - Šahrāzād), is a legendary Arabic queen and the storyteller of One Thousand and One Nights.

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Science fiction

Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life.

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Science in the medieval Islamic world

Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) was the science developed and practiced in the medieval Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age (8th century CE –, sometimes considered to have extended to the 15th or 16th century).

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Sermon

A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.

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Serpent (symbolism)

The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.

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Seven Sleepers

The Seven Sleepers (Arabic: اصحاب الکھف aṣḥāb al kahf, "companions of the cave") of Ephesus is a story of a group of youths who hid inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around 250 AD, to escape a persecution.

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Shadow play

Shadow play or also known as shadow puppetry is an ancient form of storytelling and entertainment which uses flat articulated figures (shadow puppets) to create cut-out figures which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or scrim.

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Shahid

Shahid or Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء) originates from the Qur'anic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a "martyr".

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Sharia

Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Shmuel Moreh

Shmuel Moreh (שמואל מורה,شموئيل موريه, born in Baghdad, December 22, 1932) is professor emeritus in the Department for Arabic Language and Literature at the Hebrew University and a recipient of the Israel Prize in Middle Eastern studies in 1999.

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Shu'ubiyya

Shu'ubiyyah (الشعوبية) refers to the response by non-Arab Muslims to the privileged status of Arabs within the Ummah.

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Sibawayh

Abū Bishr ʿAmr ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qanbar Al-Baṣrī (c. 760–796) (أبو بشر عمرو بن عثمان بن قنبر البصري), commonly known as Sībawayh (سيبويه) (his original Persian name was سیبویه Sēbōē), was an influential linguist and grammarian of the Arabic language.

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Simon Ockley

Simon Ockley (1678 – 9 August 1720) was a British Orientalist.

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Sinbad the Sailor

Sinbad the Sailor (also spelled Sindbad; Arabic: السندباد البحري as-Sindibādu al-Baḥriyy) is a fictional sailor and the hero of a story-cycle of Middle Eastern origin; he is described as living in Baghdad, during the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior, including its origins, development, organization, and institutions.

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Solomon

Solomon (ISO 259-3 Šlomo; ܫܠܝܡܘܢ Shlemun; سُليمان, also colloquially: or; Σολομών Solomōn), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew), was, according to the Bible (Book of Kings: 1 Kings 1–11; Book of Chronicles: 1 Chronicles 28–29, 2 Chronicles 1–9), Qur'an, and Hidden Words a king of Israel and the son of David.

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Sonallah Ibrahim

Son'allah Ibrahim (صنع الله إبراهيم Ṣunʻ Allāh Ibrāhīm) (born 1937) is an Egyptian novelist and short story writer and one of the "Sixties Generation" who is known for his leftist and nationalist views which are expressed rather directly in his work.

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Soul

The soul, in many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal and, in many conceptions, immortal essence of a living thing.

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Story within a story

A story within a story is a literary device in which one character within a narrative himself narrates.

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Submarine

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Sufism

Sufism (تصوف, Ta'sawwuf), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam.

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Sunnah

Sunnah (سنة,, plural سنن) is the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.

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Surah

A Surah (also spelled Surat, Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is a chapter of the Quran.

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Suspense

Suspense is a feeling of pleasurable fascination and scrub excitement mixed with apprehension, tension, and anxiety developed from an unpredictable, mysterious, and rousing source of entertainment.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.

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Tafsir

Tafsir (t, Meaning: interpretation) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.

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Taha Hussein

Taha Hussein (November 15, 1889 – October 28, 1973) was one of the most influential 20th century Egyptian writers and intellectuals, and a figurehead for the The Egyptian Renaissance and the modernist movement in the Middle East and North Africa.

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Tarzan

Tarzan (John Clayton, Viscount Greystoke) is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungles by the Mangani great apes; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer.

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Tawfiq al-Hakim

Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik el-Hakim (October 9, 1898 – July 26, 1987) (توفيق الحكيم Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm) was a prominent Egyptian writer.

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Tayeb Salih

Tayeb Salih (الطيب صالح; 12 July 1929 – 18 February 2009) was a Sudanese writer.

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Táhirih

Táhirih (طاهره Tahere "The Pure One" - Táhirih is the Bahá'í preferred transliteration), also called Qurratu l-`Ayn ("Solace/Consolation of the Eyes") are both titles of Fatimah Baraghani (1814 or 1817 – August 16–27, 1852), an influential poet and theologian of the Bábí faith in Iran.

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The Battle of Alcazar (play)

The Battle of Alcazar is a play attributed to George Peele, perhaps written no later than late 1591 if the play "Muly Molucco" mentioned in Henslowe's diary is this play (see below), and published anonymously in 1594, that tells the story of the battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.

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The Count of Monte Cristo

The Count of Monte Cristo (Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas (père) completed in 1844.

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The Future of Culture in Egypt

The Future of Culture in Egypt (مستقبل الثقافه في مصر) is a 1938 book by the Egyptian writer Taha Hussein.

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The Incoherence of the Philosophers

The Incoherence of the Philosophers (تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ in Arabic) is the title of a landmark 11th-century work by the Iranian theologian Al-Ghazali of the Asharite school of Islamic theology criticizing the Avicennian school of early Islamic philosophy.

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The Jungle Book

The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by English author Rudyard Kipling.

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The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in 16th century Venice must default on a large loan provided by an abused Jewish moneylender.

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The Perfumed Garden

The Perfumed Garden of Sensual Delight (الروض العاطر في نزهة الخاطر Al-rawḍ al-ʿāṭir fī nuzhaẗ al-ḫāṭir) by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Nafzawi is a fifteenth-century Arabic sex manual and work of erotic literature.

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The Ring of the Dove

The Ring of the Dove (Arabic: طوق الحمامة, Ṭawq al-ḤamāmahHitti, p. 58) is a treatise on love written ca.

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The Three Apples

The Three Apples (Arabic:التفاحات الثلاثة) is a story contained in the One Thousand and One Nights collection (also known as the "Arabian Nights").

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The Yacoubian Building

The Yacoubian Building (عمارة يعقوبيان ‘Imārat Ya‘qūbyān) is a novel by Egyptian author Alaa-Al-Aswany.

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Theatre

Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.

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Theatre of ancient Greece

The Theatre of Ancient Greece or Ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece 700 BC.

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Theatre of Lebanon

Theatre in Lebanon has its origin in passion plays.

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Theologus Autodidactus

Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah (The Treatise of Kamil on the Prophet's Biography), also known as Risālat Fād il ibn Nātiq (The Book of Fādil ibn Nātiq), was the first theological novel, written by Ibn al-Nafis and later translated in the West as Theologus Autodidactus (Autodidact Theologian/Self-taught Theologian).

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1588 and 1593, probably in collaboration with George Peele.

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Tragedy

Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing.

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Tree

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Trope (literature)

A literary trope is the use of figurative language – via word, phrase, or even an image – for artistic effect such as using a figure of speech.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are proposed to be part of the controversial Altaic language family.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Usama ibn Munqidh

Majd ad-Dīn Usāma ibn Murshid ibn ʿAlī ibn Munqidh al-Kināni al-Kalbi (also Usamah, Ousama, etc.; أسامة بن منقذ) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188) was a medieval Muslim poet, author, faris (knight), and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria.

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Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (عثمان بن عفان, strict transliteration:; also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman; 576 – 17 June 656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and the third of the Sunni Rashidun or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Utopia

A utopia is a community or society possessing highly desirable or near perfect qualities.

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Victorian era

The Victorian era of British history (and that of the British Empire) was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death, on 22 January 1901.

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Vizier

A vizier (rarely; وزير; Wazeer, vazīr, vezir, Urdu); वज़ीर; sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid Caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary) who was at first merely a helper, but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian kings. In modern usage, the term has been used for ministers in the Arab world, Iran, Turkey, Somalia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It also specially used in the only absolute Asian monarchy, House of Bolkiah of Brunei with the title Prime Vizier or Perdana Wazir in Brunei Malay as the head of all viziers. Its given to the current King Hassanal Bolkiah's second brother, the Prime Vizier Mohamed Bolkiah. In Brunei, ordinary vizier is known as Pengiran Temenggong.

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Wahb ibn Munabbih

Wahb ibn Munabbih (Arabic, وهب بن منبه)was a Muslim traditionist of Dhimar (two days' journey from Sana'a) in Yemen; died at the age of ninety, in a year variously given by Arabic authorities as 725, 728, 732, and 737 C.E.Jewish Encyclopedia, using the following as Bibliography.

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Wallada bint al-Mustakfi

Wallada bint al-Mustakfi (ولادة بنت المستكفي) (born in Cordova in 1001 - died March 26, 1091), was an Andalusian poet.

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Whodunit

A whodunit or whodunnit (for "Who done it?" or "Who did it?") is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the audience is given the opportunity to engage in the same process of deduction as the protagonist throughout the investigation of a crime.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616) was an English:poet,:playwright, actor and an Italophile, who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Women's literary salons and societies in the Arab world

The tradition of women's literary circles in the Arab world dates back to the pre-Islamic period when the eminent literary figure, Al-Khansa, would stand in the 'Ukaz market in Mecca, reciting her poetry and airing her views on the scholarship of others.

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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Ya'qubi

Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi, was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in medieval Islam.

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Zainab al Ghazali

Zaynab Al-Ghazali (زينب الغزالي; 2 January 1917 – 3 August 2005) was an Egyptian activist.

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Zakariya al-Qazwini

Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini (أبو یحیی زکریاء بن محمد القزویني) or Zakarya Qazvini (Persian: زکریا قزوینی) ‎(1203–1283) was an Arab or Persian physician, astronomer, geographer and proto-science fiction writer.

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Zaynab (novel)

Muhammad Husayn Haykal's novel Zaynab (commonly pronounced) is considered the first modern Egyptian novel, published in 1913.

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Zaynab Fawwaz

Zaynab Fawwāz (Zaynab bint ʻAlī ibn Ḥusayn ibn ʻUbayd ʼAllāh ibn Ḥasan ibn ʼIbrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf Fawwāz ʼal-ʻĀmilī, ?1860–1914) was a pioneering poet, novelist and historian of famous women.

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Zoology

Zoology (zoh-OL-luh-jee) or animal biology is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

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Arab literature, Arabia & Literature, Arabian literature, Arabic Literature, Arabic novel, Contemporary Arabic literature.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_literature

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