406 relations: 'A'isha al-Ba'uniyya, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz, Abdul Rahman Munif, Abiogenesis, Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Adab (Islam), Adunis, Afro-Arab, Afterlife, Ahdaf Soueif, Ahmad al-Tifashi, Ahmad Faris Shidyaq, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Ahmed Shawqi, Aisha Taymur, Al-Ba'uni, Al-Baladhuri, Al-Farabi, Al-Ghazali, Al-Hariri of Basra, Al-Jahiz, Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi, Al-Khansa, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Mutanabbi, Al-Mutawakkil, Al-Nahda, Al-Tabari, Al-Tha'alibi, ALA-LC romanization, Alaa Al Aswany, Aladdin, Aleppo, Alexander the Great, Ali, Ali Baba, Alifa Rifaat, Anbara Salam Khalidi, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anecdote, Animal tale, Antarah ibn Shaddad, Anthropology, Antoine Galland, Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, Arab culture, ..., Arab world, Arabic, Arabic epic literature, Arabic grammar, Arabic poetry, Arabic short story, Arabist, Arabs, Archaeology, Arib al-Ma'muniyya, Aristotle, Ash-Shu'ara, Assia Djebar, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Attar of Nishapur, Authoritarian literature, Autobiography, Autodidacticism, Automaton, Averroes, Avicenna, Ayah, ‘Inān, ‘Ulayya bint al-Mahdī, Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, Badr Shakir al-Sayyab, Baghdad, Bashar ibn Burd, Basra, Battle of Karbala, Bible, Biography, Cairo, Cairo Trilogy, Castaway, Cave, Christiaan Huygens, Classical Arabic, Close reading, Comedy, Coming of age, Corpse Bride, Cosmos, Courtly love, Crime fiction, Crusades, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Damascus, Daniel Defoe, Dark Ages (historiography), Delegation, Delhemma, Desert island, Detective fiction, Diary, Drama, Dutch language, Early Islamic philosophy, Economics, Edward Pococke, Egypt, Egyptian nationalism, Elixir of life, Elizabethan era, Emile, or On Education, Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity, English language, Etiquette, Exegesis, Fable, Fadl Ashsha'ira, Fadwa Tuqan, Fatema Mernissi, Figure of speech, Folklore, Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, Fort William, India, Frame story, Francis Marrash, Free verse, French language, Friedrich Rückert, Futures studies, Galaxy, Garden of Eden, Genealogies of the Nobles, Geography, Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, George Keith (missionary), George Peele, German language, Ghada al-Samman, Ghazal, Girls of Riyadh, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gray wolf, Guide book, Hadith, Hadith Bayad wa Riyad, Hafez Ibrahim, Hafsa Bint al-Hajj al-Rukuniyya, Hajib, Haloxylon persicum, Hamda Khamis, Hanan al-Shaykh, Harun al-Rashid, Hasan ibn Ali, Hassan ibn Thabit, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, Hermeneutics, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Historical fiction, History, History of Islam, Hoda Barakat, Homily, House of Wisdom, Human penis size, Humanoid robot, Husayn ibn Ali, I'jaz, Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur, Ibn al-Azraq, Ibn al-Muqaffa', Ibn al-Nadim, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Battuta, Ibn Hawqal, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Khallikan, Ibn Khordadbeh, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Ibn Qutaybah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Zaydún, Iman Mersal, Immortality, Injunction, Iraq, Islam, Islamic eschatology, Islamic Golden Age, Islamic literature, Ja'far ibn Yahya, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra, Jahannam, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jihad, Jinn, John Locke, John Wallis, Joumana Haddad, Jurji Zaydan, Kahlil Gibran, Kitab al-I'tibar, Kufa, Labīd, Latin, Latin translations of the 12th century, Layla al-Akhyaliyya, Layla and Majnun, Layla Balabakki, Lebanon, List of claimed first novels in English, List of Islamic texts, List of stories within One Thousand and One Nights, Literary criticism, Love, Magic carpet, Mahjar, Mahmoud Darwish, Mail, Malak Hifni Nasif, Maqama, Marionette, Marwa and al-Majnun al-Faransi, Mary 'Ajami, Maryana Marrash, May Ziade, Mecca, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medieval literature, Melchisédech Thévenot, Mermaid, Metabolism, Metaphysics, Mikha'il Na'ima, Modern Standard Arabic, Modernist poetry, Mona Eltahawy, Moors, Morocco, Mowgli, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muhammad al-Maghut, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Mule, Mummy, Muqaddimah, Music, Muslim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Naguib Mahfouz, Nahj al-Balagha, Napoleon, Narrative, Nawal El Saadawi, Nazhun al-Garnatiya bint al-Qulai’iya, Nazik Al-Malaika, Nizar Qabbani, Nobel Prize in Literature, Novel, Omar Khayyam, One Thousand and One Nights, Orientalism, Othello, Othello (character), Ottoman Empire, Panchatantra, Parable, Passion Play, Persian Empire, Persian language, Petrifaction in mythology and fiction, Philosophical fiction, Philosophy and literature, Platonic love, Play (theatre), Plot twist, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry, Political satire, Polymath, Pre-existence, Primitive communism, Prose, Prose poetry, Prosody (linguistics), Protagonist, Proverb, Psychology in medieval Islam, Pulmonary circulation, Puppet, Qadiriyya, Quakers, Qudama ibn Ja'far, Quran, Quraysh, Rabia of Basra, Rajaa al-Sanea, Reason, Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Resurrection, Revelation, Rhymed prose, Richard Francis Burton, Riddles (Arabic), Rifa'a al-Tahtawi, Robert Barclay, Robert Boyle, Robert of Ketton, Robinson Crusoe, Robot, Romance (love), Romantic poetry, Romanticism, Romeo and Juliet, Rudyard Kipling, Rumi, Saadallah Wannous, Sahara, Sailor, Saj', Salma Jayyusi, Salwa Al Neimi, Samuel Hartlib, Satire, Scheherazade, Science fiction, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Sermon, Serpent (symbolism), Seven Sleepers, Shadow play, Shahid, Sharia, Shia Islam, Shmuel Moreh, Shu'ubiyya, Sibawayh, Simon Ockley, Sinbad the Sailor, Sociology, Solomon, Sonallah Ibrahim, Souad al-Sabah, Soul, Story within a story, Submarine, Sufism, Suhayr al-Qalamawi, Sunnah, Surah, Suspense, Syria, Tafsir, Taha Hussein, Tarzan, Tawfiq al-Hakim, Tayeb Salih, Táhirih, The Battle of Alcazar, The Count of Monte Cristo, The Future of Culture in Egypt, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Jungle Book, The Merchant of Venice, The Perfumed Garden, The Ring of the Dove, The Three Apples, The Yacoubian Building, Theatre, Theatre of ancient Greece, Theatre of Lebanon, Theologus Autodidactus, Tigris, Titus Andronicus, Tragedy, Tree, Trope (literature), Turkic languages, Ulfat Idilbi, Umayyad Caliphate, Usama ibn Munqidh, Uthman, Utopia, Victorian era, Vizier, Wahb ibn Munabbih, Wallada bint al-Mustakfi, Whodunit, William Shakespeare, Women's literary salons and societies in the Arab world, Women's rights, World War II, Ya'qubi, Yasmine El Rashidi, Zainab al Ghazali, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Zaynab (novel), Zaynab Fawwaz, Zoology. Expand index (356 more) » « Shrink index
ʿĀ’ishah bint Yūsuf al-Bāʿūniyyah (died the sixteenth day of Dhū al-Qa‘dah 922/December 1517) was a Sufi master and poet.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz (861 – 17 December 908) (عبد الله بن المعتز / ALA-LC: ‘Abd Allāh bin al-Mu‘utaz) is best known, not as a political figure, but as a leading Arabic poet and the author of the Kitab al-Badi, an early study of Arabic forms of poetry.
Abdel Rahman Munif (May 29, 1933 – January 24, 2004) (عبد الرحمن منيف) was a Saudi novelist.
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Abū 'l-Aswad Ẓālim ibn ‘Amr ibn Sufyān ibn Jandal ibn Yamar ibn Hīls ibn Nufātha ibn Adi ibn ad-Dīl ibn Bakr, surnamed ad-Dīlī, or ad-Duwalī, or Abū 'l-Aswad al-Du'alī (أبو الأسود الدؤلي),(ca.-16/603–69/689), was the poet companion of 'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and grammarian.
Adab (أدب) in the context of behavior, refers to prescribed Islamic etiquette: "refinement, good manners, morals, decorum, decency, humaneness".
Ali Ahmad Said Esber, romanised: ʿAlī Aḥmad Saʿīd 'Isbar (born 1 January 1930), also known by the pen name Adonis or Adunis (أدونيس, Adūnīs), is a Syrian poet, essayist and translator who is considered one of the most influential and dominant Arab poets of the modern era.
Afro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa who are of partial Arab descent.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Ahdaf Soueif (أهداف سويف) (born 23 March 1950) is an Egyptian novelist and political and cultural commentator.
Ahmad al-Tifashi (or Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Tīfāchī), born in Tiffech, a village near Souk Ahras in Algeria (1184- died 1253 in Cairo) was a Berber poet, writer, and anthologist, best known for his work A Promenade of the Hearts.
Ahmad Faris Shidyaq (1805 – 20 September 1887, known also as Fares Chidiac, Faris Al Chidiac, أحمد فارس الشدياق.) was a scholar, writer and journalist who grew up in present-day Lebanon.
Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.
Ahmed Shawqi (1868–1932) (أحمد شوقي), also written as Ahmed Chawki, nicknamed Amīr al-Shu‘arā’ (The Prince of Poets, أمير الشعراء), was one of the greatest Arabic poets laureate, an Egyptian poet and dramatist who pioneered the modern Egyptian literary movement, most notably introducing the genre of poetic epics to the Arabic literary tradition.
Aisha E'ismat Taymur (عائشة عصمت تيمور‎ or Aisha al-Taymuriyya; 1840–1902) was an Egyptian social activist, at Egyptian State Information Service poet, novelist, and feminist in the Ottoman era.
Al-Bā'ūnī is an Arabic family name (or nisba) most famously denoting the prominent dynasty of scholars and jurists descending from Nāṣir b. Khalīfa b. Faradj al-Nāṣirī al-Bā'unī al-Shāfi'ī, who began life as a weaver in the village of Bā'ūn (or Bā'ūna) in Hauran.
ʾAḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī (أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري) was a 9th-century Muslim historian.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Abū Muhammad al-Qāsim ibn Alī ibn Muhammad ibn Uthmān al-Harīrī (أبو محمد القاسم بن علي بن محمد بن عثمان الحريري), popularly known as al-Hariri of Basra (1054– 9 September 1122) was an Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk Empire.
al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.
Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī (أبو عبدالرحمن الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي; 718 – 786 CE), known as Al-Farahidi, or simply Al-Khalīl, famously compiled the first known dictionary of the Arabic language, and one of the first in any language, Kitab al-'Ayn (كتاب العين).
Tumāḍir bint ʿAmr ibn al-Ḥareth ibn al-Sharīd al-Sulamīyah (تماضر بنت عمرو بن الحارث بن الشريد السُلمية), usually simply referred to as al-Khansā’ (الخنساء) (meaning either "gazelle" or "snub-nose") was a 7th-century Arabic poet (said to have died in 646 CE).
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Abu at-Tayyib Ahmad bin Al-Husayn al-Mutanabbi al-Kindi (Abū ṭ-Ṭayyib ʾAḥmad bin al-Ḥusayn al-Muṫanabbī al-Kindī) (915 – 23 September 965 CE) was an Arab poet.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Al-Tha'ālibī (Abu Manşūr 'Abd ul-Malik ibn Mahommed ibn Isma'īl) (961–1038), Arabic: الثعالبي, was an Iranian writer, born in Nishapur, Persia.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
Alaa Al-Aswany (علاء الأسواني,; born 26 May 1957) is an Egyptian writer, and a founding member of the political movement Kefaya.
Aladdin (علاء الدين) is a folk tale of Middle Eastern origin.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Ali Baba (علي بابا) is a character from the folk tale Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (علي بابا والأربعون لصا).
Fatimah Rifaat (June 5, 1930 – January 1996), better known by her pen name Alifa Rifaat (أليفة رفعت), was an Egyptian author whose controversial short stories are renowned for their depictions of the dynamics of female sexuality, relationships, and loss in rural Egyptian culture.
Anbara Salam Khalidi (1897–1986) was a Lebanese feminist, translator and author, who significantly contributed to the emancipation of Arab women.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An anecdote is a brief, revealing account of an individual person or an incident.
An animal tale or beast fable generally consists of a short story or poem in which animals talk, is a traditional form of allegorical writing.
Antarah ibn Shaddad (عنترة بن شداد العبسي, ʿAntarah ibn Shaddād al-ʿAbsī; 525–608), also known as ʿAntar, was a pre-Islamic Arab knight and poet, famous for both his poetry and his adventurous life.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antoine Galland (4 April 1646 – 17 February 1715) was a French orientalist and archaeologist, most famous as the first European translator of One Thousand and One Nights which he called Les mille et une nuits.
Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, science fantasy or horror in which the Earth's technological civilization is collapsing or has collapsed.
Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic epic literature encompasses epic poetry and epic fantasy in Arabic literature.
Arabic grammar (اَلنَّحْو اَلْعَرَبِي or قَوَاعِد اَللُّغَة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة) is the grammar of the Arabic language.
Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.
With the development of the printing press in the 19th century, the Arabic short story (Arabic القصة القصيرة) first appeared in 1870 in daily newspapers and weekly magazines, perhaps because it is compact enough to be published and can be read without much expense.
An Arabist is someone normally from outside the Arab world who specialises in the study of the Arabic language and culture (usually including Arabic literature).
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
‘Arīb al-Ma’mūnīya (عريب المأمونية, b. 181/797-98, d. 277/890-91) was a qayna (slave trained in the arts of entertainment) of the early Abbasid period, who has been characterised as 'the most famous slave singer to have ever resided at the Baghdad court'.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Sūrat ash-Shuʻarāʼ (سورة الشعراء, "The Poets") is the 26th sura of the Qurʾan with 227 ayat.
Fatima-Zohra Imalayen (30 June 1936 – 6 February 2015), known by her pen name Assia Djebar (آسيا جبار), was an Algerian novelist, translator and filmmaker.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1145 – c. 1221; ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, Attar means apothecary), was a 12th-century PersianFarīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012.
Authoritarian literature is a term used by John Gardner to designate the body of literature written by persons living under an authoritarian governmental regime.
An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah (آية; plural: āyāt آيات) is a "verse".
‘Inān bint ‘Abd-Allāh (عِنان, d. 841) was a prominent female poet of the Abbasid period, even characterised by the tenth-century historian Abū al-Faraj al-Iṣfahāni as the slave-woman poet of foremost significance in the Arabic tradition.
‘Ulayya bint al-Mahdī (160-210 AH/777-825 CE) was an Abbasid princess, noted for her legacy as a poet and musician.
Badi' al-Zamān al-Hamadāni or al-Hamadhāni (بديع الزمان الهمذاني‎; 969–1007 CE) was a medieval Arabo-Persian man of letters born in Hamadan, Iran.
Badr Shakir al Sayyab (بدر شاكر السياب) (Jaykur, near Basra December 24, 1926 – Kuwait 24 December 1964) was a leading Iraqi poet, well known throughout the Arab world and one of the most influential Arab poets of all time.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bashār ibn Burd (بشار بن برد; 714–783), nicknamed al-Mura'ath, meaning "the wattled", was a poet of the late Umayyad and early Abbasid periods.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Cairo Trilogy (الثلاثية (The Trilogy) or ثلاثية القاهرة (The Cairo Trilogy)) is a trilogy of novels written by the Egyptian novelist and Nobel Prize winner Naguib Mahfouz, and one of the prime works of his literary career.
A castaway is a person who is cast adrift or ashore.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
In literary criticism, close reading is the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of a text.
In a modern sense, comedy (from the κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment.
Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult.
Corpse Bride is a 2005 British-American stop-motion animated musical fantasy film directed by Mike Johnson and Tim Burton with a screenplay by John August, Caroline Thompson and Pamela Pettler based on characters created by Burton and Carlos Grangel.
The cosmos is the universe.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, and their motives.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Dede Fairchild Ruggles is a historian of Islamic art and architecture, and a professor of landscape architecture at the University of Illinois.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daniel Defoe (13 September 1660 - 24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
Delegation is the assignment of any responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.
Delhemma or Sirat Delhemma ("Tale of Lady Delhemma") is a popular epic of the Arabic literature regarding the Arab–Byzantine wars of the Umayyad and early Abbasid periods.
A deserted island or uninhabited island is an island that is not permanently populated by humans.
Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime, often murder.
A diary is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edward Pococke (baptised 8 November 1604 – 10 September 1691) was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Egyptians and Egyptian culture.
The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings.
The Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (رسائل إخوان الصفا) also variously known as the Epistles of the Brethren of Sincerity, Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends was a large encyclopedia"The work only professes to be an epitome, an outline; its authors lay claim to no originality, they only summarize what others have thought and discovered.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
Fadl Ashsha'ira (فضل الشاعرة, d. 871 CE) was one of 'three early ‘Abbasid singing girls...
Fadwa Tuqan (فدوى طوقان, also transliterated as Fadwa Tuqan, Fadwa Tuqan, Fadwa Touquan and Fadwa Tuqan; 1917 in Nablus – 2003), was well known for her representations of resistance to Israeli occupation in contemporary Arab poetry.
Fatema Mernissi (فاطمة مرنيسي; 27 September 1940 – 30 November 2015) was a Moroccan feminist writer and sociologist.
A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot (21 May 1833 – 25 May 1901) was a notabled British Orientalist and translator.
Fort William is a fort in Calcutta (Kolkata), built during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India.
A frame story (also known as a frame tale or frame narrative) is a literary technique that sometimes serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, whereby an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories.
Francis bin Fathallah bin Nasrallah Marrash (Arabic: فرنسيس بن فتح الله بن نصر الله مرّاش / ALA-LC: Fransīs bin Fatḥ Allāh bin Naṣr Allāh Marrāsh; 1835Al-Himsi, p. 20. or 1836Zaydan, p. 253. or 1837 – 1873 or 1874), also known as Francis al-Marrash or Francis Marrash al-Halabi, was a Syrian writer and poet of the Nahda movement—the Arabic renaissance—and a physician.
Free verse is an open form of poetry.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Rückert (16 May 1788 – 31 January 1866) was a German poet, translator, and professor of Oriental languages.
Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
Genealogies of the Nobles (أنساب الأشراف; transliterated: Ansab al-Ashraf) is a history book related to Islam, authored by Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri (d. 892 CE).
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.
George Keith (1638/9 – 27 March 1716) was a Scottish missionary.
George Peele (baptised 25 July 1556 – buried 9 November 1596) was an English translator, poet, and dramatist, who is most noted for his supposed but not universally accepted collaboration with William Shakespeare on the play Titus Andronicus.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Ghadah Al-Samman (غادة السمّان) is a Syrian writer, journalist and novelist born in Damascus in 1942 to a prominent and conservative Damascene family, she is remotely related to Nizar Qabbani the famous poet.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
Girls of Riyadh, or Banat al-Riyadh (بنات الرياض), is a novel by Rajaa Alsanea.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists".
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith Bayāḍ wa Riyāḍ (حديث بياض ورياض, "The Narrative of Bayad and Riyad") is a 13th-century Arabic love story.
Hafez Ibrahim (حافظ إبراهيم) (1871–1932), also referred to simply as Hafiz or Hafez, was a well known Egyptian poet of the early 20th century.
Ḥafṣa bint al-Ḥājj ar-Rakūniyya (born c. 1135, died AH 586/1190-91 CE) was a Granadan aristocrat and perhaps one of the most celebrated Andalusian female poets of medieval Arabic literature.
A hajib or hadjib (الحاجب., tr. al-ḥājib) was a court official, equivalent to a chamberlain, in the early Muslim world, which evolved to fulfil various functions, often serving as chief ministers or enjoying dictatorial powers.
Haloxylon persicum, the white saxaul, is a small tree belonging to the family Amaranthaceae.
Hamda (or Hamdah) Khamis is a poet and a freelance columnist from Bahrain.
Hanan al-Shaykh (حنان الشيخ; born November 12, 1945, Beirut) is an acclaimed Lebanese author of contemporary literature.
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
Hassan ibn Thabit (حسان بن ثابت) (born c. 563, Medina died 674) was an Arabian poet and one of the Sahaba, or companions of Muhammad, hence he was best known for his poems in defense of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān (ar. حي بن يقظان Alive, son of Awake) is an Arabic philosophical novel and an allegorical tale written by Ibn Tufail in the early 12th century.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Hoda Barakat (هدى بركات) (born 1952) is a Lebanese novelist.
A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture.
The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) refers either to a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.
The most accurate measurement of the size of a human penis can be derived from several readings at different times since there is natural minor variability in size depending upon arousal level, time of day, room temperature, frequency of sexual activity, and reliability of measurement.
A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
In Islam, i'jaz or inimitability of the Qur'an is the doctrine which holds that the Qur'an has a miraculous quality, both in content and in form, that no human speech can match.
Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur (b.819/d.August 893) was a Persian linguist and poet of Arabic language.
'Abū 'Abd-Allāh Ibn al-Azraq was a Muslim jurist born in Málaga, Al Andalus in 1427.
Abū Muhammad ʿAbd Allāh Rūzbih ibn Dādūya (ابو محمد عبدالله روزبه ابن دادويه), born Rōzbih pūr-i Dādōē روزبه پور دادویه, more commonly known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (ابن المقفع),, was a Persian translator, author and thinker who wrote in the Arabic language.
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim writer, geographer, and chronicler.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd ibn Ḥazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم; also sometimes known as al-Andalusī aẓ-Ẓāhirī; November 7, 994 – August 15, 1064Ibn Hazm.. Trans. A. J. Arberry. Luzac Oriental, 1997 Joseph A. Kechichian,. Gulf News: 21:30 December 20, 2012. (456 AH) was an Andalusian poet, polymath, historian, jurist, philosopher, and theologian, born in Córdoba, present-day Spain. He was a leading proponent and codifier of the Zahiri school of Islamic thought, and produced a reported 400 works of which only 40 still survive. The Encyclopaedia of Islam refers to him as having been one of the leading thinkers of the Muslim world, and he is widely acknowledged as the father of comparative religious studies.
Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm Abu ’l-ʿAbbās S̲h̲ams al-Dīn al-Barmakī al-Irbilī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī (احمد ابن محمد ابن ابراهيم ابوالعباس شمس الدين البرمكي الاربيلي الشافعي) (September 22, 1211 – October 30, 1282) was a Shafi'i Islamic scholar of the 13th Century and is famous as the compiler of a great biographical dictionary of Arab scholars, Wafayāt al-Aʿyān wa-Anbāʾ Abnāʾ az-Zamān (Deaths of Eminent Men and History of the Sons of the Epoch).
Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh (ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خردادبه) (c. 820 – 912 CE), better known as Ibn Khordadbeh or Ibn Khurradadhbih, was the author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.
Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Ayyūb al-Zurʿī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanbalī (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH), commonly known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ("The son of the principal of Jawziyyah") or Ibn al-Qayyim ("Son of the principal"; ابن قيم الجوزية) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in Sunni tradition, was an important medieval Islamic jurisconsult, theologian, and spiritual writer.
Abū Muhammad Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī or simply Ibn Qutaybah (Ibn Qutaybah; 828 – 13 November 889 CE / 213 – 15 Rajab 276 AH) was a renowned Islamic scholar of Persian origin.
Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Arab Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.
Abu al-Waleed Ahmad Ibn Zaydún al-Makhzumi (1003-1071) or simply known as Ibn Zaydún (Arabic full name,أبو الوليد أحمد بن زيدون المخزومي) or Abenzaidún according to Christian sources was a famous Arab poet of Cordoba and Seville.
Iman Mersal (إيمان مرسال) (born November 30, 1966 Mit 'Adlan, Egypt) is an Egyptian poet.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
Ja'far ibn Yahya Barmaki, Jafar al-Barmaki (جعفر بن یحیی برمکی, جعفر بن يحيى, ja`far bin yaḥyā) (767–803) was the son of a Persian vizier (Yahya ibn Khalid) of the Arab Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid and from whom he inherited that position.
Jabra Ibrahim Jabra (1920–1994) (Arabic: جبرا ابراهيم جبرا) was a Palestinian Syriac-Orthodox author, born in Bethlehem at the time of the British Mandate.
Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα) refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life. In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as al-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. and also the names of different gates to hell. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.
Joumana Haddad (جمانة حداد) (born Salloum; December 6, 1970 in Beirut) is a Lebanese author, public speaker, journalist and women's rights activist.
Jurji Zaydan (جُرْجي زَيْدان, 1861-1914), also transliterated Jorge Zaydân, Georgie Zeidan, or Jirjî Zaydan, was a prolific Lebanese novelist, journalist, editor and teacher, most noted for his creation of the magazine al-Hilal, which he used to serialize his 23 historical novels.
Khalil Gibran (sometimes spelled Kahlil; full Arabic name Gibran Khalil Gibran (جبران خليل جبران / ALA-LC: Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān or Jibrān Khalīl Jibrān) (January 6, 1883 – April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese-American writer, poet and visual artist. Gibran was born in the town of Bsharri in the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Ottoman Empire (modern day Lebanon), to Khalil Gibran and Kamila Gibran (Rahmeh). As a young man Gibran emigrated with his family to the United States, where he studied art and began his literary career, writing in both English and Arabic. In the Arab world, Gibran is regarded as a literary and political rebel. His romantic style was at the heart of a renaissance in modern Arabic literature, especially prose poetry, breaking away from the classical school. In Lebanon, he is still celebrated as a literary hero., BBC News, May 12, 2012, Retrieved May 12, 2012. A member of the New York Pen League, he is chiefly known in the English-speaking world for his 1923 book The Prophet, an early example of inspirational fiction including a series of philosophical essays written in poetic English prose. The book sold well despite a cool critical reception, gaining popularity in the 1930s and again especially in the 1960s counterculture.Acocella, Joan (January 7, 2008).. The New Yorker. Retrieved March 9, 2009. Gibran is the third best-selling poet of all time, behind Shakespeare and Laozi.
Kitab al-I'tibar (كتاب الاعتبار, The Book of Learning by Example) is the autobiography of Usama ibn-Munqidh, an Arab Syrian diplomat, soldier of the 12th century, hunter, poet and nobleman.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
Labīd (Abu Aqil Labīd ibn Rabī'ah) (Arabic لَبيد بن ربيعة بن مالك أبو عقيل العامِري) (c. 560 – c. 661) was an Arabian poet.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
Layla Bint Abullah Bin Shaddad Bin Ka’b Al Akheeliyya (d. c. AH 75/694×90/709 CE), or simply Layla Al Akheeliyya (Ar. ليلى الأخيليّة) was a famous Umayyad Arab poet who was renowned for her poetry, eloquence, strong personality as well as her beauty.
Layla and Majnun (مجنون ليلى.), also Leili o Majnun (ليلى و مجنون), is a narrative poem composed in 584/1188 by the Persian poet Neẓāmi Ganjavi based on a semi-historical Arab story about the 7th century Bedouin poet Qays ibn Al-Mulawwah and his ladylove Layla bint Mahdi (or Layla al-Aamiriya).
Layla Balabakki (also Leila/Laila Baalbaki/Baalbakki/Balabaki, ليلى بعلبكي) is a Lebanese novelist, journalist, activist, and feminist.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The following works of literature have each been claimed as the first novel in English.
This is a list of the stories in Richard Francis Burton's translation of One Thousand and One Nights.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.
A magic carpet, also called a flying carpet, is a legendary carpet, and common trope in fantasy fiction.
"Mahjar" means a place of one's immigration, "adab" means literature.The literature that came into existence in such places by such people is known as "Adab ul Mahjar".
Mahmoud Darwish (maḥmūd darwīsh, 13 March 1941 – 9 August 2008) was a Palestinian poet and author who was regarded as the Palestinian national poet.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Malak Hifni Nasif (25 December 1886 – 17 October 1918) was an Egyptian feminist who contributed greatly to the intellectual and political discourse on the advancement of Egyptian women in the early 20th century.
Maqāmah (مقامة, pl. maqāmāt, مقامات, literally "assemblies") are an (originally) Arabic prosimetric literary genre which alternates the Arabic rhymed prose known as Saj‘ with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous.
A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.
Marwah wa al-Majūn al-Faransi (مروة و المجنون الفرنسي) is a classical Middle Eastern love story.
Mary 'Ajami (1888−1965) was a feminist and pioneering Arabic-language writer.
Maryana bint Fathallah bin Nasrallah Marrash (Arabic: مريانا بنت فتح الله بن نصر الله مرّاش / ALA-LC: Maryānā bint Fatḥ Allāh bin Naṣr Allāh Marrāsh; 1848–1919), also known as Maryana al-Marrash or Maryana Marrash al-Halabiyyah, was a Syrian writer and poet of the Nahda movement—the Arabic renaissance.
May Ziade (مي زيادة; 11 February 1886 – 17 October 1941) was a Lebanese-Palestinian poet, essayist and translator.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).
Melchisédech (or Melchisédec) Thévenot (c. 1620 – 29 October 1692) was a French author, scientist, traveler, cartographer, orientalist, inventor, and diplomat.
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Mīḫāˀīl Nuˁayma (also spelled Mikhail Naimy; Arabic: ميخائيل نعيمة) (Baskinta, Lebanon 1889- Beirut, 1988) was a Lebanese author famous for his spiritual writings, notably "The Book of Mirdad".
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Modernist poetry refers to poetry written, mainly in Europe and North America, between 1890 and 1950 in the tradition of modernist literature, but the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors, including the nation of origin, the particular school in question, and the biases of the critic setting the dates.
Mona Eltahawy (منى الطحاوى,; born August 1, 1967) is a freelance Egyptian-American journalist, and social commentator based in New York City.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mowgli is a fictional character and the protagonist of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book stories.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
Muhammad al-Maghout (1934- April 3, 2006) (محمد الماغوط) was a renowned Syrian writer and poet.
Mohammed Hussein Haekal (also spelled Haikal or Heikal or Haykal محمد حسين هيكل; August 20, 1888 – December 8, 1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī (أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith).
Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ,; December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature.
The Nahj al-Balagha (نهج البلاغة,; "The Peak of Eloquence") is the most famous collection of sermons, letters, tafsirs and narrations attributed to Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Nawal El Saadawi (نوال السعداوي, born 27 October 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer, activist, physician, and psychiatrist.
Nazhun al-Garnatiya bint al-Qulai’iya (eleventh-century) was a Granadan courtesan and poet, noted for her outrageous verse, her learning, and her low-status origins (possibly as a slave).
Nazik al-Malaika (نازك الملائكة; 23 August 1923 – 20 June 2007) was an Iraqi female poet and is considered by many to be one of the most influential contemporary Iraqi female poets.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nizar Tawfiq Qabbani (نزار توفيق قباني) (21 March 1923 – 30 April 1998) was a Syrian diplomat, poet and publisher.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.
One Thousand and One Nights (ʾAlf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
Othello (The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603.
Othello is a character in Shakespeare's Othello (c. 1601–1604).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient Indian work of political philosophy, in the form of a collection of interrelated animal fables in Sanskrit verse and prose, arranged within a frame story.
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
The Passion Play or Easter pageant (senakulo) is a dramatic presentation depicting the Passion of Jesus Christ: his trial, suffering and death.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Petrifaction, or petrification as defined as turning people to stone, is also a common theme in folklore and mythology, as well as in some works of modern fiction.
Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion of their content to the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy.
Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature).
Platonic love (often lower-cased as platonic) is a term used for a type of love, or close relationship that is non-sexual.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
A plot twist is a literary technique that introduces a radical change in the direction or expected outcome of the plot in a work of fiction.
Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Political satire is satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics; it has also been used with subversive intent where political speech and dissent are forbidden by a regime, as a method of advancing political arguments where such arguments are expressly forbidden.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Pre-existence, preexistence, beforelife, or premortal existence refers to the belief that each individual human soul existed before mortal conception, and at some point before birth enters or is placed into the body.
Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Prose poetry is poetry written in prose instead of using verse but preserving poetic qualities such as heightened imagery, parataxis and emotional effects.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
A protagonist In modern usage, a protagonist is the main character of any story (in any medium, including prose, poetry, film, opera and so on).
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.
Islamic psychology or ʿilm al-nafs (Arabic: علم النفس), the science of the nafs ("self" or "psyche"), is the medical and philosophical study of the psyche from an Islamic perspective and addresses topics in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy of mind, and psychiatry as well as psychosomatic medicine.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer.
The Qadiriyya (القادريه, قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order).
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Qudama ibn Ja'far al-Katib al-Baghdadi (قدامة بن جعفر الكاتب البغدادي; ca. 873 – ca. 932/948), also known as Abu'l Faraj, was a Syriac scholar and administrator for the Abbasid Caliphate, who converted to Islam.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rābiʿa al-ʿAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (رابعة العدوية القيسية) (714/717/718 — 801 CE) was a Muslim saint and Sufi mystic.
Rajaa al-Sanea (رجاء بنت عبد الله الصانع; born 1981) is a Saudi writer who became famous through her novel Girls of Riyadh (rtl Banāt al-Riyāḍ).
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes.
Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.
Riddles are historically a significant genre of Arabic verse, and extensive scholarly collections have also been made of riddles in oral circulation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy; رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي / ALA-LC: Rifā‘ah Rāf‘i al-Ṭahṭāwī; 1801–1873) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual.
Robert Barclay (23 December 16483 October 1690) was a Scottish Quaker, one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Religious Society of Friends and a member of the Clan Barclay.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert of Ketton, known in Latin as Rodbertus Ketenensis (1141–1157), was an English astronomer, translator, priest and diplomat active in Spain.
Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.
Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Saadallah Wannous (سعد الله ونوس) (1997-1941) was a Syrian playwright.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
Saj‘ (Arabic: سـجـع) is a form of rhymed prose in Arabic literature.
Salma Khadra Jayyusi (born 1926 or 1927) is a Palestinian poet, writer, translator and anthologist.
Salwa Al Neimi, also Salwa al-Nuʿaymī (سلوى النعيمي) is a Syrian writer, poet and journalist living in France.
Samuel Hartlib or Hartlieb (c. 1600 – 10 March 1662) was a German-British polymath.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Scheherazade, or Shahrazad (شهرزاد, derived from Middle Persian Čehrāzād), is a character and the storyteller in One Thousand and One Nights.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.
In Christian and Islamic tradition, the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (lit) is the story of a group of youths who hid inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around 250 AD to escape a religious persecution and emerge 300 years later.
Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling and entertainment which uses flat articulated cut-out figures (shadow puppets) which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or scrim.
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shmuel Moreh (שמואל מורה; Baghdad, December 22, 1932 – September 22, 2017) was a professor of Arabic Language and Literature at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and a recipient of the Israel Prize in Middle Eastern studies in 1999.
Shu'ubiyyah (الشعوبية) refers to the response by non-Arab Muslims to the privileged status of Arabs within the Ummah.
Abū Bishr ʻAmr ibn ʻUthmān ibn Qanbar Al-Baṣrī (c. 760–796, أبو بشر عمرو بن عثمان بن قنبر البصري), commonly known as Sībawayh or Sībawayhi (سيبويه, an Arabized form of Middle Persian name Sēbōē, modern Persian pronunciation Sēbōya/Sībūye) was a Persian linguist and grammarian of Arabic language.
Simon Ockley (16789 August 1720) was a British Orientalist.
Sinbad (or Sindbad) the Sailor (as-Sindibādu l-Baḥriyy) is a fictional mariner and the hero of a story-cycle of Middle Eastern origin.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
Son'allah Ibrahim (صنع الله إبراهيم Ṣunʻ Allāh Ibrāhīm) (born 1937) is an Egyptian novelist and short story writer and one of the "Sixties Generation" who is known for his leftist and nationalist views which are expressed rather directly in his work.
Souad Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah (born 1942) is a Kuwaiti economist, writer and poet.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
A story within a story is a literary device in which one character within a narrative narrates.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Suhayr al-Qalamawi (سهير القلماوي) (also Suhayr al-Qalamawi, Suhair al-Qalamawi, Soheir al-Qalamawy, Suhair el-Calamawy, and Soheir el-Qalamawy) (July 20, 1911 – May 4, 1997) was a significant literary figure and politician from Egypt who shaped Arabic writing and culture through her writing, feminist activism, and advocacy.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Suspense is a feeling of fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension, tension, and anxiety developed from an unpredictable, mysterious, and rousing source of entertainment.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Taha Hussein (November 15, 1889 – October 28, 1973) was one of the most influential 20th-century Egyptian writers and intellectuals, and a figurehead for The Egyptian Renaissance and the modernist movement in the Middle East and North Africa.
Tarzan (John Clayton, Viscount Greystoke) is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungle by the Mangani great apes; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer.
Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik el-Hakim (October 9, 1898 – July 26, 1987) (توفيق الحكيم Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm) was a prominent Egyptian writer and visionary.
Tayeb Salih (الطيب صالح; 12 July 1929 – 18 February 2009) was a Sudanese writer.
Tahereh (Tāhirih) (طاهره, "The Pure One," also called Qurrat al-ʿAyn ("Solace/Consolation of the Eyes") are both titles of Fatimah Baraghani/Umm-i-Salmih|"Fatima Begum Zarin Tajj Umm Salmih Baraghani Qazvini" |www.geni.com |url.
The Battle of Alcazar is a play attributed to George Peele, perhaps written no later than late 1591 if the play "Muly Molucco" mentioned in Henslowe's diary is this play (see below), and published anonymously in 1594, that tells the story of the battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.
The Count of Monte Cristo (Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas (père) completed in 1844.
The Future of Culture in Egypt (مستقبل الثقافه في مصر) is a 1938 book by the Egyptian writer Taha Hussein.
The Incoherence of the Philosophers (تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ in Arabic) is the title of a landmark 11th-century work by the Persian theologian Al-Ghazali and a student of the Asharite school of Islamic theology criticizing the Avicennian school of early Islamic philosophy.
The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling.
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender.
The Perfumed Garden of Sensual Delight (الروض العاطر في نزهة الخاطر Al-rawḍ al-ʿāṭir fī nuzhaẗ al-ḫāṭir) by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Nafzawi is a fifteenth-century Arabic sex manual and work of erotic literature.
The Ring of the Dove (Ṭawq al-ḤamāmahHitti, p. 58) is a treatise on love written ca.
The Three Apples (التفاحات الثلاثة) is a story contained in the One Thousand and One Nights collection (also known as the "Arabian Nights").
The Yacoubian Building (عمارة يعقوبيان ‘Imārat Ya‘qūbyān) is a novel by Egyptian author Alaa-Al-Aswany.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
Theatre in Lebanon has its origin in passion plays.
Theologus Autodidactus ("The Self-taught Theologian"), originally titled The Treatise of Kāmil on the Prophet's Biography (الرسالة الكاملية في السيرة النبوية), also known as Risālat Fādil ibn Nātiq ("The Book of Fādil ibn Nātiq"), was the first theological novel, written by Ibn al-Nafis.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Titus Andronicus is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1588 and 1593, probably in collaboration with George Peele.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
A literary trope is the use of figurative language, via word, phrase or an image, for artistic effect such as using a figure of speech.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Ulfat Idilbi (ألفت الادلبي; Elifat Idilbi) (November 1912, Damascus – 21 March 2007, Paris) was a Syrian novel writer.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Majd ad-Dīn Usāma ibn Murshid ibn ʿAlī ibn Munqidh al-Kināni al-Kalbi (also Usamah, Ousama, etc.; أسامة بن منقذ) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188) was a medieval Muslim poet, author, faris (knight), and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Wahb ibn Munabbih (وهب بن منبه) was a Yemenite Muslim traditionist of Dhimar (two days' journey from Sana'a) in Yemen; died at the age of ninety, in a year variously given by Arabic authorities as 725, 728, 732, and 737 C.E. He was a member of the abna', a Yemeni colony of Persian origin.
Wallada bint al-Mustakfi (ولادة بنت المستكفي) (born in Córdoba in 994 - died March 26, 1091), was an Andalusian poet.
A whodunit or whodunnit (a colloquial elision of "Who done it?" or "Who did it?") is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the audience is given the opportunity to engage in the same process of deduction as the protagonist throughout the investigation of a crime.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The tradition of women's literary circles in the Arab world dates back to the pre-Islamic period when the eminent literary figure, Al-Khansa, would stand in the 'Ukaz market in Mecca, reciting her poetry and airing her views on the scholarship of others.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Yasmine El Rashidi (Arabic: ياسمين الرشيدي) (b. 1977) is an Egyptian writer.
Zaynab Al-Ghazali (زينب الغزالي; 2 January 1917 – 3 August 2005) was an Egyptian activist.
Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini (أبو یحیی زکریاء بن محمد القزویني) or Zakarya Qazvini (Persian: زکریا قزوینی) ‎(1203–1283) was a Persian physician, astronomer, geographer and proto-science fiction writer of Arab descent.
Muhammad Husayn Haykal's novel Zaynab (commonly pronounced) is considered the first modern Egyptian novel, published in 1913.
Zaynab Fawwāz (Zaynab bint ʻAlī ibn Ḥusayn ibn ʻUbayd ʼAllāh ibn Ḥasan ibn ʼIbrāhīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf Fawwāz ʼal-ʻĀmilī, ?1860–1914) was a pioneering poet, novelist and historian of famous women.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.