110 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abjad numerals, Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi, Al-Andalus, Al-Kindi, Algeria, Algorism, Algorithm, Andalusia, Anno Domini, Arab world, Arabic, Arabic script, Arabs, ASCII, Astrolabe, Aurillac, Baghdad, Barcelona, Béjaïa, Berkshire, Brahmagupta, Brahmi numerals, Bray, Berkshire, Britain in the Middle Ages, Cambodia, Central India, Chinese numerals, Codex Vigilanus, Colonialism, Counting rods, Cyrillic numerals, Decimal, Decimal separator, Devanagari, Dorset, Early Cyrillic alphabet, Early modern period, East Slavs, Eastern Arabic numerals, Elgin, Moray, Fibonacci, Fraction (mathematics), Glyph, Greek numerals, Gwalior, Heathfield and Waldron, Hexadecimal, Hindu, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, ..., Hui people, Indian copper plate inscriptions, Indian mathematics, Indian numerals, Indonesia, Iraq, Isis (journal), Italians, Japanese numerals, Jean-Étienne Montucla, Kim Plofker, King of Hungary, Ladislaus the Posthumous, Languages of India, Latin script, Liber Abaci, Lupitus of Barcelona, Maghreb, Mathematics in medieval Islam, Maya numerals, Middle Ages, Middle East, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Number, Numeral system, Numerical digit, Oxford English Dictionary, Persian people, Peter the Great, Piddletrenthide, Pisa, Pope Sylvester II, Positional notation, Printing press, Quadrant (instrument), Republic of Pisa, Roman numerals, Sétif, Scotland, Sind ibn Ali, Slavs, South Slavs, Spain, Springer Science+Business Media, Sussex, Syrians, Text figures, Typography, Unicode, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values.
Abu'l Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Uqlidisi was an Arab mathematician, who was active in Damascus and Baghdad.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algorism is the technique of performing basic arithmetic by writing numbers in place value form and applying a set of memorized rules and facts to the digits.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Aurillac (Orlhac) is a commune, capital of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France,.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.
Berkshire (abbreviated Berks, in the 17th century sometimes spelled Barkeshire as it is pronounced) is a county in south east England, west of London and is one of the home counties.
Brahmagupta (born, died) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.
The Brahmi numerals are a numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens).
Bray, occasionally Bray on Thames, is a large suburban village and civil parish in the English county of Berkshire.
During most of the Middle Ages (c. 410–1485 AD), the island of Great Britain was divided into several kingdoms.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese.
The Codex Vigilanus or Codex Albeldensis (Spanish: Códice Vigilano or Albeldense) is an illuminated compilation of various historical documents accounting for a period extending from antiquity to the 10th century in Hispania.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Counting rods are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient East Asia.
Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Arabic–Hindu numerals, Arabic Eastern numerals and Indo–Persian numerals) are the symbols used to represent the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Mashriq (the east of the Arab world), the Arabian Peninsula, and its variant in other countries that use the Perso-Arabic script in the Iranian plateau and Asia.
Elgin (Eilginn, Ailgin) is a town (former cathedral city) and Royal Burgh in Moray, Scotland.
Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
Heathfield and Waldron is a civil parish within the Wealden District of East Sussex, England.
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Indian copper plate inscriptions play an important role in the reconstruction of the history of India.
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century.
Indian numerals are the symbols representing numbers in India.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language.
Jean-Étienne Montucla (5 September 1725 – 18 December 1799) was a French mathematician and historian.
Kim Leslie Plofker (born November 25, 1964) is an American historian of mathematics, specializing in Indian mathematics.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Utószülött László; Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 144023 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Liber Abaci (1202, also spelled as Liber Abbaci) is a historic book on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nickname Fibonacci.
Lupitus of Barcelona, identified with a Christian archdeacon called Sunifred, was an astronomer in late 10th century Barcelona, then part of the Marca Hispanica between Islamic Al-Andalus and Christian France (in 985 changing from Christian back into Muslim hands by the conquest of Al-Mansur).
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).
The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Piddletrenthide is a village and civil parish in the English county of Dorset.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (– 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Setif (Berber: Ẓḍif or Sṭif, سطيف, Sitifis) is an Algerian city and the capital of the Stif Province, it is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sind ibn Ali-Musa, Sind ibn ʿAlī (died after 864 AD), was a renowned Sindhi Muslim astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Text figures (also known as non-lining, lowercase, old style, ranging, hanging, medieval, billing, or antique figures or numerals) are numerals typeset with varying heights in a fashion that resembles a typical line of running text, hence the name.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, also known as UNC, UNC Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina, or simply Carolina, is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
3 (three) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
4 (four) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
6 (six) is the natural number following 5 and preceding 7.
7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8.
8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9.
9 (nine) is the natural number following and preceding.
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