112 relations: Affix, Affricate consonant, Algerian Arabic, Allah, Allophone, Alveolar stop, Approximant consonant, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Arabic, Assimilation (phonology), Ḍād, Ḏāl, Ṯāʾ, Ẓāʾ, Back vowel, Basmala, Beirut, Bet (letter), Cairo, Che (Persian letter), Classical Arabic, Close vowel, Consonant, Coronal consonant, Creaky voice, Damascus, Debuccalization, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Denti-alveolar consonant, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Diphthong, Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian Arabic phonology, Emphatic consonant, English language, Epenthesis, ʾIʿrab, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gaf, Gemination, Germanic languages, Ghayn, Gimel, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Gulf Arabic, Hejaz, ..., Hejazi Arabic, Infix, Inflection, John (given name), Kaph, Labial consonant, Labialization, Lebanese Arabic, Levant, Levantine Arabic, Libyan Arabic, Loanword, Maghreb, Melbourne, Mesopotamian Arabic, Mid vowel, Modern Standard Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Nasal consonant, Ng (Arabic letter), North Africa, Open vowel, Palatal consonant, Palestinian Arabic, Pausa, Pe (letter), Pe (Persian letter), Pharyngeal consonant, Pharyngealization, Pharynx, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Phonology, Prefix, Qoph, Romance languages, Safed, Sana'a, Secondary school, Semivowel, Shadda, Stop consonant, Sudanese Arabic, Suffix, Syllable weight, The North Wind and the Sun, Trill consonant, Tunisian Arabic, Uvular consonant, Uvularization, Varieties of Arabic, Ve (Arabic letter), Velar consonant, Velarization, Voice (phonetics), Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Yemen, Yemeni Arabic. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
In phonetics and phonology, an alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, made with the tongue in contact with the alveolar ridge located just behind the teeth (hence alveolar), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In name and shape, it is a variant of.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
() is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents the voiceless dental fricative, also found in English as the "th" in words such as "think" and "thin".
, or (ظ), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic it represents a pharyngealized or velarized voiced dental fricative or.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Basmala (بسملة), also known by its incipit Bismillah (بسم الله, "In the name of God"), is the name of the Islamic phrase بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ "In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Che, or čīm (چ), is a letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet, used to represent, and which derives from (ج) by the addition of two dots.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant or dento-alveolar consonant is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.
The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic is an Arabic-English dictionary compiled by Hans Wehr and edited by J Milton Cowan.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
This article is about the phonology of Egyptian Arabic, also known as Cairene Arabic or Masri.
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
(إِﻋْﺮَاب) is an Arabic term for the system of nominal, adjectival, or verbal suffixes of Classical Arabic.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gaf, or gāf, may be the name of different Perso-Arabic letters, all representing.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية, local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, as well as parts of eastern Saudi Arabia (Eastern Province), southern Iraq (Basra Governorate and Muthanna Governorate), and south Iran (Bushehr Province and Hormozgan Province) and northern Oman.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
John is a common masculine given name in the English language of originally Semitic origin.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
Libyan Arabic (ليبي Lībī; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Libya and neighboring countries.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
Najdi Arabic (اللهجة النجدية) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Najd region of Saudi Arabia.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from kāf with the addition of three dots above the letter.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Palestinian Arabic is the subgroup of Levantine Arabic, spoken by most Palestinians in Palestine, by many Arab citizens of Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora populations.
In linguistics, pausa (Latin for "break", from Greek "παῦσις" pausis "stopping, ceasing") is the hiatus between prosodic units.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Pe (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet for.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Shaddah (شَدّة " emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate).
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Sudanese Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime.
The North Wind and the Sun is one of Aesop's Fables (Perry Index 46).
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Uvularization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the back of the tongue is constricted toward the uvula and upper pharynx during the articulation of a sound with its primary articulation elsewhere.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Ve or Vāʼ is a letter of the Arabic-based Sorani, Comoro, Wakhi, Malay Arabic, Karakhanid alphabets derived from the Arabic letter (ﻑ) with two additional dots.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Djibouti.