376 relations: Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori, Abjad, Abugida, Acehnese language, Adygea, Adyghe language, Aer language, Afghanistan, Afrikaans, Ajami script, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Algerian Arabic, Aljamiado, Alphabet, Anatolia, Arabi Malayalam, Arabic, Arabic (Unicode block), Arabic Afrikaans, Arabic alphabet, Arabic calligraphy, Arabic Extended-A, Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols, Arabic Presentation Forms-A, Arabic Presentation Forms-B, Arabic script, Arabic script in Unicode, Arabic Supplement, Arabs, Aragonese language, Aramaic alphabet, Arebica, Arwi, Aspirated consonant, Assyrian people, Austronesian languages, Avar language, Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Ḍ, Ṭe, Ṭhē, İske imlâ alphabet, Śāradā script, Že, Ƴ, Baṛī ye, Bakhtiari dialect, ..., Balanta language, Balkans, Balochi language, Balti language, Banjar language, Bashkir language, Bā with three dots horizontally below, Beja language, Belarusian Arabic alphabet, Belarusian language, Bengali alphabet, Bengali language, Berber Arabic alphabet, Berber languages, Berber Latin alphabet, Berbers, Bet (letter), Bhaderwahi, Bihar, Bilali Document, B̤ē, Bosnian language, Brahmic scripts, Brahui language, Brunei, Burushaski, Cape Malays, Cappadocian Greek, Casamance, Caucasus, Celadet Bedir Khan, Central Asia, Central Atlas Tamazight, Central Kurdish, Chagatai language, Cham alphabet, Cham language, Che (Persian letter), Chechen language, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chittagonian language, Close back rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Comorian language, Comoros, Coptic language, Crimean Tatar language, Cursive, Cyrillic script, Dagestan, Dargwa language, Dari language, Delhi, Devanagari, Dogri language, Dongolawi language, Dravidian languages, Dungan language, Dyula language, Eastern Arabic numerals, Eastern Nagari script, Egyptian Arabic, Ethiopia, French language, Fula language, Fur language, Gaf, Garshuni, Ge'ez script, Gimel, Glottal stop, Greece, Greek language, Gueh, Gulf Arabic, Gurmukhi script, Hamza, Hanifi Rohingya script, Harari language, Harari people, Harari Region, Hausa language, He (letter), Hebrew language, Hejazi Arabic, Hindustani language, History of the Arabic alphabet, Horn of Africa, Hui people, Ida'an language, India, Indic Siyaq Numbers (Unicode block), Indo-Aryan languages, Indonesia, Ingush language, Iran, Iranian languages, Iraq, Islam, Jammu and Kashmir, Javanese language, Javanese people, Jawi alphabet, Jola-Fonyi language, Judaeo-Spanish, Judeo-Arabic languages, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, Kalami language, Kalimantan, Kaph, Karachay-Balkar language, Karakalpak language, Kashmiri language, Kazakh language, Kazakhstan, Kelantan, Kerala, Khē, Khowar alphabet, Khowar language, Kumyk language, Kurdish alphabets, Kurdish languages, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyzstan, Ladakhi language, Lak language, Lakshadweep, Languages of Algeria, Languages of Indonesia, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Latinisation in the Soviet Union, Lām with bar, Levant, Lezgian language, Lipka Tatars, List of writing systems, Loanword, Luri language, Madagascar, Madrasa, Madurese language, Maghreb, Maghrebi Arabic, Maguindanao language, Malagasy language, Malay language, Malayalam, Malayalam script, Malaysia, Mali, Mandarin Chinese, Mande languages, Mandinka language, Maranao language, Marwari language, Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian Arabic, Minangkabau language, Moroccan Arabic, Morocco, Mozarabic language, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Myanmar, N'Ko alphabet, Nabataean alphabet, Najdi Arabic, Nasal vowel, Nastaʿlīq script, Ng (Arabic letter), Nobiin language, Nogai language, North Africa, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northern Kurdish, Northwest Caucasian languages, Nubian languages, Nun (letter), October Revolution, Official language, Omar ibn Said, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Ormuri, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Ottoman Turkish language, Pakistan, Palatal lateral approximant, Palatal nasal, Palatalization (phonetics), Palestinian Arabic, Pashto, Pashto alphabet, Pe (letter), Pe (Persian letter), Pegon script, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Pesantren, Philippines, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Phonology, Polish language, Portuguese language, Proto-Sinaitic script, Punjabi language, Qoph, Quran, Rakhine State, Rā with two dots vertically above, Retroflex flap, Retroflex lateral flap, Retroflex nasal, Riau, Riau Islands, Rohingya language, Romanization of Arabic, Rumi Numeral Symbols, Sabah, Sahel, Salar language, Salar people, Samuel Noah Kramer, Saraiki alphabet, Saraiki language, Sīn with four dots above, Semitic languages, Senegal, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shilha language, Shina language, Sindhi language, Singapore, Sini (script), Somali alphabets, Somali language, Somalia, Songhay languages, Sorabe alphabet, Southeast Asia, Southern Thailand, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Sri Lanka, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Sumatra, Sundanese language, Sundanese people, Swahili language, Syria, Syriac alphabet, Tadaksahak, Tajikistan, Talysh language, Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tat language (Caucasus), Tatar language, Tatars, Tausug language, Telangana, Tibetan alphabet, Tifinagh, Timbuktu, Torwali language, Tuareg languages, Tunisian Arabic, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Turkmen language, Turkmenistan, Urdu, Urdu alphabet, Uttar Pradesh, Uyghur Arabic alphabet, Uyghur language, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, ځ, ڄ, ڼ, Varieties of Arabic, Varieties of Chinese, Ve (Arabic letter), Velar nasal, Voiced alveolar implosive, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiced bilabial implosive, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced labiodental fricative, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex implosive, Voiced velar implosive, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless retroflex fricative, Voiceless retroflex stop, Wadaad writing, Waw (letter), West Africa, Western Iranian languages, Wolof language, Wolofal script, Writing system, Xiao'erjing, Xinjiang, Yaña imlâ alphabet, Yañalif, Yodh, Yoruba language, ݙ, ݨ, ݭ, Zarma language, Zawiya (institution). 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Abdul-Rahman ibn Ibrahima Sori (عبد الرحمن ابن ابراهيم سوري) (1762–1829) was a West African nobleman and Amir (commander or governor) who was captured in the Fouta Jallon region of Guinea, West Africa and sold to slave traders in the United States in 1788.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
Acehnese language (Achinese) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Republic of Adygea (r; Адыгэ Республик, Adygæ Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
Aer is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 300 people in Sindh, Pakistan.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
The term Ajami (عجمي), or Ajamiyya (عجمية), which comes from the Arabic root for foreign or stranger, has been applied to Arabic alphabets used for writing African languages, especially those of Hausa and Swahili, although many other African languages were written using the script, among them Yoruba.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.
Aljamiado (عَجَمِيَة trans. ''ʿajamiyah'') or Aljamía texts are manuscripts that use the Arabic script for transcribing European languages, especially Romance languages such as Mozarabic, Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino, and Bosnian with its Arebica script.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Arabi Malayalam (Malayalam: അറബി മലയാളം, Arabi Malayalam: عَرَبِ مَلَیَاۻَمٛ) is a writing system - a variant form of the Arabic script with special orthographic features - for writing Malayalam.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic is a Unicode block, containing the standard letters and the most common diacritics of the Arabic script, and the Arabic-Indic digits.
Arabic Afrikaans (Arabiese Afrikaans, اَرابيسي اَفريكانس) was a form of Afrikaans that was written in Arabic script.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy based on the Arabic alphabet.
Arabic Extended-A is a Unicode block encoding Qur'anic annotations and letter variants used for various non-Arabic languages.
Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols is a Unicode block encoding characters used in Arabic mathematical expressions.
Arabic Presentation Forms-A is a Unicode block encoding contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages.
Arabic Presentation Forms-B is a Unicode block encoding spacing forms of Arabic diacritics, and contextual letter forms.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
As of Unicode 11.0, the Arabic script is contained in the following blocks.
Arabic Supplement is a Unicode block that encodes Arabic letter variants used for writing non-Arabic languages, including languages of Pakistan and Africa, and old Persian.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Arebica or Arabica (عَرَبٖىڄا) was a Bosniak variant of the Perso-Arabic script used to write the Bosnian language (بۉسانسقٖى يەزٖىق).
Arwi (لسان الأروي or; lit. "the Arwi tongue"; அரபு-தமிழ் or) is a written register of the Tamil language that uses an Arabic alphabet.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Avar (self-designation Магӏарул мацӏ Maⱨarul maⱬ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ Avar maⱬ "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (17011773), also known as Job ben Solomon, was a famous Muslim who was a victim of the Atlantic slave trade.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Ḍ (minuscule: ḍ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from D with the addition of a dot diacritic.
ē is an additional letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet, derived from te (ت) by replacing the dots with a small t̤oʾe (ط).
hē is an additional letter of the Arabic script.
İske imlâ ("Old Orthography") is a variant of the Arabic script, used for the Tatar language before 1920 and the Old Tatar language.
The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
Že, or žayn/žāy (ژ), is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet, based on zayn (ز) with two additional diacritic dots.
Ƴ (minuscule: ƴ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Y with the addition of a hook.
Baṛī ye is a form of the Arabic letter yāʼ used in Urdu and some other Indian languages to denote /eː/ or /ɛː/ at the end of a word.
Bakhtiari dialect is a dialect of Southern Luri spoken by Bakhtiari people in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari, Bushehr, western Khuzestan and parts of Isfahan and Lorestan provinces.
Balanta (or Balant) is a group of two closely related Bak languages of West Africa spoken by the Balanta people.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Balti (Nastaʿlīq script) is a Tibetic language spoken in the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, the Nubra Valley of Leh district, and in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Banjar (Banjar:, Indonesian: Bahasa Banjar, Jawi: بهاس بنجر) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Banjar people of South Kalimantan province of Indonesia.
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
ݐ (Unicode name: Arabic Letter Beh With Three Dots Horizontally Below) is an additional letter of the Arabic script, used in some African languages such as Fulfulde.
Beja (Bidhaawyeet) is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people.
The Belarusian Arabic alphabet (Беларускі арабскі алфавіт/альфабэт, Biełaruski arabski alfabet (Taraškievica), بيَلارُصقِ ارابصقِ الفاوِت) was based on the Arabic script and was developed in the 16th century (possibly 15th).
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Berber Arabic alphabet is an Arabic-based alphabet that was used to write various Berber languages in the Middle Ages.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Berber Latin alphabet (Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin) is the version of the Latin alphabet used to write the Berber languages.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Bhaderwahi (or Bhadarwahi) is a native language of the people of Bhaderwah, a tehsil in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic manuscript on West African Islamic law.
B̤ē (ٻ) is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from bāʼ (ب) with an additional dot.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Cape Malays are an ethnic group or community in South Africa.
Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a mixed language spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey).
Casamance (Wolof and Kasamansa; Casamance; Casamansa) is the area of Senegal south of the Gambia including the Casamance River.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Celadet Bedir Khan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan; 26 April 1893 – 1951), also known as Mîr Celadet, was a Kurdish diplomat, writer, linguist, journalist and political activist.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.
Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Chams in Vietnam and Cambodia.
Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
Che, or čīm (چ), is a letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet, used to represent, and which derives from (ج) by the addition of two dots.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Chatgaya (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is an official language in the Comoros (an independent country of islands in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique and Madagascar) and widely spoken on the disputed territory of Mayotte, claimed by both France and Comoros.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Dargwa or Dargin language is spoken by the Dargin people in the Russian republic Dagestan.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
Dongolawi is a Nubian language of northern Sudan.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
Jula (or Dyula, Dioula) is a Mande language spoken in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Mali.
The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Arabic–Hindu numerals, Arabic Eastern numerals and Indo–Persian numerals) are the symbols used to represent the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in the countries of the Mashriq (the east of the Arab world), the Arabian Peninsula, and its variant in other countries that use the Perso-Arabic script in the Iranian plateau and Asia.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
The Fur language (Fur: bèle fòòr or fòòraŋ bèle; Fûrâwî; sometimes called Konjara by linguists, after a former ruling clan) is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Fur of Darfur in western Sudan.
Gaf, or gāf, may be the name of different Perso-Arabic letters, all representing.
Garshuni or Karshuni (Syriac alphabet: ܓܪܫܘܢܝ, Arabic alphabet: كرشوني) are Arabic writings using the Syriac alphabet.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
ڳ, (Arabic letter gueh (U+06B3)), is an additional letter of the Arabic script, not used in the Arabic alphabet itself but used in Sindhi and Saraiki to represent a voiced velar implosive,.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية, local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, as well as parts of eastern Saudi Arabia (Eastern Province), southern Iraq (Basra Governorate and Muthanna Governorate), and south Iran (Bushehr Province and Hormozgan Province) and northern Oman.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
The Hanifi Rohingya script is a unified script for the Rohingya language.
Harari is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia.
The Harari people (هراري, Harari: ሐረሪ), also called Geyusu (Harari: ጌይኡሱእ) ("People of the City"), are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Harari (ሓረሪ; Harari: ሐረሪ), officially Harari People's National Regional State (የሓረሪ ሕዝብ ክልል, Harari: ዚሐረሪ ኡምመት መሐዲያ ሑስኒ), is one of the nine ethnically-based regional states (kililoch) of Ethiopia, covering the homeland of the Harari people.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The history of the Arabic alphabet concerns the origins and the evolution of the Arabic script.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
The Ida'an (also Idahan) language is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Ida'an people of Sabah, Malaysia.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indic Siyaq Numbers is a Unicode block containing a specialized subset of the Arabic script that was used for accounting in India under the Mughals by the 17th century through the middle of the 20th century.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
Jawi (Jawi: Jāwī; Pattani: Yawi; Acehnese: Jawoë) is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia.
Jola (Diola; Jola: Joola), also called Jola-Fonyi (Diola-Fogny), is a language spoken by half a million people in the Casamance region of Senegal, and neighboring countries.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.
Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, also known as Djerbian Arabic, is a variety of Tunisian Arabic mainly spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Tunisia.
Kalami (کالامي) also known as Gawri (ګاوری), is a Dardic language spoken in the Swat Kohistan region in the upper Swat District and in the upper Panjkora river valley of Upper Dir District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.
Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kelantan (Jawi: کلنتن;, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Keheh is a letter of Arabic script, used to write in Sindhi.
The Khowar alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Khowar language.
Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subbranch.
Kumyk (къумукъ тил,L. S. Levitskaya, "Kumyk language", in Languages of the world. Turkic languages (1997). (in Russian) qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 426,212 speakers — the Kumyks — in the Dagestan, North Ossetia, and Chechen republics of the Russian Federation.
The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The Ladakhi language, also called Bhoti or Bodhi, is a Tibetic language spoken in the Ladakh region of India.
The Lak language (лакку маз, lakːu maz) is a Northeast Caucasian language forming its own branch within this family.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
The official languages of Algeria are Modern Standard Arabic (literary Arabic) and Tamazight (Berber), as specified in its constitution since 1963 for the former and since 2016 for the latter.
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In the USSR, latinisation (латиниза́ция) was the name of the campaign during the 1920s–1930s which aimed to replace traditional writing systems for numerous languages with systems that would use the Latin script or to create Latin-script based systems for languages that, at the time, did not have a writing system.
ݪ (Unicode name: Arabic Letter Lam With Bar, code point U+076A) is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from lām (ل) with the addition of a bar.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lezgian, also called Lezgi or Lezgin, (Azerbaijani: Ləzgi dili), is a language that belongs to the Lezgic languages.
The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Luri or Lurish (Luri: لۊری) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Madurese is a language of the Madurese people of Madura Island and eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken on the neighbouring small Kangean Islands and Sapudi Islands, as well as by migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the eastern salient of Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands, and even some on Kalimantan.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
Maguindanao or Maguindanaon is an Austronesian language spoken by majority of the population of Maguindanao province in the Philippines.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in Africa by the Mandé people and include Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Dioula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai.
The Mandinka language (Mandi'nka kango), or Mandingo, is a Mandé language spoken by the Mandinka people of the Casamance region of Senegal, the Gambia, and northern Guinea-Bissau.
Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.
The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.
Najdi Arabic (اللهجة النجدية) is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Najd region of Saudi Arabia.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from kāf with the addition of three dots above the letter.
Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.
Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
The Nubian languages (لغات نوبية) are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians of Nubia, a region along the Nile in southern Egypt and northern Sudan.
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Omar ibn Said (1770–1864) was a writer and Islamic scholar, born and educated in what is now Senegal, who was enslaved and transported to the United States in 1807.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Ormuri (also known as Oormuri, Urmuri, Ormur, Ormui, Bargista, Baraks, and Baraki) is a language spoken in Waziristan.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Palestinian Arabic is the subgroup of Levantine Arabic, spoken by most Palestinians in Palestine, by many Arab citizens of Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora populations.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Pashto / Pukhto alphabet (پښتو الفبې or پښتو الپبې – Eastern dialect: pux̌to alifbe pukh'hto / pukhhto alifbe; Western dialect: paṣ̌to alipbe) is a modified form of the Persian alphabet known as Perso-Arabic, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet, with letters added to accommodate phonemes used in Pashto that are not found in either Arabic or Persian.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Pe (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet for.
Pegon is an Arabic alphabet used to write the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as an alternative to the Roman alphabet or the Javanese script and the old Sundanese script.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pesantren or Pondok Pesantren are Islamic boarding schools in Indonesia.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).
ݫ (Unicode name: Arabic Letter Reh With Two Dots Vertically Above) is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from rāʾ (ر) with the addition of two dots above the letter.
The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Riau (Jawi), is a province of Indonesia.
Riau Islands (Indonesian; Kepulauan Riau, acronym; Kepri), is a province of Indonesia.
Rohingya, or Ruáingga, is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
Rumi Numeral Symbols is a Unicode block containing numeric characters used in Fez, Morocco, and elsewhere in North Africa and the Iberian peninsula, between the tenth and seventeenth centuries.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China; some also live in Ili, Xinjiang.
The Salar people (Salır, سالار;, Xiao'erjing: صَالاذُ) are an ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz Turkic language.
Samuel Noah Kramer (September 28, 1897 – November 26, 1990) was one of the world's leading Assyriologists and a world-renowned expert in Sumerian history and Sumerian language.
There are three writing systems for Saraiki, but very few of the language's speakers, even those who are literate in other languages, are able to read or write Saraiki in any writing system.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
ݜ (Unicode name: Arabic Letter Seen With Four Dots Above) is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from sīn (ﺱ) with the addition of four dots or two horizontal lines above the letter.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.
Shilha is a Berber language native to Shilha people.
Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sini (from صيني Ṣīniy, "Chinese") is an calligraphic style used in China for the Arabic script.
A number of writing systems have been used over the years to transcribe the Somali language.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Songhay or Songhai languages are a group of closely related languages/dialects centred on the middle stretches of the Niger River in the West African countries of Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso and Nigeria.
Sorabe, or Sora-be, is an alphabet based on Arabic formerly used to transcribe the Malagasy language (belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian language family) and the Antemoro Malagasy dialect in particular dating from the 15th century.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sundanese (in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Sundanese.
The Sundanese (Sundanese:, Urang Sunda) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Tadaksahak (also Daoussahak, Dausahaq and other spellings, after the Tuareg name for its speakers, Dăwsăhak) is a Songhay language spoken by the pastoralist Idaksahak of the Ménaka Region of Mali.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Talysh language (Talışi / Толыши / تالشه زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tat language or Tat/Tati PersianGernot Windfuhr, "Persian Grammar: history and state of its study", Walter de Gruyter, 1979.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Bahasa Suluk) is a regional language spoken in the province of Sulu in the Philippines, in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, and in North Kalimantan, Indonesia by the Tausūg people.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Torwali (توروالی), or Turvali, is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan and Swat districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Tuareg, also known as Tamasheq, Tamajaq or Tamahaq (Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵌⴰⵆ), is a language or family of very closely related Berber languages and dialects.
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
, or (ځ) is a Pashto letter representing the sibilant affricative (IPA) sound.
ڄ, Arabic letter dyeh (U+0684), is an additional letter of the Arabic script, not used in the Arabic alphabet itself but used in Sindhi and Saraiki to represent a voiced palatal implosive,.
ڼ is the twenty-ninth letter of Pashto alphabet.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Ve or Vāʼ is a letter of the Arabic-based Sorani, Comoro, Wakhi, Malay Arabic, Karakhanid alphabets derived from the Arabic letter (ﻑ) with two additional dots.
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced retroflex implosive is a type of consonantal sound.
The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Wadaad writing, also known as wadaad Arabic, is the traditional Somali adaptation of written Arabic, as well as the Arabic script as historically used to transcribe the Somali language.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.
Wolofal is a derivation of the Arabic script for writing the Wolof language.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script,, Xiao'erjing: بٌکٍْ; Бынҗин, Вьnⱬin), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yaña imlâ (Cyrillic: Яңа имля; Tatar for new orthography) was a modified variant of Arabic script that was in use for the Tatar language in 1920–1927.
Jaᶇalif, Yangalif or Yañalif (Tatar: jaᶇa əlifba/yaña älifba → jaᶇalif/yañalif, Cyrillic: Яңалиф, "new alphabet") is the first Latin alphabet used during the Soviet epoch for the Turkic languages (also Iranian languages, North Caucasian languages, Mongolian languages, Finno-Ugric languages, Tungus-Manchu languages, Paleo-Asiatic languages; project for Russian is unaccepted in 1930) in the 1930s.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
ݙ is an additional letter of the Arabic script, not used in the Arabic alphabet itself but used in Saraiki to represent a voiced alveolar implosive,.
ݨ, (Arabic letter noon with small tah (U+0768)), is an additional letter of the Arabic script, not used in the Arabic alphabet itself but used in Saraiki and Shina to represent a retroflex nasal consonantat,.
ݭ is an additional letter of the Arabic script, derived from sīn (س) with the addition of two vertically aligned dots above the letter.
Zarma (also spelled Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Adzerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma, Zarmaci or Zerma) is one of the Songhay languages.
A zaouia or zawiya (زاوية zāwiyah; "assembly" "group" or "circle", also spelled zawiyah, zawiyya, zaouiya, zaouïa and zwaya) is an Islamic religious school or monastery.
ARAB, Arab (script), Arabic (script), Arabic Alphabets, Arabic Script, Arabic alphabets, Arabic scripts, Arabic-based alphabets, ٿ, ڈ, ڑ, ڞ, ڠ, ڵ, ڻ, ې, ﭢ, ﭣ, ﭤ, ﭥ, ﮈ, ﮉ, ﮌ, ﮍ, ﮠ, ﮡ, ﮢ, ﮣ, ﯤ, ﯥ, ﯦ, ﯧ.