100 relations: Adenosine A1 receptor, ALOX12, ALOX15, ALOX15B, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alzheimer's disease, Anabolism, Anandamide, Arachidic acid, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide, Aspirin, Basic fibroblast growth factor, Biological activity, Bipolar disorder, Bodybuilding supplement, Brain, Calcium, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Carnivore, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Chemical structure, Cis–trans isomerism, Cupuaçu, Cyclooxygenase, Diacylglycerol lipase, Diglyceride, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dopamine receptor D2, Double bond, Eicosanoid, Eicosatetraenoic acid, Elsevier, Eoxin, Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, Epoxygenase, Essential fatty acid, Essential fatty acid interactions, Exercise, Fatty acid, Fibroblast growth factor, Fish oil, Hepoxilin, Hippocampus, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, Inositol trisphosphate, Interferon-alpha/beta receptor, ..., Interferon-gamma receptor, Leucine, Leukotriene, Leukotriene B4, Leukotriene C4, Leukotriene D4, Leukotriene E4, Linoleic acid, Lipid peroxidation, Lipoxin, Liver, Lymphotoxin alpha, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mortierella, MTOR, Muscle, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Phosphatidic acid, Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylinositol, Phospholipase A2, Phospholipase C, Phospholipid, Platelet-derived growth factor, Polyunsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Prostacyclin, Prostaglandin, Prostaglandin F2alpha, Prostaglandin G2, Prostaglandin H2, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, Protein kinase B, Protein kinase C, PTGS1, Second messenger system, Syntaxin, Thromboxane, Vasodilation, 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid, 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
ALOX12, also known as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, 12S-Lipoxygenase, 12-LOX, and 12S-LOX is a lipoxygenase-type enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX12 gene which is located along with other lipoyxgenases on chromosome 17p13.3.
ALOX15 (also termed arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1) is, like other lipoxygenases, a seminal enzyme in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids to a wide range of physiologically and pathologically important products.
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX15B gene.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Arachidic acid, also known as eicosanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 20-carbon chain.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide (5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HPETE) is an intermediate in the metabolism of arachidonic acid by the ALOX5 enzyme in humans or Alox5 enzyme in other mammals.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
FGF2, also known as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and FGF-β, is a growth factor and signaling protein encoded by the FGF2 gene.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
s are s commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding, weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.
Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), also spelled cupuassu, cupuazú, cupu assu, and copoasu, is a tropical rainforest tree related to cacao.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Diacylglycerol lipase, also known as DAG lipase, DAGL or DGL, is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) designates any straight chain 20:4 fatty acid.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Eoxins are proposed to be a family of proinflammatory eicosanoids (signaling compounds that regulate inflammatory and immune responses).
The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs are signaling molecules formed within various types of cells by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by a specific subset of Cytochrome P450 enzymes termed cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.
Epoxygenases are a set of membrane-bound, heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP P450 or just CYP) enzymes that metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids to epoxide products that have a range of biological activities.
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
The effects on humans of the ω-3 (omega-3) and ω-6 (omega-6) essential fatty acids (EFAs) are best characterized by their interactions; they cannot be understood separately.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.
Hepoxilins (Hx) are a set of epoxyalcohol metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.e. they possess both an epoxide and an alcohol (i.e. hydroxyl) residue.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid may refer to.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
The interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR) is a virtually ubiquitous membrane receptor which binds endogenous type I interferon (IFN) cytokines.
The interferon-gamma receptor (IFNGR) is a receptor that binds interferon-γ, the sole member of interferon type II.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a leukotriene involved in inflammation.
Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a leukotriene.
Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is one of the leukotrienes.
Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is a cysteinyl leukotriene involved in inflammation.
Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative degradation of lipids.
Lipoxins (LXs or Lxs), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction products, are bioactive autacoid metabolites of arachidonic acid made by various cell types.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-α) or tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.
The glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1, also known as GRM1, is a human gene which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) protein.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Mortierella species are soil fungi belonging to the order Mortierellales within the subphylum Mucoromycotina (phylum: Zygomycota).
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids.
Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup.
Phosphatidylethanolamines are a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes.
Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that release fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.
Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed dinoprost (INN), is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient.
Prostaglandin G2 is an organic peroxide belonging to the family of prostaglandins.
Prostaglandin H2 is a type of prostaglandin and a precursor for many other biologically significant molecules.
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (The HUGO official symbol is PTGS2; HGNC ID, HGNC:9605), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS2 gene.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 184.108.40.206), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 1, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 or prostaglandin H2 synthase 1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS1 gene.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Syntaxins are a family of membrane integrated Q-SNARE proteins participating in exocytosis.
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis–trans isomerism configuration (Z.
12-Hydroxyheptadecatrenoic acid (also termed 12-HHT, 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid, or 12(S)-HHTrE) is a 17 carbon metabolite of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid.
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.
5-Oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid; also termed 5-oxo-ETE and 5-oxoETE) is a Nonclassic eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid and the most potent naturally occurring member of the 5-HETE family of cell signaling agents.