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Aral Sea

Index Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south. [1]

148 relations: Aktobe Region, Al Jazeera, American Meteorological Society, Amu Darya, Anemia, Aral smallpox incident, Aral, Kazakhstan, Aralkum Desert, Bacillus anthracis, Bakhtyar Khudojnazarov, Barsa-Kelmes, BBC News, BBC World News, Biological agent, Biological warfare, Botulinum toxin, California, Camel train, Caspian Sea, Central Asia, China, China National Petroleum Corporation, Cotton, Coxiella burnetii, Craig Murray, Crop rotation, Dead Sea, Delta Blues (film), Desalination, Desertification, Dike Kokaral, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Documentary film, Donbass, Dordrecht, Drainage basin, Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes, Dust storm, Ecosystem, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Endorheic basin, Environment News Service, Ergash Shoismatov, Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union, Francisella tularensis, Ghost town, Government of the Soviet Union, Groundwater, Haloxylon ammodendron, ..., Holocene, Hydroproject, Imperial Russian Navy, Iran, Irrigation, Irtysh River, Islam Karimov, JAXA, Karakalpakstan, Karakum Canal, Kazakhstan, Khwarezm, Kokaral, Korea National Oil Corporation, Kyrgyzstan, Kyzylkum Desert, Kyzylorda Region, Lake, Lake Chad, Lake island, Larrea tridentata, List of drying lakes, List of lakes by area, Louder than Words (Pink Floyd song), Lukoil, Mainland, Memory of the World Programme, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, Mo‘ynoq, Monterey, California, Muskrat, NASA, NASA Earth Observatory, National Geographic, New Scientist, Nick Middleton, North Aral Sea, Northern river reversal, Ob River, Orenburg, Pamir Mountains, Peninsula, Petronas, Pink Floyd, Pliocene, Politburo, Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, Public health problems in the Aral Sea region, Reservoir, Rickettsia prowazekii, River delta, Russia, Russian conquest of Central Asia, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Salton Sea, Seawater, Ship graveyard, Sistan Basin, Sluice, Smallpox, South Aral Sea, Soviet Union, Springer Science+Business Media, Sudd, Swine brucellosis, Syr Darya, Tajikistan, Tang dynasty, Taras Shevchenko, Territorial dispute, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, The Times, Tian Shan, Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis management, Tulare Lake, Turkic languages, Turkmenistan, UNESCO, UNICEF, Ural River, Uzbekistan, Uzbekneftegaz, Uzboy, Vancouver, Vasily Perovsky, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Vintage Books, Volga River, Waiting for the Sea, World Bank, World Bank Group, World Meteorological Organization, Yersinia pestis, YouTube. Expand index (98 more) »

Aktobe Region

Aktobe (translit) (Aktyubinskaya oblast) is a region of Kazakhstan.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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American Meteorological Society

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.

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Amu Darya

The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Aral smallpox incident

The Aral smallpox incident was a July 30, 1971 outbreak of the viral disease which occurred as a result of a field test at a Soviet biological weapons (BW) facility on an island in the Aral Sea.

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Aral, Kazakhstan

Aral, also known as Aralsk or Aral'sk, (Kazakh: Арал, Aral, ارال; Russian: Аральск, Araljsk) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast (region) of Kyzylorda.

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Aralkum Desert

The Aralkum Desert is a desert that has appeared since 1960 on the seabed once occupied by the Aral Sea.

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Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.

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Bakhtyar Khudojnazarov

Bakhtyar Khudojnazarov (Бахтиёр Худойназаров, بختیار خدای‌نظرف) (May 29, 1965 – April 21, 2015) was a film director, producer and screenwriter from Tajikistan.

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Barsa-Kelmes (Барса келмес.; from Kazakh: "the place of no return") is a former island, the largest in the Aral Sea.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BBC World News

BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel.

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Biological agent

A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Camel train

A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China National Petroleum Corporation

The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)A common shortname for the corporation in Chinese, Zhongguo Shiyou (中国石油), formerly shared the same name as the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Republic of China (Taiwan)'s state-owned fuel corporation.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Coxiella burnetii

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Q fever.

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Craig Murray

Craig John Murray (born 17 October 1958) is a British former diplomat turned political activist, human rights campaigner, blogger and whistleblower.

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Crop rotation

Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Delta Blues (film)

Delta Blues (subtitled: In a Land of Cotton) is a documentary film shot in 2000.

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Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.

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Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Dike Kokaral

Dike Kokaral is a dam across a narrow stretch of the Aral Sea, splitting off the North Aral Sea (also called "The Small Sea") from the much larger South Aral Sea ("The Large Sea").

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Documentary film

A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.

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The Donbass (Донба́сс) or Donbas (Донба́с) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.

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Dordrecht, colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the Western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes

The draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the 1950s and 1990s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system.

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Dust storm

A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.

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Endorheic basin

An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.

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Environment News Service

The Environment News Service (ENS), referred to as ENS, is an environmental news agency which provides original late-breaking news reports.

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Ergash Shoismatov

Ergash Rahmatullayevich Shoismatov (Russified form Shaismatov is also used) was the Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan between 2012 and 2016.

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Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union

The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.

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Francisella tularensis

Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, an aerobe bacterium.

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Ghost town

A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city, usually one that contains substantial visible remains.

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Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Haloxylon ammodendron

The saxaul, black saxaul, sometimes sacsaoul or saksaul (saksaul, which is from seksevil, scientific name Haloxylon ammodendron), is a plant belonging to the Amaranthaceae.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Hydroproject (Институт «Гидропроект», Gidroproekt) is a Russian hydrotechnical design firm.

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Imperial Russian Navy

The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Irtysh River

The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, ه‌رتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.

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Islam Karimov

Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov (Islom Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov; Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов; 30 January 1938 – 2 September 2016) was the leader of Uzbekistan and its predecessor state, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1989 until his death in 2016.

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The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.

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Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan / Қарақалпақстан), officially the Republic of Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / Қарақалпақстан Республикасы) is an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan.

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Karakum Canal

The Karakum Canal (Qaraqum Canal, Kara Kum Canal, Garagum Canal; Каракумский канал, Karakumsky Kanal, Turkmen: Garagum kanaly, گَرَگوُم كَنَلیٛ, Гарагум каналы) in Turkmenistan is one of the largest irrigation and water supply canals in the world.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.

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Kokaral (Көкарал – Green Island) was until 1973 an island in Kazakhstan, in the northern part of the Aral Sea.

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Korea National Oil Corporation

Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) is the national oil and gas company of South Korea and one of the most important industrial companies in the country.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Kyzylkum Desert

The Kyzylkum Desert (Qizilqum/Қизилқум, قىزىلقۇم; Qyzylqum, قىزىلقۇم, Кызылкум) is the 16th largest desert in the world.

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Kyzylorda Region

Kyzylorda Region (Qyzylorda oblysy, Қызылорда облысы, قىزىلوردا وبلىسى; Кызылординская область) is a region of Kazakhstan.

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Lake Chad

Lake Chad (French: Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.

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Lake island

A lake island is any landmass within a lake.

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Larrea tridentata

Larrea tridentata is known as creosote bush and greasewood as a plant, chaparral as a medicinal herb, and as gobernadora in Mexico, Spanish for "governess", due to its ability to secure more water by inhibiting the growth of nearby plants.

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List of drying lakes

A number of lakes throughout the world are drying or completely dry due to irrigation or urban use diverting inflow.

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List of lakes by area

This is a list of terrestrial lakes with a surface area of more than approximately, ranked by area.

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Louder than Words (Pink Floyd song)

"Louder than Words" is a song written by David Gilmour and Polly Samson.

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The PJSC Lukoil Oil Company (stylized as LUKOIL) is a Russian multinational energy corporation headquartered in Moscow, specializing in the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products.

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Mainland is a contiguous landmass that is larger and often politically, economically and/or demographically more significant than politically associated remote territories, such as exclaves or oceanic islands situated outside the continental shelf.

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Memory of the World Programme

UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.

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Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

The Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS), formerly known as the Monterey Institute of International Studies, is an American graduate school within Middlebury College, a private university located in Middlebury, Vermont.

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Mo‘ynoq, also spelled as Muynak and Moynaq (Mo‘ynoq / Мўйноқ; Moynaq / Мойнақ; Муйнак/Muynak), is a city in northern Karakalpakstan in western Uzbekistan.

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Monterey, California

Monterey is a city located in Monterey County in the U.S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast.

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The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Earth Observatory

NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing outlet for NASA which was created in 1999.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nick Middleton

Nick Middleton (born 1960) is a British physical geographer and supernumerary fellow of St Anne's College, Oxford.

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North Aral Sea

The North Aral Sea (Солтүстік Арал теңізі, Северное Аральское море) is the portion of the former Aral Sea that is fed by the Syr Darya River.

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Northern river reversal

The Northern river reversal or Siberian river reversal was an ambitious project to divert the flow of the Northern rivers in the Soviet Union, which "uselessly" drain into the Arctic Ocean, southwards towards the populated agricultural areas of Central Asia, which lack water.

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Ob River

The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.

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Orenburg (p) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia.

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Pamir Mountains

The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.

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A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

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PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad (National Petroleum, Limited), is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on 17 August 1974.

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Pink Floyd

Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965.

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The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.

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A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.

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Prime Minister of Uzbekistan

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Uzbekistan (O‘zbekiston bosh vaziri), from the establishment of the office in 1925 to the present day.

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Public health problems in the Aral Sea region

After irrigation projects diverted water from the Aral Sea it began to dry up and left behind salts, other minerals and toxins in the soil.

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A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.

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Rickettsia prowazekii

Rickettsia prowazekii is a species of gram-negative, alphaproteobacteria, obligate intracellular parasitic, aerobic Bacillus bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, transmitted in the feces of lice.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian conquest of Central Asia

The Russian conquest of Central Asia took place in the second half of the nineteenth century.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Salton Sea

The Salton Sea is a shallow, saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault, predominantly in California's Imperial and Coachella valleys.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Ship graveyard

A ship graveyard or ship cemetery is a location where the hulls of scrapped ships are left to decay and disintegrate, or left in reserve.

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Sistan Basin

The Sistan Basin is an inland endorheic basin encompassing large parts of southwestern Afghanistan and minor parts of southeastern Iran, one of the driest regions in the world and an area subjected to prolonged droughts.

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A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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South Aral Sea

The South Aral Sea was a lake in the basin of the former Aral Sea which formed in 1986 when that body divided in two, due to diversion of river inflow for agriculture.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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The Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile's Baḥr al-Jabal section.

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Swine brucellosis

Swine brucellosis is a zoonosis affecting pigs, caused by the bacterium Brucella suis.

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Syr Darya

The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.

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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Taras Shevchenko

Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.

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Territorial dispute

A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New York Times International Edition

The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tuberculosis management

Tuberculosis management refers to the medical treatment of the infectious disease tuberculosis (TB).

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Tulare Lake

Tulare Lake, named Laguna de Tache by the Spanish, is a freshwater dry lake with residual wetlands and marshes in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California, United States.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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Ural River

The Ural (Урал) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Яйыҡ, Yayıq,; Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق), known as Yaik (Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia.

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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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The national holding company Uzbekneftegaz ("Oʻzbekneftegaz" MXK, НХК "Узбекнефтегаз") is a state-owned holding company of Uzbekistan's oil and gas industry.

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The Uzboy (sometimes rendered Uzboj) was a distributary of the Amu Darya which flowed through the northwestern part of the Karakum Desert of Turkmenistan until the 17th century, when it abruptly dried up, eliminating the agricultural population that had thrived along its banks.

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Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.

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Vasily Perovsky

Count Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky (1794–1857) was an imperial Russian general and statesman.

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE).

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Vintage Books

Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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Waiting for the Sea

Waiting for the Sea (В ожидании моря) is a 2012 movie by Bakhtyar Khudojnazarov with collaboration from Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, France, and Belgium.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Redirects here:

Aral Lake, Aral Teñizi, Aral sea, Aral'skoye Morye, Bahri Aral, Daryâ-ye Khârazm, Khwarezm Lake, Lake Aral, Sea of Aral, Shrinking Aral Sea, The Aral Sea, The Sea of Aral, Voz Island.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aral_Sea

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