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Archimedes

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Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. [1]

275 relations: Alexander of Aphrodisias, Alexandria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Andrews University, Anecdote, Angular velocity, Anthemius of Tralles, Antikythera mechanism, Aphrodite, Apollonius of Perga, Approximations of π, Arabic, Arbelos, Archimedean property, Archimedean solid, Archimedean spiral, Archimedes (crater), Archimedes number, Archimedes Palimpsest, Archimedes' principle, Archimedes' screw, Archimedes's cattle problem, Archytas, Area, Area of a circle, Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle, Asphalt, Astronomer, Astronomy, Athenaeus, Athens, Ausonius, Autoignition temperature, Axiom, Baltimore, Basel, Block and tackle, Book of Lemmas, Bronze, Buoyancy, Burning glass, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Calculus, California, California Gold Rush, Carl Benjamin Boyer, Catapult, ..., Categories (Aristotle), Center of mass, Chord (geometry), Christie's, Cicero, Circle, Circumscribed circle, Classical antiquity, Claw of Archimedes, Clifford A. Pickover, CNN, Colonies in antiquity, Combinatorics, Cone, Conon of Samos, Constantinople, Copper, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Cross section (geometry), Curve, Cut-the-Knot, Cylinder, De re publica, Density, Dialogue, Diameter, Differential (mechanical device), Diocles (mathematician), Diophantine equation, Dissection puzzle, Domenico Fetti, Doric Greek, Drexel University, East Germany, Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis, Elsevier, Engineering, Eratosthenes, Euclid, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Eureka (word), Eutocius of Ascalon, Exponentiation, Fields Medal, First Punic War, Gaius Sulpicius Gallus, Galen, Galileo Galilei, Geometric series, Geometry, Georgia State University, Gerard of Cremona, Glare (vision), Gold, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Greece, Greek mathematics, Greeks, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Harvard University, Heliocentrism, Heliostat, Hero of Alexandria, Heron's formula, Hexagon, Hiero II of Syracuse, Historia Mathematica, HowStuffWorks, Hydrostatics, Hypereides, HyperPhysics, Impact crater, Infinitesimal, Integral, International Mathematical Union, Internet Archive, Invention, Inventor, Isidore of Miletus, Italy, Iteration, Johan Ludvig Heiberg (historian), John Peter Oleson, John Tzetzes, John Wallis, John Wesley, Katharevousa, Latin, Lever, Light, List of things named after Archimedes, Livy, Locus (mathematics), Lucian, Lucius Furius Philus, Machine, Magna Graecia, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Marshall Clagett, Maryland, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical analysis, Mathematical Association of America, Mathematical diagram, Mathematics, Measurement of a Circle, Method of exhaustion, Methods of computing square roots, Middle Ages, Montes Archimedes, Moon, Myriad, MythBusters, Names of large numbers, NASA, Neusis construction, New York City, Nicaragua, Noli turbare circulos meos!, Odometer, On Floating Bodies, On Spirals, On the Equilibrium of Planes, On the Sphere and Cylinder, Orator, Orrery, Ostomachion, Oxford University Press, Palimpsest, Pappus of Alexandria, Parabola, Parabolic reflector, Parallel Lives, Parallelogram, Peripatetic school, Physics, Pi, Planetarium, Plutarch, Point (geometry), Polar coordinate system, Polybius, Polyhedron, Project Gutenberg, Propeller, Pseudo-Archimedes, Pulley, Quaestor, Radius, Ratio, Real number, Reductio ad absurdum, Refraction, Renaissance, René Descartes, Rice University, Roman Republic, Salinon, San Francisco, San Marino, Scientist, Secant line, Second Punic War, Sicily, Siege, Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC), Silver, Skaramagas, Skiff, Smithsonian (magazine), Society of Women Engineers, Solar furnace, Solar System, Southern Italy, Spain, Sphere, Square, Square number, Square root, SS Archimedes, Stanford University, Statics, Steam cannon, Steamboat, Stephanie Dalley, Stony Brook University, Suda, Surface area, Sutter's Mill, Syracuse, Sicily, Syracusia, Tangram, Thales of Miletus, Thābit ibn Qurra, The Cattle of Helios, The Method of Mechanical Theorems, The New York Times, The Quadrature of the Parabola, The Sand Reckoner, Theon of Alexandria, Theorem, Thomas Little Heath, Time (magazine), Torque, Triangle, Twin circles, Ultraviolet, University of Chicago, University of St Andrews, University of Waterloo, Uta Merzbach, Valerius Maximus, Vellum, Vertical pressure variation, Vitruvius, Volume, Votive crown, Walters Art Museum, Weber State University, Wolfenbüttel, X-ray, Zhang Heng, 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/256 + ⋯. Expand index (225 more) »

Alexander of Aphrodisias

Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andrews University

Andrews University is a university in Berrien Springs, Michigan.

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Anecdote

An anecdote is a brief, revealing account of an individual person or an incident.

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Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

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Anthemius of Tralles

Anthemius of Tralles (Ἀνθέμιος ὁ Τραλλιανός, Medieval Greek:, Anthémios o Trallianós; – 533 558) was a Greek from Tralles who worked as a geometer and architect in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

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Antikythera mechanism

The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.

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Aphrodite

Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.

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Apollonius of Perga

Apollonius of Perga (Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Περγαῖος; Apollonius Pergaeus; late 3rdearly 2nd centuries BC) was a Greek geometer and astronomer known for his theories on the topic of conic sections.

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Approximations of π

Approximations for the mathematical constant pi in the history of mathematics reached an accuracy within 0.04% of the true value before the beginning of the Common Era (Archimedes).

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arbelos

In geometry, an arbelos is a plane region bounded by three semicircles with three apexes such that each corner of each semicircle is shared with one of the others (connected), all on the same side of a straight line (the baseline) that contains their diameters.

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Archimedean property

In abstract algebra and analysis, the Archimedean property, named after the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse, is a property held by some algebraic structures, such as ordered or normed groups, and fields.

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Archimedean solid

In geometry, an Archimedean solid is one of the 13 solids first enumerated by Archimedes.

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Archimedean spiral

The Archimedean spiral (also known as the arithmetic spiral) is a spiral named after the 3rd century BC Greek mathematician Archimedes.

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Archimedes (crater)

Archimedes is a large lunar impact crater on the eastern edges of the Mare Imbrium.

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Archimedes number

In viscous fluid dynamics, the Archimedes number (Ar) (not to be confused with Archimedes' constant, π), named after the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes is used to determine the motion of fluids due to density differences.

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Archimedes Palimpsest

The Archimedes Palimpsest is a parchment codex palimpsest, which originally was a 10th-century Byzantine Greek copy of an otherwise unknown work of Archimedes of Syracuse and other authors.

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Archimedes' principle

Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.

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Archimedes' screw

An Archimedes' screw, also known by the name the Archimedean screw or screw pump, is a machine historically (and also currently) used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches.

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Archimedes's cattle problem

Archimedes's cattle problem (or the problema bovinum or problema Archimedis) is a problem in Diophantine analysis, the study of polynomial equations with integer solutions.

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Archytas

Archytas (Ἀρχύτας; 428–347 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist.

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Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

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Area of a circle

In geometry, the area enclosed by a circle of radius is.

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Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Asphalt

Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Athenaeus

Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Ausonius

Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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Axiom

An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Baltimore

Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.

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Basel

Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.

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Block and tackle

A block and tackle is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift heavy loads.

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Book of Lemmas

The Book of Lemmas is a book attributed to Archimedes by Thābit ibn Qurra, though the authorship of the book is questionable.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.

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Burning glass

A burning glass or burning lens is a large convex lens that can concentrate the sun's rays onto a small area, heating up the area and thus resulting in ignition of the exposed surface.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine Greeks

The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.

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Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.

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Carl Benjamin Boyer

Carl Benjamin Boyer (November 3, 1906 – April 26, 1976) was an American historian of sciences, and especially mathematics.

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Catapult

A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.

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Categories (Aristotle)

The Categories (Greek Κατηγορίαι Katēgoriai; Latin Categoriae) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of things that can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition.

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Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

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Chord (geometry)

A chord of a circle is a straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on the circle.

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Christie's

Christie's is a British auction house.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

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Circumscribed circle

In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle which passes through all the vertices of the polygon.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Claw of Archimedes

The Claw (Ἁρπάγη, harpágē, "snatcher") of Archimedes (also known as the "iron hand") was an ancient weapon devised by Archimedes to defend the seaward portion of Syracuse's city wall against amphibious assault.

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Clifford A. Pickover

Clifford Alan Pickover (born August 15, 1957) is an American author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, science fiction, innovation, and creativity and is employed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown, New York.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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Combinatorics

Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.

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Cone

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.

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Conon of Samos

Conon of Samos (Κόνων ὁ Σάμιος, Konōn ho Samios; c. 280 – c. 220 BCE) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (CIMS) is an independent division of New York University (NYU) under the Faculty of Arts & Science that serves as a center for research and advanced training in computer science and mathematics.

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Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

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Curve

In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

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Cut-the-Knot

Cut-the-knot is a free, advertisement-funded educational website maintained by Alexander Bogomolny and devoted to popular exposition of many topics in mathematics.

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Cylinder

A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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De re publica

De re publica (On the Commonwealth; see below) is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC.

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Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Dialogue

Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.

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Diameter

In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

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Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

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Diocles (mathematician)

Diocles (Διοκλῆς; c. 240 BC – c. 180 BC) was a Greek mathematician and geometer.

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Diophantine equation

In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values).

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Dissection puzzle

A dissection puzzle, also called a transformation puzzle or Richter Puzzle, is a tiling puzzle where a set of pieces can be assembled in different ways to produce two or more distinct geometric shapes.

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Domenico Fetti

Domenico Fetti (also spelled Feti) (c. 1589 – 1623) was an Italian Baroque painter who had been active mainly in Rome, Mantua and Venice.

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Doric Greek

Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.

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Drexel University

Drexel University is a private research university with its main campus located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis

Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis (28 October 1892 in Tilburg – 18 May 1965 in De Bilt) was a Dutch historian of science.

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Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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Euclid

Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

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Eudoxus of Cnidus

Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.

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Eureka (word)

Eureka (Εύρηκα) is an interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention.

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Eutocius of Ascalon

Eutocius of Ascalon (Εὐτόκιος ὁ Ἀσκαλωνίτης; 480 – 540) was a Greek mathematician who wrote commentaries on several Archimedean treatises and on the Apollonian Conics.

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Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

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Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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First Punic War

The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.

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Gaius Sulpicius Gallus

Gaius Sulpicius Gallus or Galus was a general, statesman and orator of the Roman Republic.

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Galen

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Geometric series

In mathematics, a geometric series is a series with a constant ratio between successive terms.

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Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Georgia State University

Georgia State University (commonly referred to as Georgia State, State, or GSU) is a public research university in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona (Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. 1114 – 1187) was an Italian translator of scientific books from Arabic into Latin.

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Glare (vision)

Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek mathematics

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gymnasium (ancient Greece)

The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.

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Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World as listed by Hellenic culture, described as a remarkable feat of engineering with an ascending series of tiered gardens containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and vines, resembling a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, and said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Heliostat

A heliostat (from helios, the Greek word for sun, and stat, as in stationary) is a device that includes a mirror, usually a plane mirror, which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target, compensating for the sun's apparent motions in the sky.

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Hero of Alexandria

Hero of Alexandria (ἭρωνGenitive: Ἥρωνος., Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt.

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Heron's formula

In geometry, Heron's formula (sometimes called Hero's formula), named after Hero of Alexandria, gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulae for the area of a triangle, such as half the base times the height or half the norm of a cross product of two sides.

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Hexagon

In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.

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Hiero II of Syracuse

Hiero II (Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon.

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Historia Mathematica

Historia Mathematica: International Journal of History of Mathematics is an academic journal on the history of mathematics published by Elsevier.

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HowStuffWorks

HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.

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Hydrostatics

Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.

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Hypereides

Hypereides or Hyperides (Ὑπερείδης, Hypereidēs; c. 390 – 322 BCE; English pronunciation with the stress variably on the penultimate or antepenultimate syllable) was an Athenian logographer (speech writer).

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HyperPhysics

HyperPhysics is an educational website about physics topics.

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Impact crater

An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.

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Infinitesimal

In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them.

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Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

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International Mathematical Union

The International Mathematical Union (IMU) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of mathematics across the world.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Invention

An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.

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Inventor

An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method, form, device or other useful means that becomes known as an invention.

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Isidore of Miletus

Isidore of Miletus (Ἰσίδωρος ὁ Μιλήσιος; Medieval Greek pronunciation:; Isidorus Miletus) was one of the two main Byzantine Greek architects (Anthemius of Tralles was the other) that Emperor Justinian I commissioned to design the cathedral Hagia Sophia in Constantinople from 532 to 537.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Iteration

Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

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Johan Ludvig Heiberg (historian)

Johan Ludvig Heiberg (27 November 1854 – 4 January 1928) was a Danish philologist and historian.

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John Peter Oleson

John Peter Oleson (born 1946) is a Canadian classical archaeologist and historian of ancient technology.

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John Tzetzes

John Tzetzes (Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Ioánnis Tzétzis; c. 1110, Constantinople – 1180, Constantinople) was a Byzantine poet and grammarian who is known to have lived at Constantinople in the 12th century.

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John Wallis

John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.

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John Wesley

John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.

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Katharevousa

Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα,, literally "purifying ") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lever

A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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List of things named after Archimedes

Archimedes (c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) is the eponym of all of the things (and topics) listed below.

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Livy

Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.

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Locus (mathematics)

In geometry, a locus (plural: loci) (Latin word for "place", "location") is a set of all points (commonly, a line, a line segment, a curve or a surface), whose location satisfies or is determined by one or more specified conditions.

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Lucian

Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.

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Lucius Furius Philus

Lucius Furius Philus was a Roman statesman who became consul of ancient Rome in 136 BC.

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Machine

A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.

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Magna Graecia

Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.

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Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 268 – 208 BC), five times elected as consul of the Roman Republic, was an important Roman military leader during the Gallic War of 225 BC and the Second Punic War.

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Marshall Clagett

Marshall Clagett (January 23, 1916, Washington, D.C. – October 21, 2005, Princeton, New Jersey) was an American historian of science who specialized in medieval science.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

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Mathematical Association of America

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.

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Mathematical diagram

Mathematical diagrams are diagrams in the field of mathematics, and diagrams using mathematics such as charts and graphs, that are mainly designed to convey mathematical relationships, for example, comparisons over time.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Measurement of a Circle

Measurement of a Circle or Dimension of the Circle (Greek: Κύκλου μέτρησις, Kuklou metrēsis) is a treatise that consists of three propositions by Archimedes, ca.

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Method of exhaustion

The method of exhaustion (methodus exhaustionibus, or méthode des anciens) is a method of finding the area of a shape by inscribing inside it a sequence of polygons whose areas converge to the area of the containing shape.

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Methods of computing square roots

In numerical analysis, a branch of mathematics, there are several square root algorithms or methods of computing the principal square root of a non-negative real number.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Montes Archimedes

Montes Archimedes is a mountain range on the Moon.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Myriad

A myriad (from Ancient Greek label) is technically the number ten thousand; in that sense, the term is used almost exclusively in translations from Greek, Latin, or Chinese, or when talking about ancient Greek numbers.

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MythBusters

MythBusters is an Australian-American science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australia's Beyond Television Productions.

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Names of large numbers

This article lists and discusses the usage and derivation of names of large numbers, together with their possible extensions.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Neusis construction

The neusis is a geometric construction method that was used in antiquity by Greek mathematicians.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Noli turbare circulos meos!

"Nōlī turbāre circulōs meōs!" is a Latin phrase, meaning "Do not disturb my circles!".

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Odometer

An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.

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On Floating Bodies

On Floating Bodies (Περὶ τῶν ἐπιπλεόντων σωμάτων) is a Greek-language work consisting of two books written by Archimedes of Syracuse (287 – c. 212 BC), one of the most important mathematicians, physicists, and engineers of antiquity.

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On Spirals

On Spirals (Περὶ ἑλίκων) is a treatise by Archimedes, written around 225 BC.

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On the Equilibrium of Planes

On the Equilibrium of Planes (Περὶ ἐπιπέδων ἱσορροπιῶν) is a treatise by Archimedes in two volumes.

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On the Sphere and Cylinder

On the Sphere and Cylinder (Περὶ σφαίρας καὶ κυλίνδρου) is a work that was published by Archimedes in two volumes c. 225 BC.

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Orator

An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.

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Orrery

An orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons, usually according to the heliocentric model.

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Ostomachion

Ostomachion, also known as loculus Archimedius (Archimedes' box in Latin) and also as syntomachion, is a mathematical treatise attributed to Archimedes.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palimpsest

In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.

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Pappus of Alexandria

Pappus of Alexandria (Πάππος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 290 – c. 350 AD) was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge (Συναγωγή) or Collection (c. 340), and for Pappus's hexagon theorem in projective geometry.

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Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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Parabolic reflector

A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.

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Parallel Lives

Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.

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Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

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Peripatetic school

The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

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Planetarium

A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Point (geometry)

In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.

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Polar coordinate system

In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction.

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Polybius

Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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Polyhedron

In geometry, a polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices.

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Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

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Propeller

A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.

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Pseudo-Archimedes

Pseudo-Archimedes is a name given to pseudo-anonymous authors writing under the name of 'Archimedes' as quoted by various sources of the Islamic Golden Age such as Al-Jazari for the construction of water clocks.

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Pulley

A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt.

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Quaestor

A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.

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Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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Ratio

In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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Reductio ad absurdum

In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.

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Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Salinon

The salinon (meaning "salt-cellar" in Greek) is a geometrical figure that consists of four semicircles.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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Scientist

A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.

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Secant line

In geometry, a secant of a curve is a line that intersects the curve in at least two (distinct) points.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Siege

A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC)

The Siege of Syracuse by the Roman Republic took place in 214–212 BC, at the end of which the Magna Graecia Hellenistic city of Syracuse, located on the east coast of Sicily, fell.

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Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Skaramagas

Skaramagas (also spelled Skaramangas; Σκαραμαγκάς) is a port town in the western part of the Athens agglomeration, Greece.

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Skiff

The term skiff is used for a number of essentially unrelated styles of small boat.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Society of Women Engineers

The Society of Women Engineers (SWE), founded in 1950, is a not-for-profit educational and service organization in the United States.

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Solar furnace

A solar furnace is a structure that uses concentrated solar power to produce high temperatures, usually for industry.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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Square

In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or (100-gradian angles or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length. A square with vertices ABCD would be denoted.

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Square number

In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself.

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Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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SS Archimedes

SS Archimedes was a steamship built in Britain in 1839.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Statics

Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a.

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Steam cannon

A steam cannon is a cannon that launches a projectile using only heat and water, or using a ready supply of high-pressure steam from a boiler.

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Steamboat

A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.

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Stephanie Dalley

Stephanie Mary Dalley FSA (née Page; March 1943) is a British scholar of the Ancient Near East.

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Stony Brook University

The State University of New York at Stony Brook (also known as Stony Brook University or SUNY Stony Brook) is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in the eastern United States.

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Suda

The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).

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Surface area

The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.

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Sutter's Mill

Sutter's Mill was a sawmill, owned by 19th-century pioneer John Sutter, where gold was found, setting off the California Gold Rush, a major event of the history of the United States.

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Syracuse, Sicily

Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.

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Syracusia

Syracusia (Συρακουσία, syrakousía, literally "of Syracuse") was a ancient Greek ship sometimes claimed to be the largest transport ship of antiquity.

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Tangram

The tangram is a dissection puzzle consisting of seven flat shapes, called tans, which are put together to form shapes.

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Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).

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Thābit ibn Qurra

(ثابت بن قره, Thebit/Thebith/Tebit; 826 – February 18, 901) was a Syrian Arab Sabian mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator who lived in Baghdad in the second half of the ninth century during the time of Abbasid Caliphate.

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The Cattle of Helios

In Greek mythology, the Cattle of Helios (Ēelíoio bóes), also called the Oxen of the Sun, are cattle pastured on the island of Thrinacia (believed to be modern Sicily).

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The Method of Mechanical Theorems

The Method of Mechanical Theorems (Περὶ μηχανικῶν θεωρημάτων πρὸς Ἐρατοσθένη ἔφοδος), also referred to as The Method, is considered one of the major surviving works of the ancient Greek polymath Archimedes.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Quadrature of the Parabola

The Quadrature of the Parabola (Τετραγωνισμὸς παραβολῆς) is a treatise on geometry, written by Archimedes in the 3rd century BC.

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The Sand Reckoner

The Sand Reckoner (Ψαμμίτης, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe.

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Theon of Alexandria

Theon of Alexandria (Θέων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; 335 – c. 405) was a Greek scholar and mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt.

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Theorem

In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms.

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Thomas Little Heath

Sir Thomas Little Heath (5 October 1861 – 16 March 1940) was a British civil servant, mathematician, classical scholar, historian of ancient Greek mathematics, translator, and mountaineer.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

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Triangle

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.

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Twin circles

In geometry, specifically in the study of the arbelos, the twin circles are two special circles associated with it.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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University of Waterloo

The University of Waterloo (commonly referred to as Waterloo, UW, or UWaterloo) is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario.

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Uta Merzbach

Uta Caecilia Merzbach (February 9, 1933 – June 27, 2017) was a German-American historian of mathematics who became the first curator of mathematical instruments at the Smithsonian Institution.

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Valerius Maximus

Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes: Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX ("nine books of memorable deeds and sayings", also known as De factis dictisque memorabilibus or Facta et dicta memorabilia) Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX.

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Vellum

Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.

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Vertical pressure variation

Vertical pressure variation is the variation in pressure as a function of elevation.

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Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.

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Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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Votive crown

A votive crown is a votive offering in the form of a crown, normally in precious metals and often adorned with jewels.

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Walters Art Museum

The Walters Art Museum, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere, Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934.

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Weber State University

Weber State University (pronounced) is a public university in Ogden, Utah, United States.

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Wolfenbüttel

Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, the administrative capital of Wolfenbüttel District.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Zhang Heng

Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.

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1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1/256 + ⋯

In mathematics, the infinite series is an example of one of the first infinite series to be summed in the history of mathematics; it was used by Archimedes circa 250–200 BC.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedes

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