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Architecture

Index Architecture

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. [1]

290 relations: ACT-R, Adaptive reuse, Aesthetics, Agility, Agra, Alhambra, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andrea Palladio, Angkor Wat, Architect, Architectural decision, Architectural design competition, Architectural design values, Architectural drawing, Architectural firm, Architectural style, Architectural technology, Architectural theory, Architecture description language, Argentina, Artist, Asia, Athens, Auditorio de Tenerife, Augustus Pugin, Australia, Austria, Avant-garde, Çatalhöyük, École des Beaux-Arts, Bahay na bato, Bauhaus, Behavior, Beijing, Beijing National Stadium, Biodegradation, Biomorphism, Brazil, Bruno Zevi, Brutalist architecture, Buenos Aires, Building, Building material, Business, Business architect, Business model, Business process, Butterworth-Heinemann, ..., Byzantium, Cambodia, Canary Islands, Cathedral, Cathedral of Brasília, Charles Moore (architect), Chicago, China, Christian Norberg-Schulz, City Hall, London, Civil engineering, Classical antiquity, Classical architecture, Classical order, Cognition, Cognitive psychology, Collaborative for High Performance Schools, Common Era, Computer, Computer engineering, Computer program, Computer simulation, Conceptual model, Construction, Contemporary architecture, Course (architecture), Craft, Culture, Czech Republic, Dancing House, Data type, De architectura, De Montfort University, De Re Aedificatoria, Design, Design rationale, Dessau, Deutscher Werkbund, Doge's Palace, Dome of the Rock, Dravidian architecture, Dry dock, Eero Saarinen, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Efficient energy use, Egypt, Empiricism, Engineer, Engineering, Engineering design process, England, Enterprise architecture, Ernesto Nathan Rogers, Estate (land), Europe, Expressionist architecture, Fallingwater, Fazlur Rahman Khan, Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professional Organizations, Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence, Form follows function, France, Frank Lloyd Wright, Germany, Gilles Deleuze, Giorgio Vasari, Giza Plateau, Glossary of architecture, Golden ratio, Gothic architecture, Gothic Revival architecture, Granada, Greece, Green building, Green roof, Guerrilla architecture, Guild, Gyeongbokgung, Haus Wittgenstein, House, Housing estate, Implementation, India, Industrial Revolution, Instruction set architecture, International Style (architecture), International Union of Architects, Ireland, Istanbul, Italy, Japan, Jerusalem, John Ruskin, Kinkaku-ji, Kuala Lumpur, Kyoto, Landscape architect, Landscape architecture, Landscape design, Landscape urbanism, Le Corbusier, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Len Bass, Leon Battista Alberti, Lesotho, Lighting, List of architecture prizes, List of Guggenheim Museums, List of human habitation forms, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Logic synthesis, Louis Sullivan, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Machu Picchu, Malaysia, Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra, Marcel Breuer, Mathematics and architecture, Metaphoric architecture, Michel Foucault, Michelangelo, Michele Valori, Microarchitecture, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mind, Ming tombs, Minoru Yamasaki, Modern architecture, Modernism, Mohenjo-daro, Municipal or urban engineering, Natural environment, Natural landscape, New Classical architecture, New Urbanism, New York City, Nonbuilding structure, Norway, Notre-Dame de Paris, OMG Business Architecture Special Interest Group, Organic architecture, Outline of architecture, Pakistan, Palace of the Argentine National Congress, Palais Garnier, Palazzo Farnese, Paris, Park, Parthenon, Passive solar building design, Paul Rudolph (architect), Petronas Towers, Phenomenology (architecture), Phenomenology (philosophy), Philip Johnson, Philip Newcomb, Philippines, Physical layer, Planning, Plato, Pont Alexandre III, Post-structuralism, Postmodern architecture, Postmodernism, Prague, Programming model, Rationalism, Real-time computing, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Restoration ecology, Robert Venturi, Robie House, Roman aqueduct, Romanesque architecture, Rome, Royal Institute of British Architects, Rural area, Rustication (architecture), Santa Maria Novella, Scottish baronial architecture, Sea trial, Segovia, Semantics, Seoul, Shilpa Shastras, Shipbuilding, Site planning, Smart growth, Soar (cognitive architecture), Sociology of architecture, Software Engineering Notes, Software system, South Korea, Space Shuttle, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Peter's Basilica, Statute, Structuralism, Structure, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Supernatural, Sustainability, Sustainable architecture, Sustainable design, Sustainable urbanism, Sydney Opera House, System, Taj Mahal, Telecommunication, Telecommunications network, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, Tower of London, Tube (structure), United States, Urban area, Urban design, Urban planning, Urban sprawl, Urbanism, Venice, Vernacular architecture, View model, Vitruvius, Vittorio Gregotti, Water-sensitive urban design, Watercraft, Weimar, William M. Ulrich, Willis Tower, Work of art, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World War I, World War II, Zoomorphic architecture. Expand index (240 more) »

ACT-R

ACT-R (pronounced /ˌækt ˈɑr/; short for "Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational") is a cognitive architecture mainly developed by John Robert Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University.

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Adaptive reuse

Adaptive reuse refers to the process of reusing an old site or building for a purpose other than which it was built or designed for.

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Aesthetics

Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Agility

Agility or nimbleness is the ability to change the body's position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, and endurance.

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Agra

Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Alhambra

The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andrea Palladio

Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.

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Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.

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Architect

An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings.

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Architectural decision

In software engineering and software architecture design, architectural decisions (ADs) are design decisions that address architecturally significant requirements; they are perceived as hard to make and/or costly to change.

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Architectural design competition

An architectural design competition is a type of competition in which an organization that intends on constructing a new building invites architects to submit design proposals.

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Architectural design values

Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions.

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Architectural drawing

An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture.

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Architectural firm

An architectural firm, architecture firm or architectural practice is a business which offers architectural services in the profession of architecture.

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Architectural style

An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.

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Architectural technology

Architectural technology, or building technology, is the application of technology to the design of buildings.

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Architectural theory

Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture.

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Architecture description language

Architecture description languages (ADLs) are used in several disciplines: system engineering, software engineering, and enterprise modelling and engineering.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Artist

An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Auditorio de Tenerife

The Auditorio de Tenerife "Adán Martín" (commonly referred to as the Auditorio de Tenerife) is an auditorium in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

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Augustus Pugin

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist, and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Avant-garde

The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.

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Çatalhöyük

Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.

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École des Beaux-Arts

An École des Beaux-Arts (School of Fine Arts) is one of a number of influential art schools in France.

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Bahay na bato

Bahay na bato (Tagalog, literally "house of stone") is a type of building originating during the Philippines' Spanish Colonial Period.

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Bauhaus

Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.

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Behavior

Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beijing National Stadium

Beijing National Stadium, officially the National Stadium, also known as the Bird's Nest, is a stadium in Beijing.

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Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Biomorphism

Biomorphism models artistic design elements on naturally occurring patterns or shapes reminiscent of nature and living organisms.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bruno Zevi

Bruno Zevi (22 January 1918 – 9 January 2000) was an Italian architect, historian, professor, curator, author, and editor.

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Brutalist architecture

Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Building

A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.

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Building material

Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.

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Business

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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Business architect

A business architect is a practitioner of business architecture, a discipline concerned with developing and maintaining business capabilities of the enterprise in line with the corporate strategy as well as contributing to the business strategy and plans.

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Business model

A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value,Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and 470 practitioners from 45 countries, self-published, 2010 in economic, social, cultural or other contexts.

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Business process

A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that in a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular business goal) for a particular customer or customers.

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Butterworth-Heinemann

Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.

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Byzantium

Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Cambodia

Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cathedral

A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Cathedral of Brasília

The Cathedral of Brasília (Portuguese: Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora Aparecida, "Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady of Aparecida") is the Roman Catholic cathedral serving Brasília, Brazil, and serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Brasília.

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Charles Moore (architect)

Charles Willard Moore (October 31, 1925 – December 16, 1993) was an American architect, educator, writer, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christian Norberg-Schulz

Christian Norberg-Schulz (23 May 1926– 28 March 2000) was a Norwegian architect, author, educator and architectural theorist.

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City Hall, London

City Hall is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority (GLA), which comprises the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

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Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical architecture

Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.

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Classical order

An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform". Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman civilization, the architectural orders are the styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, and most readily recognizable by the type of column employed.

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Cognition

Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Collaborative for High Performance Schools

The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) is the United States' first green building rating program especially designed for K-12 schools.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer engineering

Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Conceptual model

A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.

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Construction

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Contemporary architecture

Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.

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Course (architecture)

A course is a layer of the same unit running horizontally in a wall.

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Craft

A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.

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Culture

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dancing House

The Dancing House (Tančící dům), or Fred and Ginger, is the nickname given to the Nationale-Nederlanden building on the Rašínovo nábřeží (Rašín Embankment) in Prague, Czech Republic.

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Data type

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.

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De architectura

De architectura (On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects.

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De Montfort University

De Montfort University (DMU) is a public university in the city of Leicester, England.

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De Re Aedificatoria

De re aedificatoria (On the Art of Building) is a classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti between 1443 and 1452.

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Design

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).

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Design rationale

A design rationale is an explicit documentation of the reasons behind decisions made when designing a system or artifact.

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Dessau

Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt.

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Deutscher Werkbund

The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) is a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists, established in 1907.

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Doge's Palace

The Doge's Palace (Palazzo Ducale; Pałaso Dogal) is a palace built in Venetian Gothic style, and one of the main landmarks of the city of Venice in northern Italy.

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Dome of the Rock

The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Dravidian architecture

Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.

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Dry dock

A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.

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Eero Saarinen

Eero Saarinen (August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish American architect and industrial designer noted for his neo-futuristic style.

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Effectiveness

Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output.

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Efficiency

Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Empiricism

In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Engineer

Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.

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Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Engineering design process

The engineering design process is a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Enterprise architecture

Enterprise architecture (EA) is "a well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation, using a comprehensive approach at all times, for the successful development and execution of strategy.

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Ernesto Nathan Rogers

Ernesto Nathan Rogers (March 16, 1909 – November 7, 1969) was an Italian architect, writer and educator.

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Estate (land)

Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Expressionist architecture

Expressionist architecture is an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany.

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Fallingwater

Fallingwater is a house designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania, southeast of Pittsburgh.

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Fazlur Rahman Khan

Fazlur Rahman Khan (ফজলুর রহমান খান, Fozlur Rôhman Khan) (3 April 1929 – 27 March 1982) was a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer and architect, who initiated important structural systems for skyscrapers.

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Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professional Organizations

The Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professional Organizations (FEAPO) is a worldwide association of professional organizations which have come together to provide a forum to standardize, professionalize, and otherwise advance the discipline of enterprise architecture.

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Filippo Brunelleschi

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Form follows function

Form follows function is a principle associated with 20th-century modernist architecture and industrial design which says that the shape of a building or object should primarily relate to its intended function or purpose.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank Lloyd Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.

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Giorgio Vasari

Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.

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Giza Plateau

The Giza Plateau (جيزة بلاتي) is a plateau that is located in Giza, Egypt.

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Glossary of architecture

This page is a glossary of architecture.

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Golden ratio

In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Granada

Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Greece

No description.

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Green building

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.

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Green roof

A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.

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Guerrilla architecture

Guerrilla architecture is the hacking of existing buildings, often old, disused or distressed, adapted to a new function.

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Guild

A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Gyeongbokgung

Gyeongbokgung, also known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, was the main royal palace of the Joseon dynasty.

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Haus Wittgenstein

Haus Wittgenstein, (also known as the Stonborough House and the Wittgenstein House) is a house in the modernist style on the Kundmanngasse, Vienna, Austria.

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House

A house is a building that functions as a home.

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Housing estate

A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.

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Implementation

Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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International Style (architecture)

The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.

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International Union of Architects

The International Union of Architects (French: Union internationale des Architectes, UIA) is the only international non-governmental organization that represents the world's architects, now estimated to number some 3.2 million in all.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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John Ruskin

John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.

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Kinkaku-ji

, officially named, is a Zen Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan.

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Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.

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Kyoto

, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.

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Landscape architect

A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture.

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Landscape architecture

Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.

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Landscape design

Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practised by landscape designers, combining nature and culture.

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Landscape urbanism

Landscape urbanism is a theory of urban planning arguing that the best way to organize cities is through the design of the city's landscape, rather than the design of its buildings.

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Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

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Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide.

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Len Bass

Leonard Joel (Len) Bass (born ca 1944) is an American software engineer, Emeritus professor and former researcher at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), particularly known for his contributions on software architecture in practice.

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Leon Battista Alberti

Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.

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Lesotho

Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.

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Lighting

Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.

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List of architecture prizes

This is a list of architecture prizes.

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List of Guggenheim Museums

The Guggenheim Museums are a group of museums in different parts of the world established (or proposed to be established) by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation.

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List of human habitation forms

This is a list of (semi)-permanent, mobile and misc.

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Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects

The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori), also known as The Lives (Le Vite), is a series of artist biographies written by 16th-century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered "perhaps the most famous, and even today the most-read work of the older literature of art", "some of the Italian Renaissance's most influential writing on art", and "the first important book on art history".

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Logic synthesis

In electronics, logic synthesis is a process by which an abstract form of desired circuit behavior, typically at register transfer level (RTL), is turned into a design implementation in terms of logic gates, typically by a computer program called a synthesis tool.

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Louis Sullivan

Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism".

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra

The Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra is a manuscript of the 5th or 6th century CE that gives the basis on which Sri Lankan Buddhist monasteries are constructed.

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Marcel Breuer

Marcel Lajos Breuer (21 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect, and furniture designer.

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Mathematics and architecture

Mathematics and architecture are related, since, as with other arts, architects use mathematics for several reasons.

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Metaphoric architecture

Metaphoric architecture is an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the mid-20th century.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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Michele Valori

Michele Valori (Bologna, 23 June 1923 – Rome, 16 October 1979) was an Italian urban designer and architect.

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Microarchitecture

In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mind

The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Ming tombs

The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Minoru Yamasaki

Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912February 6, 1986) was an American architect, best known for designing the original World Trade Center in New York City and several other large-scale projects.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Modernism

Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Mohenjo-daro

Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Municipal or urban engineering

Municipal or urban engineering applies the tools of science, art and engineering in an urban environment.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural landscape

A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture.

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New Classical architecture

New Classical architecture is a contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical and traditional architecture.

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New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nonbuilding structure

A nonbuilding structure, also referred to simply as a structure, refers to any body or system of connected parts used to support a load that was not designed for continuous human occupancy.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Notre-Dame de Paris

Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.

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OMG Business Architecture Special Interest Group

The Business Architecture Special Interest Group (BASIG) is a working group on business architecture of the Object Management Group (OMG), known for their contribution to the history of business architecture.

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Organic architecture

Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world.

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Outline of architecture

The following outline is an overview and topical guide to architecture: Architecture – the process and the product of designing and constructing buildings.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Palace of the Argentine National Congress

The Palace of the Argentine National Congress (Palacio del Congreso Nacional Argentino, often referred locally as Palacio del Congreso) is a monumental building, seat of the Argentine National Congress, located in Buenos Aires at the western end of Avenida de Mayo (at the other end of which is the Casa Rosada).

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Palais Garnier

The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.

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Palazzo Farnese

Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Park

A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.

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Parthenon

The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.

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Passive solar building design

In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, reflect, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer.

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Paul Rudolph (architect)

Paul Marvin Rudolph (October 23, 1918 – August 8, 1997) was an American architect and the chair of Yale University's Department of Architecture for six years, known for his use of concrete and highly complex floor plans.

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Petronas Towers

The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Phenomenology (architecture)

Phenomenology in architecture can be understood as an aspect of philosophy researching into the experience of built space, and as shorthand for architectural phenomenology, a historical architectural movement.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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Philip Johnson

Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an American architect.

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Philip Newcomb

Philip H. Newcomb (born 1950s) is an American software engineer and CEO of The Software Revolution, Inc., known for his work in the field of formal methods of software engineering.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Physical layer

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.

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Planning

Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pont Alexandre III

The Pont Alexandre III is a deck arch bridge that spans the Seine in Paris.

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Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Postmodern architecture

Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

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Postmodernism

Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Programming model

A Programming model refers to the style of programming where execution is invoked by making what appear to be library calls.

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Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Real-time computing

In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Restoration ecology

Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.

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Robert Venturi

Robert Charles Venturi Jr. (born June 25, 1925) is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major architectural figures in the twentieth century.

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Robie House

The Frederick C. Robie House is a U.S. National Historic Landmark on the campus of the University of Chicago in the South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park in Chicago, Illinois, at 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue.

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Roman aqueduct

The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Royal Institute of British Architects

The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally, founded for the advancement of architecture under its charter granted in 1837 and Supplemental Charter granted in 1971.

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Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.

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Rustication (architecture)

Two different styles of rustication in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence; smooth-faced above and rough-faced below. In classical architecture rustication is a range of masonry techniques giving visible surfaces a finish that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared-block masonry surfaces called ashlar.

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Santa Maria Novella

Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it.

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Scottish baronial architecture

Scottish Baronial architecture (often Scots Baronial and sometimes Baronial style) is a style of architecture with its origins in the sixteenth century.

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Sea trial

A sea trial is the testing phase of a watercraft (including boats, ships, and submarines).

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Segovia

Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.

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Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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Seoul

Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.

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Shilpa Shastras

Shilpa Shastras (शिल्प शास्त्र) literally means the Science of Shilpa (arts and crafts).

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Shipbuilding

Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.

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Site planning

Site planning in landscape architecture and architecture refers to the organizational stage of the landscape design process.

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Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl.

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Soar (cognitive architecture)

Soar is a cognitive architecture, originally created by John Laird, Allen Newell, and at Carnegie Mellon University.

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Sociology of architecture

Sociology of architecture is the sociological study of the built environment and the role and occupation of architects in modern societies.

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Software Engineering Notes

The ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes (SEN) is published by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for the Special Interest Group on Software Engineering (SIGSOFT).

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Software system

A software system is a system on intercommunicating components based on software forming part of a computer system (a combination of hardware and software).

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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St. Peter's Basilica

The Papal Basilica of St.

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Statute

A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.

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Structuralism

In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Structure

Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.

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Sultan Ahmed Mosque

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii) is a historic mosque located in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Supernatural

The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Sustainability

Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Sustainable architecture

Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.

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Sustainable design

Sustainable design (also called environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

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Sustainable urbanism

Sustainable urbanism is an approach to the study of urbanism focusing on strategies that promote long term resilience to cities, towns and other areas.

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Sydney Opera House

The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Telecommunications network

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes, links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.

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The Seven Lamps of Architecture

The Seven Lamps of Architecture is an extended essay, first published in May 1849 and written by the English art critic and theorist John Ruskin.

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Tower of London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.

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Tube (structure)

In structural engineering, the tube is a system where, to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, impact), a building is designed to act like a hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Urban design

Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns and villages.

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Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

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Urban sprawl

Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.

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Urbanism

Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.

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View model

A view model or viewpoints framework in systems engineering, software engineering, and enterprise engineering is a framework which defines a coherent set of views to be used in the construction of a system architecture, software architecture, or enterprise architecture.

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Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.

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Vittorio Gregotti

Vittorio Gregotti (Novara, 10 August 1927) is an Italian architect, born in Novara.

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Water-sensitive urban design

Water-sensitive urban design (WSUD) is a land planning and engineering design approach which integrates the urban water cycle, including stormwater, groundwater and wastewater management and water supply, into urban design to minimise environmental degradation and improve aesthetic and recreational appeal.

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Watercraft

Watercraft or marine vessel are water-borne vehicles including ships, boats, hovercraft and submarines.

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Weimar

Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.

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William M. Ulrich

William M. Ulrich (born c. 1956) is an American business architecture consultant, consultant at Cutter Consortium, director and lecturer, known for development of 'The Systems Redevelopment Methodology' (TSRM) in the 1990s, on legacy systems in the 2000s and more recently on his work on business architecture.

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Willis Tower

The Willis Tower, built as and still commonly referred to as the Sears Tower, is a 110-story, skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois.

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Work of art

A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zoomorphic architecture

Zoomorphic architecture is the practice of using animal forms as the inspirational basis and blueprint for architectural design.

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Archetecture, Architectural, Architectural work, Architecturally, Architecture (built environment), Architectures, Architecure, Asian architecture, Civil Architecture, Civil architecture, Frozen music, The Art and History of Architecture, Types of architecture.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture

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