222 relations: Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Antarctic, Antarctic Treaty System, Archipelago, Arctic (disambiguation), Arctic Circle, Arctic cooperation and politics, Arctic Council, Arctic fox, Arctic ground squirrel, Arctic hare, Arctic haze, Arctic methane emissions, Arctic Ocean, Arctic Ocean Conference, Arctic resources race, Arctic sea ice decline, Arctic small tool tradition, Arctic vegetation, Arctic wolf, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Arktika 2007, Australia, Baffin Bay, Baleen whale, Barents Sea, Bathyscaphe, Bear, Bearberry, Beaufort Sea, Beluga whale, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Big Diomede, Bioaccumulation, Biodiversity, Canada, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Carbon dioxide, Celestial sphere, Cetacea, Chasmosaurus, Chukchi people, Chukchi Sea, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Climate change in the Arctic, Climate model, Coats Island, Colville River (Alaska), ..., Constellation, Continental shelf, Contour line, Counties of Norway, Cretaceous, Crystal Serenity, Cyperaceae, Dall sheep, Davis Strait, Denmark, Denmark Strait, Dinosaur, Dorset culture, Drift ice, Drifting ice station, Earth, East Siberian Sea, Edmontosaurus, Eskimo, Evenks, Exclusive economic zone, Federal subjects of Russia, Fennoscandia, Finland, Finnmark, Flag of Russia, Forb, Franz Josef Land, Genotype, Global warming, Governor of Svalbard, Grímsey, Greek language, Greenhouse gas, Greenland, Greenland ice sheet, Greenland Sea, Greenpeace, Grizzly bear, Groundcover, Gwich'in, Herb, Hudson Bay, Hypacrosaurus, Iñupiat, Iceland, Ilulissat, Ilulissat Declaration, Independence I culture, Indigenous peoples, International Arctic Science Committee, International Polar Year, Inuit, Inuktitut, Jan Mayen, Kara Sea, Khanty, Killer whale, Koryaks, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Labrador, Lapland (Finland), Lapland (Sweden), Laptev Sea, Larus, Lemming, Lichen, List of countries by northernmost point, Little Diomede Island, Marine mammal, Methane, Methane clathrate, Midnight sun, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark), Mir (submersible), Moose, Moss, Murmansk Oblast, Muskox, Muttaburrasaurus, MV Arctic, Nares Strait, Narwhal, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natural resource, Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Nenets people, New Scientist, New Siberian Islands, Non-vascular plant, Nordland, Norrbotten, North Pole, Northern Canada, Northwest Passage, Northwest Territories, Norway, Norwegian Sea, Novaya Zemlya, NRK, Nunavik, Nunavut, Oil field, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Paleo-Eskimo, Papaver radicatum, Permafrost, Phytoplankton, Pinniped, Poaceae, Polar amplification, Polar bear, Polar Geography, Polar night, Polar regions of Earth, Polaris, Pole star, Pollutant, Pollution, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Poverty in the Arctic, Pre-Dorset, Provinces and territories of Canada, Provinces of Sweden, Quebec, Random House, Regions of Finland, Reindeer, Ring species, Russia, Russian Arctic islands, Sadlermiut, Sakha Republic, Sami people, Sápmi, Science (journal), Sea ice, Seabed, Severnaya Zemlya, Siberia, Snowy owl, Southampton Island, Spelling pronunciation, SS Arctic, Stoat, Subarctic, Subshrub, Svalbard, Sweden, Thule people, Titanium alloy, Trade route, Tree line, Troms, Troodon, Tundra, U.S. state, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United States, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, USS Arctic, Walrus, Wilderness, Wolverine, Wrangel Island, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Yukaghir people, Yukon, Yupik, Zapovednik, Zooplankton. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Arctic is Earth's north polar region.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
Arctic cooperation and politics are partially coordinated via the Arctic Council, composed of the eight Arctic nations: the United States of America, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and Denmark with Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum which addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and people living in the Arctic region.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
The Arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii or Urocitellus parryii) is a species of ground squirrel native to the Arctic.
The Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus), or polar rabbit, is a species of hare which is highly adapted to living in the Arctic tundra, and other icy biomes.
Arctic haze is the phenomenon of a visible reddish-brown springtime haze in the atmosphere at high latitudes in the Arctic due to anthropogenic air pollution.
Arctic methane release is the release of methane from seas and soils in permafrost regions of the Arctic.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
The inaugural Arctic Ocean Conference was held in Ilulissat, Greenland May 27 — May 29, 2008.
The Arctic resources race refers to the competition between global entities for newly available natural resources in the Arctic.
Arctic sea ice decline is the sea ice loss observed in recent decades in the Arctic Ocean.
The Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) was a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2500 BC.
In the Arctic, the low tundra vegetation clothes a landscape of wide vistas, lit by the low-angle light characteristic of high latitudes.
The Arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos), also known as the white wolf or polar wolf, is a subspecies of gray wolf native to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, from Melville Island to Ellesmere Island.
Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Arktika 2007 (Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007") was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic, made possible, in part, because of Arctic shrinkage.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Baffin Bay (Inuktitut: Saknirutiak Imanga; Avannaata Imaa; Baie de Baffin), located between Baffin Island and the southwest coast of Greenland, is a marginal sea of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
Bearberries are three species of dwarf shrubs in the genus Arctostaphylos.
The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands.
The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.
The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Big Diomede Island (о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); Inupiat: Imaqłiq) or "Tomorrow Island" (due to the International Date Line) is the western island of the two Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chasmosaurus is a genus of ceratopsid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period of North America.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.
, observed in recent years.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
Coats Island (Inuktitut: Akpatordjuark) lies at the northern end of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut.
The Colville River (Inupiat: Kuukpik) is a major river of the Arctic Ocean coast of Alaska in the United States, approximately long.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
Norway is divided into 18 administrative regions, called counties (singular fylke, plural fylker (Bokmål) / fylke (Nynorsk) from Old Norse: fylki from the word "folk"); until 1918, they were known as amter.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Crystal Serenity is a cruise ship owned by Crystal Cruises.
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
The thin horn sheep (Ovis dalli) is a species of sheep native to northwestern North America, ranging from white to slate brown in colour and having curved, yellowish-brown horns.
Davis Strait (Détroit de Davis) is a northern arm of the Labrador Sea.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Denmark Strait or Greenland Strait ('Greenland Sound') is an oceanic strait between Greenland (to its northwest) and Iceland (to its southeast).
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
The Dorset was a Paleo-Eskimo culture, lasting from 500 BC to between 1000 and 1500 AD, that followed the Pre-Dorset and preceded the Inuit in the Arctic of North America.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are research stations built on the ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The East Siberian Sea (r) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.
Edmontosaurus (meaning "lizard from Edmonton") is a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur.
Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnmark (italic; Finnmark; Фи́ннмарк, Fínnmark) is a county ("fylke") in the extreme northeastern part of Norway.
The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.
A forb (sometimes spelled phorb) is an herbaceous flowering plant that is not a graminoid (grasses, sedges and rushes).
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Governor of Svalbard (Sysselmannen på Svalbard) represents the Norwegian government in exercising its sovereignty over the Svalbard archipelago (Spitsbergen).
Grímsey is a small Icelandic island, off the north coast of the main island of Iceland, straddling the Arctic Circle.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenland ice sheet (Grønlands indlandsis, Sermersuaq) is a vast body of ice covering, roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland.
The Greenland Sea is a body of water that borders Greenland to the west, the Svalbard archipelago to the east, Fram Strait and the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Norwegian Sea and Iceland to the south.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos ssp.) is a large population of the brown bear inhabiting North America.
Groundcover or ground cover is any plant that grows over an area of ground.
The Gwich’in (or Kutchin) are an Athabaskan-speaking First Nations people of Canada and an Alaska Native people.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
Hypacrosaurus (meaning "near the highest lizard", because it was almost but not quite as large as Tyrannosaurus) was a genus of duckbill dinosaur similar in appearance to Corythosaurus.
The Iñupiat (or Inupiaq) are a native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound on the Bering Sea to the Canada–United States border.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Ilulissat, formerly Jakobshavn or Jacobshaven, is the municipal seat and largest town of the Avannaata municipality in western Greenland, located approximately north of the Arctic Circle.
The Ilulissat Declaration was announced on May 28, 2008 by the five coastal states of the Arctic Ocean (United States, Russia, Canada, Norway and Denmark), meeting at the political level during the Arctic Ocean Conference in Ilulissat, Greenland to discuss the Arctic ocean, climate change, the protection of the marine environment, maritime safety, and division of emergency responsibilities if new shipping routes are opened.
Independence I was a culture of Paleo-Eskimos who lived in northern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic between 2400 and 1000 BC.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental organization which is composed of international science groups participating in arctic science research.
The International Polar Years (IPY) are collaborative, international efforts with intensive research foci on the polar regions.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.
The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.
The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are an indigenous people calling themselves Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a region historically known as "Yugra" in Russia, together with the Mansi.
Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea.
Krasnoyarsk Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk—the third-largest city in Siberia (after Novosibirsk and Omsk).
Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Lapland (Lappi; Sápmi; Lappland) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland.
Lappland, often Anglicized as Lapland (Latin: Lapponia, Northern Sami: Sápmi), is a province in northernmost Sweden.
The Laptev Sea (r; Лаптевтар байҕаллара) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Larus is a large genus of gulls with worldwide distribution (although by far the greatest species diversity is in the Northern Hemisphere).
A lemming is a small rodent usually found in or near the Arctic in tundra biomes.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
This is a list of countries by northernmost point on land.
Little Diomede Island (Inupiat: Iŋaliq, formerly known as Krusenstern Island, Остров Крузенштерна, Ostrov Kruzenshterna) is an island of Alaska, United States.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Udenrigsministeriet) and its overseas representations (i.e. the Danish embassies, diplomatic missions, consulates and trade offices) are in charge of the Kingdom of Denmark's foreign policy and relations.
Mir (Russian: "Мир", world or peace) is a self-propelled Deep Submergence Vehicle.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Murmansk Oblast (r) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
Muttaburrasaurus was a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur, which lived in what is now northeastern Australia sometime between 112 and 99.6 million years agoHoltz, Thomas R. Jr.
MV Arctic is an icebreaking cargo ship built in 1978 at the Port Weller Dry Docks in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.
Nares Strait (Nares Strædet) is a waterway between Ellesmere Island and Greenland that is the northern part of Baffin Bay where it meets the Lincoln Sea.
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast).
The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The New Siberian Islands (r; translit) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.
Nordland (Nordlánda) is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea) to the west.
Norrbotten, known in English as North Bothnia, is a Swedish province (landskap) in northernmost Sweden.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics.
The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway.
Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies is an energy research institution which was founded in 1982, and serves a worldwide audience with its research, guides understanding of all major energy issues.
The Paleo-Eskimo (also pre-Thule or pre-Inuit) were the peoples who inhabited the Arctic region from Chukotka (e.g., Chertov Ovrag) in present-day Russia across North America to Greenland prior to the arrival of the modern Inuit (Eskimo) and related cultures.
Papaver radicatum is a species of poppy known by the common names Arctic poppy, rooted poppy, and yellow poppy.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Polar amplification is the phenomenon that any change in the net radiation balance (for example greenhouse intensification) tends to produce a larger change in temperature near the poles than the planetary average.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
Polar Geography is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the physical and human aspects of the Polar regions.
The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.
Pole star or polar star refers to a star, preferably bright, closely aligned to the axis of rotation of an astronomical object.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
The Arctic is a vast polar region comprising the northern most parts of Canada, Norway, Greenland (Denmark), Sweden, Finland, the United States (Alaska), Iceland and Russia.
The Pre-Dorset is a loosely defined term for a Paleo-Eskimo culture or group of cultures that existed in the Eastern Canadian Arctic from c. 3200 to 850 cal BC, and preceded the Dorset culture.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Finland comprises 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
In biology, a ring species is a connected series of neighbouring populations, each of which can interbreed with closely sited related populations, but for which there exist at least two "end" populations in the series, which are too distantly related to interbreed, though there is a potential gene flow between each "linked" population.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Arctic islands are a number of islands groups and sole islands scattered around the Arctic Ocean.
The Sadlermiut (also called Sagdlirmiut, or Sallirmiut in modern Inuktitut spelling, from Sadlerk now Salliq, the Inuktitut name for the settlement of Coral Harbour, Nunavut) were an Inuit group living in near isolation mainly on and around Coats Island, Walrus Island, and Southampton Island in Hudson Bay.
The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́ (Northern Land)) is a archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus), also known as the polar owl or white owl, is a large, white owl of the typical owl family.
Southampton Island (Inuktitut: Shugliaq) is a large island at the entrance to Hudson Bay at Foxe Basin.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
SS Arctic was a 2,856-ton paddle steamer, one of the Collins Line, which operated a transatlantic passenger and mail steamship service during the 1850s.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.
A subshrub (Latin suffrutex) or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Thule or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Inuit.
Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
Troms (italic; Tromssa) is a county in Northern Norway.
Troodon (Troödon in older sources) is a dubious genus of relatively small, bird-like dinosaurs known definitively from the Campanian age of the Cretaceous period (about 77 mya).
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory.
Ursa Minor (Latin: "Lesser Bear", contrasting with Ursa Major), also known as the Little Bear, is a constellation in the Northern Sky.
USS Arctic is the name of several ships of the U.S. Navy.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
The wolverine (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae.
Wrangel Island (p) is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea.
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Яма́ло-Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг, Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug; Ямалы-Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, Jamaly-Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk) (Abbreviated: YaNAO (ЯНАО)) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast).
The Yukaghir, or Yukagir (юкаги́ры; self-designation: одул (odul), деткиль (detkil)) are a people in East Siberia, living in the basin of the Kolyma River.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.
Zapovednik (заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed, committed ") is an established term on the territory of the former Soviet Union for a protected area which is kept "forever wild".
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.