232 relations: Abyssal plain, Admiralty, Alaska, Albedo, Alpha Ridge, Amerasian Basin, Amundsen Basin, Antarctica, Arctic Basin, Arctic Bridge, Arctic Circle, Arctic convoys of World War II, Arctic cooperation and politics, Arctic exploration, Arctic ice pack, Arctic Islands, Arctic naval operations of World War II, Arctic sea ice ecology and history, Arkhangelsk, Arktika (1972 icebreaker), Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere, Atmospheric pressure, Baffin Bay, Banded gunnel, Barents Sea, Barrow, Alaska, Bathymetry, Beaufort Gyre, Beaufort Sea, Bering Strait, Beringia, Canada, Canada Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Cartography, Cathay, China, Chukchi Plateau, Chukchi Sea, Chukchi Sea Shelf, Churchill, Manitoba, Clathrate compound, Climate, Cold War, Construction aggregate, Continental shelf, Continental shelf of Russia, Coriolis force, ..., Cyclone, Daylight, Density, Dikson (urban-type settlement), Dinoflagellate, Dog sled, Drift ice, Drifting ice station, Dudinka, East Siberian Sea, Ecosystem, Eemian, Elisha Kane, Ellesmere Island, Energy market, Environmentalism, Estuary, Eurasia, Eurasian Basin, Evaporation, Extreme points of the Arctic, Faroe Islands, Fault block, Fram Strait, Franz Josef Land, Fresh water, Fridtjof Nansen, Gakkel Ridge, Genus, Gerardus Mercator, Glacier, Global warming, Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012, Greenhouse gas, Greenland, Greenland Sea, Halocline, Harbor, History of Europe, Holocene climatic optimum, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Iceberg, Icebreaker, Icelandic Low, Icing (nautical), Igarka, Independence I culture, Independence II culture, International Arctic Science Committee, International Hydrographic Organization, Inuvik, Isaac Israel Hayes, Johann Homann, Johannes Ruysch, Kara Sea, Kirkenes, Labrador, Labrador Sea, Labytnangi, Laptev Sea, Lena River, Lion's mane jellyfish, Litke Deep, Lomonosov Ridge, Longyearbyen, Mackenzie River, Makarov Basin, Manganese nodule, Manitoba, Marseille, Martin Waldseemüller, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Mediterranean sea (oceanography), Melting point, Meltwater, Methane, Mid-ocean ridge, Midnight sun, Murmansk, Mythology, Nanisivik, Nanisivik Naval Facility, Nansen Basin, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Natural gas, Natural gas field, Nautical chart, Nordicity, North Atlantic Current, North Pole, Northern Sea Route, Northwest Passage, Northwest Territories, Norway, Norwegian Current, Novaya Zemlya, Nuclear weapons testing, Nunavik, Nunavut, Nuuk, Nuuk Port and Harbour, Ob River, Ocean, Ocean current, Oceanic basin, Oceanic trench, Oceanography, Open Polar Sea, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Ozone layer, Pacific Ocean, Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, Permafrost, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petroleum, Pevek, Pholidae, Photosynthesis, Phytoplankton, Placer deposit, Polar climate, Polar Geography, Polar ice cap, Polar night, Polar regions of Earth, Polar route, Port of Churchill, Positive feedback, Pre-Dorset, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, Pytheas, Quaternary glaciation, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive waste, River delta, RMS Titanic, Salekhard, Salinity, Saqqaq culture, Science News, Sea ice, Sea surface temperature, Seamanship, Seawater, Settlement of the Americas, Seven Seas, Shetland, Siberia, Siberian High, Siberian Shelf, Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet, Soviet Union, Species, SS Baychimo, Storm surge, Subarctic, Superstructure, Svalbard, Taylor & Francis, Territorial claims in the Arctic, The Australian, Thermohaline circulation, Thomas Nilsen, Thule, Thule people, Tiksi, Tuktoyaktuk, United States, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), USSR–USA Maritime Boundary Agreement, Vardø, Wally Herbert, Walrus, Whale, White Sea, Winter, Wisconsin glaciation, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World Ocean, World War II, Yenisei River. Expand index (182 more) » « Shrink index
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The Alpha Ridge is a major volcanic ridge under the Arctic Ocean between the Canada Basin (off Ellesmere Island) and the Lomonosov Ridge.
The Amerasia Basin (or Amerasian Basin) is one of the two major basins into which the North Polar Basin of the Arctic Ocean is split by the Lomonosov Ridge (the other one being the Eurasian Basin).
The Amundsen Basin, with depths up to 4.4 km, is the deepest abyssal plain in the Arctic Ocean.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The Arctic Basin (also North Polar Basin) is an oceanic basin in the Arctic Ocean, consisting of two main parts separated by the Lomonosov Ridge, a mid-ocean ridge running between north Greenland and the New Siberian Islands.
The Arctic Bridge or Arctic Sea Bridge is a seasonal sea route approximately long linking Russia to Canada, specifically the Russian port of Murmansk to the Hudson Bay port of Churchill, Manitoba.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia.
Arctic cooperation and politics are partially coordinated via the Arctic Council, composed of the eight Arctic nations: the United States of America, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and Denmark with Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth.
The Arctic ice pack is the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity.
Arctic Islands may refer to.
The Arctic Circle defining the "midnight sun" encompasses the Atlantic Ocean from the northern edge of Iceland to the Bering Strait.
The Arctic sea ice covers less area in the summer than in the winter.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
NS Arktika (p) is a retired nuclear-powered icebreaker of the Soviet (now Russian) ''Arktika'' class.
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a climate cycle that affects the sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic Ocean based on different modes on multidecadal timescales.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Baffin Bay (Inuktitut: Saknirutiak Imanga; Avannaata Imaa; Baie de Baffin), located between Baffin Island and the southwest coast of Greenland, is a marginal sea of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Banded Gunnel (Pholis fasciata) is the only species of gunnel that lives in the Arctic Ocean.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
Barrow, also known by its native name Utqiagvik, is the largest city and the borough seat of the North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska and is located north of the Arctic Circle.
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.
The Beaufort Gyre is a wind-driven ocean current located in the Arctic Ocean polar region.
The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada Basin is a deep oceanic basin within the Arctic Ocean.
The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Cathay is the Anglicized rendering of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chukchi Plateau or Chukchi Cap is a large subsea formation extending north from the Alaskan margin into the Arctic Ocean.
Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
The Chukchi Sea Shelf or Chukchi Shelf is the westernmost part of the continental shelf of the United States and the easternmost part of the continental shelf of Russia.
Churchill (ᑯᒡᔪᐊᖅ, Kuugjuaq) is a town in northern Manitoba, Canada on the west shore of Hudson Bay, roughly from the Manitoba–Nunavut border.
A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
The continental shelf of Russia (also called the Russian continental shelf or the Arctic shelf in the Arctic region) is a continental shelf adjacent to Russia.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Daylight, or the light of day, is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dikson (dʲiksən) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
A dog sled or dog sleigh is a sled pulled by one or more sled dogs used to travel over ice and through snow.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are research stations built on the ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.
Dudinka (Дуди́нка, Тут'ын) is a town on the Yenisei River and the administrative center of Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
The East Siberian Sea (r) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.
Elisha Kent Kane (February 28, 1820 – February 16, 1857) was an American explorer, and a medical officer in the United States Navy during the first half of the 19th century.
Ellesmere Island (Inuit: Umingmak Nuna, meaning "land of muskoxen"; Île d'Ellesmere) is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region in the Canadian territory of Nunavut.
Energy markets are commodity markets that deal specifically with the trade and supply of energy.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Basin, is one of the two major basins into which the North Polar Basin of the Arctic Ocean is split by the Lomonosov Ridge, the other big basin is the Amerasian Basin.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
This is a list of the extreme points of the Arctic, the points of Arctic lands that are farther to the north than any other location classified by continent and country, latitude and longitude, and distance to the North Pole.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Fault blocks are very large blocks of rock, sometimes hundreds of kilometres in extent, created by tectonic and localized stresses in the Earth's crust.
The Fram Strait is the passage between Greenland and Svalbard, located roughly between 77°N and 81°N latitudes and centered on the prime meridian.
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
The Gakkel Ridge (formerly known as the Nansen Cordillera and Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge) is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Great Arctic Cyclone, or "Great Arctic Cyclone of 2012," was a powerful extratropical cyclone that was centered on the Arctic Ocean in early August 2012.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenland Sea is a body of water that borders Greenland to the west, the Svalbard archipelago to the east, Fram Strait and the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Norwegian Sea and Iceland to the south.
In oceanography, a halocline (from Greek hals, halo- ‘salt’ and klinein ‘to slope’) is a subtype of chemocline caused by a strong, vertical salinity gradient within a body of water.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
The Icelandic Low is a semi-permanent centre of low atmospheric pressure found between Iceland and southern Greenland and extending in the Northern Hemisphere winter into the Barents Sea.
Icing on ships is a serious hazard where cold temperatures (below about) combined with high wind speed (typically force 8 or above on the Beaufort scale) result in spray blown off the sea freezing immediately on contact with the ship.
Igarka (Ига́рка) is a town in Turukhansky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located north of the Arctic Circle.
Independence I was a culture of Paleo-Eskimos who lived in northern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic between 2400 and 1000 BC.
Independence II was a Paleo-Eskimo culture that flourished in northern and northeastern Greenland from around 700 to 80 BC, north and south of the Independence Fjord.
The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental organization which is composed of international science groups participating in arctic science research.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
Inuvik (place of man) is a town in the Northwest Territories of Canada and is the administrative centre for the Inuvik Region.
Isaac Israel Hayes (March 5, 1832 – December 17, 1881) was an Arctic explorer, physician and politician.
Johann Baptist Homann (20 March 1664 – 1 July 1724) was a German geographer and cartographer, who also made maps of the Americas.
Johannes Ruysch (c. 1460? in Utrecht – 1533 in Cologne), a.k.a. Johann Ruijsch or Giovanni Ruisch was an explorer, cartographer, astronomer, manuscript illustrator and painter from the Low Countries who produced a famous map of the world: the second oldest known printed representation of the New World.
The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.
(Finnish and, Киркенес) is a town in Sør-Varanger Municipality in Finnmark county, in the far northeastern part of Norway.
Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador, Danish: Labradorhavet) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between the Labrador Peninsula and Greenland.
Labytnangi (Лабытна́нги; from Khanty: лапыт нангк; lit. seven larches) is a town in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the left bank of the Ob River, northwest of Salekhard.
The Laptev Sea (r; Лаптевтар байҕаллара) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).
The lion's mane jellyfish, also known as the giant jellyfish or the hair jelly, is the largest known species of jellyfish.
Litke Deep (Жолоб Ли́тке.) is.
The Lomonosov Ridge (Хребет Ломоносова, Lomonosovryggen) is an unusual underwater ridge of continental crust in the Arctic Ocean.
Longyearbyen ((literally The Longyear Town) is the largest settlement and the administrative centre of Svalbard, Norway., the town had a population of 2,144. Longyearbyen is located in the Longyear Valley and on the shore of Adventfjorden, a bay of Isfjorden located on the west coast of Spitsbergen. Since 2002, Longyearbyen Community Council has had many of the same responsibilities of a municipality, including utilities, education, cultural facilities, fire brigade, roads and ports. The town is the seat of the Governor of Svalbard. It is the world's northernmost settlement of any kind with more than 1,000 permanent residents. Known as Longyear City until 1926, the town was established by and named after John Munro Longyear, whose Arctic Coal Company started coal mining operations in 1906. Operations were taken over by Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani (SNSK) in 1916, which still conducts mining. The town was almost completely destroyed by the German Kriegsmarine on 8 August 1943, but was rebuilt after the Second World War. Traditionally, Longyearbyen was a company town, but most mining operations have moved to Sveagruva since the 1990s, while the town has seen a large increase in tourism and research. This has seen the arrival of institutions such as the University Centre in Svalbard, the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and Svalbard Satellite Station. The community is served by Svalbard Airport and Svalbard Church.
The Mackenzie River (Slavey language: Deh-Cho, big river or Inuvialuktun: Kuukpak, great river; fleuve (de) Mackenzie) is the longest river system in Canada, and has the second largest drainage basin of any North American river after the Mississippi River.
The Makarov Basin is a seafloor basin in the Arctic Ocean, part of the Amerasian Basin.
Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Martin Waldseemüller (Latinized as Martinus Ilacomylus, Ilacomilus or Hylacomylus; c. 1470 – 16 March 1520) was a German cartographer.
Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806February 1, 1873) was an American astronomer, United States Navy officer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.
A mediterranean sea is, in oceanography, a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of water with outer oceans and with water circulation dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Meltwater is water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over oceans.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nanisivik (Inuktitut syllabics: ᓇᓂᓯᕕᒃ, translation for the place where people find things) was a company town which was built in 1975 to support the lead-zinc mining and mineral processing operations for the Nanisivik Mine, in production between 1976 and 2002.
The Nanisivik Naval Facility is a Canadian Forces naval facility which is to be constructed on Baffin Island, Nunavut.
The Nansen Basin (also Central Basin, formerly Fram Basin) is an abyssal plain with water-depths of around 3 km in the Arctic Ocean and (together with the deeper Amundsen Basin) part of the Eurasian Basin.
The National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC, is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.
A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.
Nordicity is the degree of northernness.
The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping route officially defined by Russian legislation as lying east of Novaya Zemlya and specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.
The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Current (also known as the Norwegian Coastal Current) is a water current that flows northeasterly along the Atlantic coast of Norway at depths of between 50 and 100 metres through the Barents Sea Opening into the Barents Sea.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
Nuuk (Godthåb) is the capital and largest city of Greenland and the municipality of Sermersooq.
Nuuk Port and Harbour is the largest port in Greenland.
The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The Open Polar Sea was a hypothesized ice-free ocean surrounding the North Pole.
The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies is an energy research institution which was founded in 1982, and serves a worldwide audience with its research, guides understanding of all major energy issues.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "" was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Pevek (Певе́к; Chukchi: Пээкин / Пээк) is an Arctic port town and the administrative center of Chaunsky District in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on Chaunskaya Bay (part of the East Siberian Sea) on a peninsula on the eastern side of the bay facing the Routan Islands, above the Arctic Circle, about northwest of Anadyr, the administrative center of the autonomous okrug.
The gunnels are a family, Pholidae, of marine fishes in the order Perciformes.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Polar Geography is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the physical and human aspects of the Polar regions.
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.
The polar night occurs in the northernmost and southernmost regions of the Earth when the night lasts for more than 24 hours.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
A polar route is an aircraft route across the uninhabited polar ice cap regions.
The Port of Churchill in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada is a port on Hudson Bay, part of the Arctic Ocean and connected to the North Atlantic.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
The Pre-Dorset is a loosely defined term for a Paleo-Eskimo culture or group of cultures that existed in the Eastern Canadian Arctic from c. 3200 to 850 cal BC, and preceded the Dorset culture.
Prudhoe Bay or Sagavanirktok is a census-designated place (CDP) located in North Slope Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
Salekhard (Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават, Pułñawat; Саляʼ харад, Salja’ harad - lit. house on a peninsula) is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
The Saqqaq culture (named after the Saqqaq settlement, the site of many archaeological finds) was a Paleo-Eskimo culture in southern Greenland.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.
Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The "Seven Seas" (as in the idiom "sail the Seven Seas") is an ancient phrase for all of the world's oceans.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April.
The Siberian Shelf, one of the Arctic Ocean coastal shelves (such as the Milne Ice Shelf), is the largest continental shelf of the Earth, a part of the continental shelf of Russia.
Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet, FRS, FRGS (19 June 1764 – 23 November 1848) was an English statesman and writer.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
SS Baychimo is a steel-hulled 1,322 ton cargo steamer built in 1914 in Sweden and owned by the Hudson's Bay Company, used to trade provisions for pelts in Inuit settlements along the Victoria Island coast of the Northwest Territories of Canada.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.
A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The Arctic consists of land, internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and high seas.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Thomas Nilsen (29 August 1968) is a Norwegian journalist who has extensively covered oil drilling in the Arctic region.
Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.
The Thule or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Inuit.
Tiksi (ˈtʲiksʲɪ; Тиксии, Tiksii – lit. a moorage place) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Bulunsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, southeast of the delta of the Lena River.
Tuktoyaktuk, or Tuktuyaaqtuuq (Inuvialuktun: it looks like a caribou), is an Inuvialuit hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, at the northern terminus of the Inuvik-Tuktoyaktuk Highway.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.
The Russia – United States maritime boundary de facto follows the June 1, 1990 USA/USSR Maritime Boundary Agreement (since Russia declared itself to be the successor of the Soviet Union), but it has yet to be approved by the Russian parliament.
(also Vuoreija, Vuorea, Várggát) is a municipality in Finnmark county in the extreme northeastern part of Norway.
Sir Walter William "Wally" Herbert (24 October 1934 – 12 June 2007) was a British polar explorer, writer and artist.
The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
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