Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Area rule

Index Area rule

The Whitcomb area rule, also called the transonic area rule, is a design technique used to reduce an aircraft's drag at transonic and supersonic speeds, particularly between Mach 0.75 and 1.2. [1]

64 relations: Adolf Busemann, Aerodynamics, Airbus A380, Aircraft, Airliner, Anti-shock body, Armstrong Whitworth, Blackburn Buccaneer, Boeing 747, Bomber, California Institute of Technology, Cessna Citation X, Concorde, Convair 990 Coronado, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, Convair F-106 Delta Dart, Critical Mach number, Cross section (geometry), Dietrich Küchemann, Drag (physics), Eureka (word), Fastest propeller-driven aircraft, Fixed-wing aircraft, Focke-Wulf 1000x1000x1000, Germany, Intermodal container, Jet engine, Landing gear, Langley Research Center, Learjet 60, Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, Mach number, Mach wave, Messerschmitt P.1106, Messerschmitt P.1112, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Northrop F-5, Patent drawing, PDF, Power (physics), Prandtl–Glauert transformation, Richard T. Whitcomb, Rockwell B-1 Lancer, Schlieren photography, Sears–Haack body, Shock wave, Sonic boom, Sound barrier, Soviet Union, Speed of sound, ..., Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines, Supersonic speed, Swept wing, Trailing edge, Transonic, Tupolev Tu-114, Tupolev Tu-160, Tupolev Tu-95, United Kingdom, Wallace D. Hayes, Wave drag, Wind tunnel, Wing, World War II. Expand index (14 more) »

Adolf Busemann

Adolf Busemann (20 April 1901 – 3 November 1986) was a German aerospace engineer and influential Nazi-era pioneer in aerodynamics, specialising in supersonic airflows.

New!!: Area rule and Adolf Busemann · See more »


Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

New!!: Area rule and Aerodynamics · See more »

Airbus A380

The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.

New!!: Area rule and Airbus A380 · See more »


An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

New!!: Area rule and Aircraft · See more »


An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.

New!!: Area rule and Airliner · See more »

Anti-shock body

An anti-shock body (also known as Whitcomb body or Küchemann carrot) is a pod positioned on the leading edge or trailing edge of an aircraft's aerodynamic surfaces to reduce wave drag at transonic speeds (Mach 0.8–1.0).

New!!: Area rule and Anti-shock body · See more »

Armstrong Whitworth

Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century.

New!!: Area rule and Armstrong Whitworth · See more »

Blackburn Buccaneer

The Blackburn Buccaneer was a British carrier-borne attack aircraft designed in the 1950s for the Royal Navy (RN).

New!!: Area rule and Blackburn Buccaneer · See more »

Boeing 747

The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".

New!!: Area rule and Boeing 747 · See more »


A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.

New!!: Area rule and Bomber · See more »

California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

New!!: Area rule and California Institute of Technology · See more »

Cessna Citation X

The Cessna Citation X is an American long-range medium-sized business jet aircraft.

New!!: Area rule and Cessna Citation X · See more »


The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.

New!!: Area rule and Concorde · See more »

Convair 990 Coronado

The Convair 990 Coronado is an American narrow-body four-engined jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics, a stretched version of their earlier Convair 880 produced in response to a request from American Airlines.

New!!: Area rule and Convair 990 Coronado · See more »

Convair F-102 Delta Dagger

The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was an American interceptor aircraft that was built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s.

New!!: Area rule and Convair F-102 Delta Dagger · See more »

Convair F-106 Delta Dart

The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft of the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s.

New!!: Area rule and Convair F-106 Delta Dart · See more »

Critical Mach number

In aerodynamics, the critical Mach number (Mcr or M*) of an aircraft is the lowest Mach number at which the airflow over some point of the aircraft reaches the speed of sound, but does not exceed it.

New!!: Area rule and Critical Mach number · See more »

Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

New!!: Area rule and Cross section (geometry) · See more »

Dietrich Küchemann

Dietrich Küchemann CBE FRS FRAeS (11 September 1911 in Göttingen, Germany – 23 February 1976 in Farnham, England) was a German aerodynamicist who made several important contributions to the advancement of high-speed flight.

New!!: Area rule and Dietrich Küchemann · See more »

Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

New!!: Area rule and Drag (physics) · See more »

Eureka (word)

Eureka (Εύρηκα) is an interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention.

New!!: Area rule and Eureka (word) · See more »

Fastest propeller-driven aircraft

A number of aircraft have been claimed to be the fastest propeller-driven aircraft.

New!!: Area rule and Fastest propeller-driven aircraft · See more »

Fixed-wing aircraft

A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

New!!: Area rule and Fixed-wing aircraft · See more »

Focke-Wulf 1000x1000x1000

The Focke-Wulf 1000x1000x1000, also known as Focke-Wulf Fw 239, was a twin-jet bomber project for the Luftwaffe, designed by the Focke-Wulf aircraft manufacturing company during the last years of the Third Reich.

New!!: Area rule and Focke-Wulf 1000x1000x1000 · See more »


Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

New!!: Area rule and Germany · See more »

Intermodal container

An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo.

New!!: Area rule and Intermodal container · See more »

Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

New!!: Area rule and Jet engine · See more »

Landing gear

Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.

New!!: Area rule and Landing gear · See more »

Langley Research Center

Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley) located in Hampton, Virginia, United States, is the oldest of NASA's field centers.

New!!: Area rule and Langley Research Center · See more »

Learjet 60

The Learjet 60 is a mid-size cabin, medium-range business jet aircraft manufactured by Bombardier Aerospace in Wichita, Kansas.

New!!: Area rule and Learjet 60 · See more »

Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF).

New!!: Area rule and Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor · See more »

Mach number

In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.

New!!: Area rule and Mach number · See more »

Mach wave

In fluid dynamics, a Mach wave is a pressure wave traveling with the speed of sound caused by a slight change of pressure added to a compressible flow.

New!!: Area rule and Mach wave · See more »

Messerschmitt P.1106

The Messerschmitt P.1106 was a proposed German fighter aircraft project near the end of World War II.

New!!: Area rule and Messerschmitt P.1106 · See more »

Messerschmitt P.1112

The Messerschmitt P.1112 was a proposed German jet fighter, developed by Messerschmitt AG during the closing stages of World War II, and intended for use by the Luftwaffe.

New!!: Area rule and Messerschmitt P.1112 · See more »

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.

New!!: Area rule and National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics · See more »

Northrop F-5

The Northrop F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter and the F-5E and F-5F Tiger II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.

New!!: Area rule and Northrop F-5 · See more »

Patent drawing

A patent application or patent may contain drawings, also called patent drawings, illustrating the invention, some of its embodiments (which are particular implementations or methods of carrying out the invention), or the prior art.

New!!: Area rule and Patent drawing · See more »


The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

New!!: Area rule and PDF · See more »

Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

New!!: Area rule and Power (physics) · See more »

Prandtl–Glauert transformation

The Prandtl–Glauert transformation is a mathematical technique which allows solving certain compressible flow problems by incompressible-flow calculation methods.

New!!: Area rule and Prandtl–Glauert transformation · See more »

Richard T. Whitcomb

Richard Travis Whitcomb (February 21, 1921 – October 13, 2009) was an American aeronautical engineer who was noted for his contributions to the science of aerodynamics.

New!!: Area rule and Richard T. Whitcomb · See more »

Rockwell B-1 Lancer

The Rockwell B-1 LancerThe name "Lancer" is only applied to the B-1B version, after the program was revived.

New!!: Area rule and Rockwell B-1 Lancer · See more »

Schlieren photography

Schlieren photography (from German; singular "Schliere", meaning "streak") is a visual process that is used to photograph the flow of fluids of varying density.

New!!: Area rule and Schlieren photography · See more »

Sears–Haack body

The Sears–Haack body is the shape with the lowest theoretical wave drag in supersonic flow, for a given body length and given volume.

New!!: Area rule and Sears–Haack body · See more »

Shock wave

In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.

New!!: Area rule and Shock wave · See more »

Sonic boom

A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object traveling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound.

New!!: Area rule and Sonic boom · See more »

Sound barrier

The sound barrier or sonic barrier is a popular term for the sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other effects experienced by an aircraft or other object when it approaches supersonic speed.

New!!: Area rule and Sound barrier · See more »

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

New!!: Area rule and Soviet Union · See more »

Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

New!!: Area rule and Speed of sound · See more »

Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines

Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow.

New!!: Area rule and Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines · See more »

Supersonic speed

Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).

New!!: Area rule and Supersonic speed · See more »

Swept wing

A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.

New!!: Area rule and Swept wing · See more »

Trailing edge

The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge rejoins.

New!!: Area rule and Trailing edge · See more »


In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air through which the vehicle is traveling.

New!!: Area rule and Transonic · See more »

Tupolev Tu-114

The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya (Tyполев Тy-114 Poccия) (NATO reporting name Cleat) was a turboprop-powered long-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau and built in the USSR from May 1955.

New!!: Area rule and Tupolev Tu-114 · See more »

Tupolev Tu-160

The Tupolev Tu-160 (White Swan; NATO reporting name: Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.

New!!: Area rule and Tupolev Tu-160 · See more »

Tupolev Tu-95

The Tupolev Tu-95 (Туполев Ту-95; NATO reporting name: "Bear") is a large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform.

New!!: Area rule and Tupolev Tu-95 · See more »

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

New!!: Area rule and United Kingdom · See more »

Wallace D. Hayes

Wallace D. Hayes (b. September 4, 1918 – d. March 2, 2001) was a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton University and one of the world's leading theoretical aerodynamicists, whose numerous and fundamental contributions to the theories of supersonic and hypersonic flow and wave motion strongly influenced the design of aircraft at supersonic speeds and missiles at hypersonic speeds.

New!!: Area rule and Wallace D. Hayes · See more »

Wave drag

In aeronautics, wave drag is a component of the aerodynamic drag on aircraft wings and fuselage, propeller blade tips and projectiles moving at transonic and supersonic speeds, due to the presence of shock waves.

New!!: Area rule and Wave drag · See more »

Wind tunnel

A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.

New!!: Area rule and Wind tunnel · See more »


A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.

New!!: Area rule and Wing · See more »

World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

New!!: Area rule and World War II · See more »

Redirects here:

Coke bottle shape, Supersonic area rule, Transonic area rule, Whitcomb area rule.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_rule

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »