38 relations: Ad hominem, Albert Einstein, American Journal of Trial Advocacy, Apollo's Arrow, Argument, Argumentum ad lazarum, Asch conformity experiments, Authority, Authority bias, Ballantine Books, Camel (cigarette), Carl Sagan, Chromosome, Cognitive bias, Confirmation bias, Credentialism and educational inflation, Defeasible reasoning, Donald Green, Graduate school, Groupthink, Inductive reasoning, Ipse dixit, Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, Milgram experiment, Name-dropping, National Academy of Sciences, National Association of Biology Teachers, Nature Reviews Genetics, Philosophical problems of testimony, Physics, Princeton University Press, Psychological stress, The Skeptic's Dictionary, Theophilus Painter, University of Exeter, University of Texas at El Paso, When contact changes minds, Woozle effect.
Ad hominem (Latin for "to the man" or "to the person"), short for argumentum ad hominem, is a fallacious argumentative strategy whereby genuine discussion of the topic at hand is avoided by instead attacking the character, motive, or other attribute of the person making the argument, or persons associated with the argument, rather than attacking the substance of the argument itself.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The American Journal of Trial Advocacy is a law review edited and published by students at Cumberland School of Law.
Apollo’s Arrow: The Science of Prediction and the Future of Everything is a non-fiction book about prediction written by Canadian author and mathematician David Orrell.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Argumentum ad lazarum or appeal to poverty is the informal fallacy of thinking a conclusion is correct solely because the speaker is poor, or it is incorrect because the speaker is rich.
In psychology, the Asch conformity experiments or the Asch Paradigm refers to a series of studies directed by Solomon Asch studying if and how individuals yielded to or defied a majority group and the effect of such influences on beliefs and opinions.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
Authority bias is the tendency to attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure (unrelated to its content) and be more influenced by that opinion.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
Camel is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and by Japan Tobacco outside of the United States.
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.
Credentialism and educational inflation are any of a number of related processes involving increased demands for formal educational qualifications, and the devaluation of these qualifications.
In logic, defeasible reasoning is a kind of reasoning that is rationally compelling, though not deductively valid.
Donald Philip Green (born June 23, 1961) is a political scientist and quantitative methodologist at Columbia University.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Ipse dixit (Latin for "he said it himself") is an assertion without proof; or a dogmatic expression of opinion.
The "Manifesto of the Ninety-Three" is the name commonly given to a 4 October 1914, proclamation endorsed by 93 prominent German scientists, scholars and artists, declaring their unequivocal support of German military actions in the early period of World War I. These actions were elsewhere called the Rape of Belgium.
The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram.
Name-dropping is the practice of naming or alluding to important people and institutions within a conversation,.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) is an American-based scholarly society.
Nature Reviews Genetics is a monthly review journal in genetics and covers the full breadth of modern genetics.
In philosophy, testimony includes any words or utterances that are presented as evidence for the claims they express.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
The Skeptic's Dictionary is a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, published on his website skepdic.com and in a printed book.
Theophilus Shickel Painter (August 22, 1889 – October 5, 1969) was an American zoologist best-known for his work on the structure and function of chromosomes, especially the sex-determination genes X and Y in humans.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is a public research university in El Paso, Texas, United States.
"When contact changes minds: An experiment on transmission of support for gay equality" is an article by then-UCLA political science graduate student Michael LaCour and Columbia University political science professor Donald Green.
The Woozle effect, also known as evidence by citation,.
Ad verecundiam, Appeal to Authority, Appeal to authority, Appeal to authority fallacy, Appeal to authrority, Appeal to false authority, Appeal to inappropriate authority, Appeal to misleading authority, Appeal to superiority, Appeal to testimony, Appeal to unqualified authority, Appeals to authority, Argument by Authority, Argument by abundant testimony, Argument by appeal to the wisdom of Peter, Argument by authority, Argument from supported authorities, Argument to authority, Argument to respect, Arguments from authority, Argumentum ab auctoritate, Argumentum ad verecundiam, Autos ephe, Credential fallacy, Eminence-based decision-making, Eminence-based medicine, False appeal to authority, False authority, Inverse ad hominem, Logical fallacy/Appeal to Authority, Logical fallacy/Appeal to authority, Pro hominem, Proof by authority, Proof by tenure, Verecundiam.