416 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Accident (philosophy), Adaptation, Aeolian Islands, Aesop, Aesthetics, Aether (classical element), Age of Enlightenment, Air (classical element), Al-Farabi, Al-Kindi, Alabaster, Alasdair MacIntyre, Alberto Jori, Alcmaeon of Croton, Alessandro Turchi, Alexander (2004 film), Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Amyntas III of Macedon, Anachronism, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient philosophy, Andronicus of Rhodes, Animal, Anna Komnene, Ant, Antarctica, Antipater, Aperture, Apostolic Palace, Archimedes, Archimedes' principle, Arete, Argonaut (animal), Aristoteles (crater), Aristotelian physics, Aristotelian Society, Aristotelianism, Aristotle (Ribera painting), Aristotle for Everybody, Aristotle Mountains, Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, Aristotle's biology, Aristoxenus, Armand Marie Leroi, Artery, Astronomy, Atomism, ..., August Böckh, August Immanuel Bekker, Australian Antarctic Division, Averroes, Avicenna, Ayn Rand, Bee-eater, Bertrand Russell, Biological rules, Biology, Bird, Bivalvia, Boethius, Boolean algebra, Botany, Bryan Magee, Cambridge University Press, Camera obscura, Campaspe, Carlo Rovelli, Cassander, Catfish, Catharsis, Catholic Church, Celestial spheres, Cephalopod, Cetacea, Chalcidian League, Chalcis, Chalkidiki, Chameleon, Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell, Charonia variegata, Christian theology, Cicada, Cicero, Cinema of the United States, Circa, Circulatory system, Classical element, Classical Greece, Classical mechanics, Claudius Aelianus, Cockle (bivalve), Collins English Dictionary, Common descent, Common fig, Common sense, Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica, Conimbricenses, Convergent evolution, Cornell University, Crab, Critique of Pure Reason, Crocodile, Crustacean, Dante Alighieri, Deductive reasoning, Deliberative rhetoric, Demetrius of Phalerum, Democritus, Department of the Environment and Energy, Developmental biology, Dialectic, Dicaearchus, Dithyramb, Divine Comedy, Dolphin, Duck, Early Christianity, Early Middle Ages, Early modern period, Earth, Earth (classical element), Economics, Electric ray, Empedocles, Empiricism, Enthymeme, Epic poetry, Epideictic, Epistemology, Ernst Mayr, Essence, Ethics, Ethnocentrism, Ethology, Ethos, Euboea, Eudaimonia, Eudemus of Rhodes, Eugene Gendlin, Eurymedon the Hierophant, Evolution, Executor, Exoteric, Extinction, Fecundity, Felix Jacoby, Feminist metaphysics, Fire (classical element), Fish, Forensic rhetoric, Formal system, Four causes, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, Francesco Hayez, Fresco, Friction, Friedrich Nietzsche, Frogfish, Fruit anatomy, Function (biology), Gail Fine, Galen, Galileo Galilei, Gas, Gastropoda, Generation of Animals, Genomics, Genus–differentia definition, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geology, George Boole, Gerard of Cremona, Government, Government of Australia, Great chain of being, Greece, Greek language, Gynoecium, Hagnothemis, Hans Baldung, Hare, Harpalus, Hectocotylus, Hephaestion, Hermias of Atarneus, Heron, Herophilos, Herpyllis, Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus), History of Animals, Homer, Houndshark, Human nature, Hybrid (biology), Hylomorphism, Hypokeimenon, Ice skating, Immanuel Kant, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Inductive reasoning, Interest, International Academy of the History of Science, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Invertebrate, Iran, Islamic philosophy, J. L. Ackrill, James of Venice, Jean Buridan, Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder, John Philoponus, Jonathan Barnes, Jonathan Jones (journalist), Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400), Jusepe de Ribera, Justus van Gent, Kinematics, Late antiquity, Laws of association, Lesbos, Life expectancy, Linguistics, Lionel Robbins, Liquid, List of mammalian gestation durations, Logic, Logical consequence, Logos, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Lucretius, Lyceum, Lyceum (Classical), Lysippos, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mammal, Mantle (clothing), Martin Heidegger, Mathematical logic, Mechanism (biology), Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Meteorology (Aristotle), Michael of Ephesus, Middle Ages, Milky Way, Mimesis, Mineral, Misogyny, Mnason of Phocis, Mnemonic, Mollusca, Money, Movement of Animals, Music, Myles Burnyeat, National Antarctic Research Program, Natural science, Natural theology, Neoplatonism, Newton's laws of motion, Nicomachean Ethics, Nicomachus (father of Aristotle), Nicomachus (son of Aristotle), Nightjar, Nile Delta, Nous, Nuremberg Chronicle, Octopus, On Generation and Corruption, On the Soul, Ontogeny, Ontology, Optics, Organon, Ovoviviparity, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Oxford University Press, Palaephatus, Paolo Veronese, Papyrus, Paradeigma, Particular, Parts of Animals, Pathos, Pederasty in ancient Greece, Perception, Peripatetic school, Peter Abelard, Peter Medawar, Phenomenon, Philip II of Macedon, Philosopher, Phronesis, Phylogenetic tree, Physics, Physics (Aristotle), Physiology, Placenta, Plant, Plasma (physics), Plato, Platonic Academy, Platonism, Plutarch, Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry, Polis, Politics, Politics (Aristotle), Potentiality and actuality, Premise, Prior Analytics, Private property, Problems (Aristotle), Prodicus, Profit (economics), Proof (truth), Property, Protrepticus (Aristotle), Proxenus of Atarneus, Psychology, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy I Soter, Pulse, Pythia, Pythias, Raphael, Reductio ad absurdum, Rembrandt, Renaissance, Reptile, Retail, Rhetoric, Ruminant, Scholasticism, Schools of Islamic theology, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Scroll, Sea bass, Sexism, Shark, Shrimp, Silver, Skate (fish), Snake, Social contract, Solid, Sophist (dialogue), Sotheby's, Soul, Sparisoma cretense, Speciation, Speusippus, Sponge, Spontaneous generation, Squid, Stagira (ancient city), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State of matter, State of nature, Stephanus of Alexandria, Stephen Halliwell (academic), Stimulus (psychology), Substance theory, Suda, Summa Theologica, Syllogism, Syntax, Teleology, Terence Irwin, The Bodley Head, The Canterbury Tales, The Guardian, The Laws of Thought, The School of Athens, The Story of Philosophy, The tale of Phyllis and Aristotle, Theophrastus, Theory of forms, Theory of impetus, Therefore sign, Thessaloniki, Thomas Aquinas, Tinbergen's four questions, Trade, Treatise, Trial of Socrates, Tufts University, Types of volcanic eruptions, Uniformitarianism, Universality (philosophy), Utility, Vacuum, Validity, Vanishing point, Vein, Vertebrate, Vipera xanthina, Virtue ethics, Viviparity, W. D. Ross, Water (classical element), Western esotericism, Western philosophy, Whale, Will and testament, William Harvey, William of Moerbeke, Wired (magazine), Worm, Xenocrates, Zoology. Expand index (366 more) » « Shrink index
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
An accident, in philosophy, is an attribute that may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
The Aeolian Islands (Isole Eolie,, Ìsuli Eoli, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.
Aesop (Αἴσωπος,; c. 620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and storyteller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Alberto Jori (born 1965), is an Italian Neo-Aristotelian philosopher.
Alcmaeon of Croton (in Magna Graecia) (Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, Alkmaiōn, gen.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; 5th century BC) has been described as one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity.
Alessandro Turchi (1578 – 22 January 1649) was an Italian painter of the early Baroque, born and active mainly in Verona, and moving late in life to Rome.
Alexander is a 2004 epic historical drama film based on the life of the Macedonian general and king Alexander the Great.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Amyntas III (Greek: Ἀμύντας Γ΄; died 370 BC) was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon in 393 BC, and again from 392 to 370 BC.
An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Andronicus of Rhodes (Ἀνδρόνικος ὁ Ῥόδιος, Andrónikos ho Rhódios; Andronicus Rhodius; BC) was a Greek philosopher from Rhodes who was also the scholarch (head) of the Peripatetic school.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anna Komnene (Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1153), commonly latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and historian.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antipater (Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
The Apostolic Palace (Palatium Apostolicum; Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope and Bishop of Rome, which is located in Vatican City.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.
Arete (Greek: ἀρετή), in its basic sense, means "excellence of any kind".
The argonauts (genus Argonauta, the only extant genus in the family Argonautidae) are a group of pelagic octopuses.
Aristoteles is a lunar impact crater that lies near the southern edge of the Mare Frigoris and to the east of the Montes Alpes mountain range.
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle is a 1637 oil painting by Spanish artist Jusepe de Ribera, located in the Indianapolis Museum of Art, which is in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Aristotle for Everybody: Difficult Thought Made Easy is a book written by Mortimer J. Adler as an informal introduction to the ideas of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle.
Aristotle Mountains is the fan-shaped sequence of ridges spreading east-northeastwards from its summit Madrid Dome (1650 m) on Oscar II Coast in Graham Land on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, also known as Aristotle Contemplating a Bust of Homer, is an oil-on-canvas painting by Rembrandt.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
Aristoxenus of Tarentum (Ἀριστόξενος ὁ Ταραντῖνος; born c. 375, fl. 335 BCE) was a Greek Peripatetic philosopher, and a pupil of Aristotle.
Armand Marie Leroi (born 16 July 1964) is an author, broadcaster, and professor of evolutionary developmental biology at Imperial College in London. He has written a book and presented television programs on Aristotle's biology.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
August Böckh or Boeckh (24 November 1785 – 3 August 1867) was a German classical scholar and antiquarian.
August Immanuel Bekker (21 May 17857 June 1871) was a German philologist and critic.
The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) is a division of the Department of the Environment.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
The bee-eaters are a group of near-passerine birds in the family Meropidae containing three genera and 27 species.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
A biological rule or biological law is a generalized law, principle, or rule of thumb formulated to describe patterns observed in living organisms.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bryan Edgar Magee (born 12 April 1930) is a British philosopher, broadcaster, politician, author, and poet, best known as a popularizer of philosophy.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camera obscura (plural camera obscura or camera obscuras; from Latin, meaning "dark room": camera "(vaulted) chamber or room," and obscura "darkened, dark"), also referred to as pinhole image, is the natural optical phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen (or for instance a wall) is projected through a small hole in that screen as a reversed and inverted image (left to right and upside down) on a surface opposite to the opening.
Campaspe (Greek Καμπάσπη), or Pancaste, was a mistress of Alexander the Great and a prominent citizen of Larissa.
Carlo Rovelli (born 3 May 1956) is an Italian theoretical physicist, philosopher and writer who has worked in Italy, the United States and since 2000, in France.
Cassander (Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, Kassandros Antipatrou; "son of Antipatros": c. 350 BC – 297 BC), was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, and de facto ruler of much of Greece from 317 BC until his death.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
Catharsis (from Greek κάθαρσις meaning "purification" or "cleansing") is the purification and purgation of emotions—particularly pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
The Chalcidian League (Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, Koinon tōn Chalkideōn, "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians or the Chalcidians in Thrace (Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπί Θρᾴκης, Chalkideis epi Thrakēs) to distinguish them from the Chalcidians in Euboea, was a federal state that existed on the Chalcidice peninsula, on the shores of the northwest Aegean Sea, from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE.
Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
Charonia variegata, the Atlantic triton or Atlantic triton's trumpet, is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Ranellidae, the triton snails, triton shells, or tritons.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Claudius Aelianus (Κλαύδιος Αἰλιανός; c. 175c. 235 AD), commonly Aelian, born at Praeneste, was a Roman author and teacher of rhetoric who flourished under Septimius Severus and probably outlived Elagabalus, who died in 222.
A cockle is a small, edible, marine bivalve mollusc.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
The Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica (CGA) of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is the authoritative international gazetteer containing all the Antarctic toponyms published in national gazetteers, plus basic information about those names and the relevant geographical features.
The Conimbricenses were the Jesuits of the University of Coimbra in Coimbra, Portugal.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Deliberative rhetoric (sometimes called legislative oratory) is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or policy.
Demetrius of Phalerum (also Demetrius of Phaleron or Demetrius Phalereus; Δημήτριος ὁ Φαληρεύς; c. 350 – c. 280 BC) was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus, and perhaps of Aristotle, himself, and one of the first Peripatetics.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
The Department of the Environment and Energy is an Australian government department.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dicaearchus of Messana (Δικαίαρχος Dikaiarkhos), also written Dicearchus or Dicearch, was a Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author.
The dithyramb (διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god: Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb." Plato also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
An enthymeme (ἐνθύμημα, enthumēma) is a rhetorical syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) used in oratorical practice.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
The epideictic oratory, also called ceremonial oratory, or praise-and-blame rhetoric, is one of the three branches, or "species" (eidē), of rhetoric as outlined in Aristotle's Rhetoric, to be used to praise or blame during ceremonies.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Eudemus of Rhodes (Εὔδημος) was an ancient Greek philosopher, considered the first historian of science, who lived from c. 370 BC until c. 300 BC.
Eugene T. Gendlin (born Eugen Gendelin in Vienna, Austria; 25 December 1926 – 1 May 2017) was an American philosopher who developed ways of thinking about and working with living process, the bodily felt sense and the 'philosophy of the implicit'.
Eurymedon the Hierophant (Εὐρυμέδων ὁ ἱεροφάντης) was a representative of the priestly clan overseeing the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An executor is someone who is responsible for executing, or following through on, an assigned task or duty.
Exoteric refers to knowledge that is outside, and independent from, a person's experience and can be ascertained by anyone (related to common sense).
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
Felix Jacoby (19 March 1876 – 10 November 1959) was a German classicist and philologist.
Where metaphysics tries to explain what is the universe and what it is like, feminist metaphysics questions how metaphysical answers have supported sexism.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Forensic rhetoric, as coined in Aristotle's On Rhetoric, encompasses any discussion of past action including legal discourse—the primary setting for the emergence of rhetoric as a discipline and theory.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".
Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, commonly abbreviated FGrHist or FGrH (Fragments of the Greek Historians), is a collection by Felix Jacoby of the works of those ancient Greek historians whose works have been lost, but of which we have citations, extracts or summaries.
Francesco Hayez (10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Frogfishes are any member of the anglerfish family Antennariidae, of the order Lophiiformes.
Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit.
In biology, function has been defined in many ways.
Gail Fine is a professor of philosophy at Cornell University.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
The Generation of Animals (or On the Generation of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων γενέσεως; Latin De Generatione Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
A genus–differentia definition is a type of intensional definition, and it is composed of two parts.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.
Gerard of Cremona (Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. 1114 – 1187) was an Italian translator of scientific books from Arabic into Latin.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
According to Plutarch, six years after Alexander the Great's death Hagnothemis claimed that Antipater was responsible for poisoning Alexander, and that it was Aristotle who instigated this and procured the poison.
Hans Baldung Grien or Grün (September 1545) was a German artist in painting and printmaking who was considered the most gifted student of Albrecht Dürer.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Harpalus (Greek: Ἅρπαλος) son of Machatas was an aristocrat of Macedon and boyhood friend of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.
A hectocotylus (plural: hectocotyli) is one of the arms of male cephalopods that is specialized to store and transfer spermatophores to the female.
Hephaestion (Ἡφαιστίων Hephaistíon; c. 356 BC – 324 BC), son of Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a general in the army of Alexander the Great.
Hermias of Atarneus (Ἑρμίας ὁ Ἀταρνεύς), who lived in Atarneus, was Aristotle's father-in-law.
The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons.
Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.
Herpyllis of Stagira (Ἑρπυλλίς) was Aristotle's mistress after his wife, Pythias, died (Herpyllis was formerly a slave of Pythias).
Theophrastus's Enquiry into Plants or Historia Plantarum (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία, Peri phyton historia) was, along with his mentor Aristotle's History of Animals, Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, one of the most important books of natural history written in ancient times, and like them it was influential in the Renaissance.
History of Animals (Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy in Athens.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Houndsharks, the Triakidae, are a family of ground sharks, consisting of about 40 species in nine genera.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Hypokeimenon (Greek: ὑποκείμενον), later often material substratum, is a term in metaphysics which literally means the "underlying thing" (Latin: subiectum).
Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The Indianapolis Museum of Art (known colloquially as the IMA) is an encyclopedic art museum located in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.
The International Academy of the History of Science (Académie Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences) is a membership organization for historians of science.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
John Lloyd Ackrill FBA (30 December 1921 – 30 November 2007) was an English philosopher and classicist who specialized in Ancient Greek philosophy, especially the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle.
James of Venice was a significant translator of Aristotle of the twelfth century.
Jean Buridan (Latin: Johannes Buridanus; –) was an influential 14th century French philosopher.
Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder, who was born at Ehrenstetten, near Freiburg in Breisgau, in 1741, was at first a pupil of Rösch at Freiburg and of Ignaz Bauer at Augsburg.
John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
Jonathan Barnes, FBA (born 26 December 1942 in Wenlock, Shropshire) is an English scholar of ancient philosophy.
Jonathan Jones is a British art critic who has written for The Guardian since 1999.
This article covers the influence of Jewish and Islamic philosophy on each other, focusing especially on the period from 800–1400 CE.
Jusepe de Ribera (baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera.
Justus van Gent or Joos van Wassenhove (also: Justus or Jodocus of Ghent, or Giusto da Guanto) (c. 1410 – c. 1480) was an Early Netherlandish painter who after training and working in Flanders later moved to Italy where he worked for the duke of Urbino.
Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The principal laws of association are contiguity, repetition, attention, pleasure-pain, and similarity.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist, and prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 – 16 October 1553) was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe.
The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").
Lysippos (Λύσιππος) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mantle (from mantellum, the Latin term for a cloak) is a type of loose garment usually worn over indoor clothing to serve the same purpose as an overcoat.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
In the science of biology, a mechanism is a system of causally interacting parts and processes that produce one or more effects.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Meteorology (Greek: Μετεωρολογικά; Latin: Meteorologica or Meteora) is a treatise by Aristotle.
Michael of Ephesus or Michael Ephesius (Μιχαήλ Ἐφέσιος; fl. early or mid-12th century AD) wrote important commentaries on Aristotle, including the first full commentary on the Sophistical Refutations, which established the regular study of that text.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
Mnason of Phocis (Μνάσων) was the son of Mnaseas, who took command of the Phokian army after the death of Phayllus.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Movement of Animals (or On the Motion of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων κινήσεως; Latin De Motu Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Myles Fredric Burnyeat CBE FBA (born 1 January 1939) is an English scholar of ancient philosophy.
National Antarctic Research Program (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide or PNRA) is the Italian Antarctic research program.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Nicomachus (Νικόμαχος; fl. c. 375 BC) was the father of Aristotle.
Nicomachus (Νικόμαχος; fl. c. 325 BC) was the son of Aristotle.
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal or crepuscular birds in the family Caprimulgidae, characterized by long wings, short legs and very short bills.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible; it includes the histories of a number of important Western cities.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
On Generation and Corruption (Περὶ γενέσεως καὶ φθορᾶς; De Generatione et Corruptione), also known as On Coming to Be and Passing Away) is a treatise by Aristotle. Like many of his texts, it is both scientific, part of Aristotle's biology, and philosophic. The philosophy is essentially empirical; as in all of Aristotle's works, the deductions made about the unexperienced and unobservable are based on observations and real experiences. The question raised at the beginning of the text builds on an idea from Aristotle's earlier work The Physics. Namely, whether things come into being through causes, through some prime material, or whether everything is generated purely through "alteration." Alteration concerned itself with the ability for elements to change based on common and uncommon qualities. From this important work Aristotle gives us two of his most remembered contributions. First, the Four Causes and also the Four Elements (earth, wind, fire and water). He uses these four elements to provide an explanation for the theories of other Greeks concerning atoms, an idea Aristotle considered absurd.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The Organon (Greek: Ὄργανον, meaning "instrument, tool, organ") is the standard collection of Aristotle's six works on logic.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to the study of ancient philosophy.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palaephatus (Παλαίφατος) was the original author of a rationalizing text on Greek mythology, the work of paradoxography On Incredible Tales (Περὶ ἀπίστων (ἱστοριῶν); Peri apiston (historion); Incredibilia), which survives in a (probably corrupt) Byzantine edition.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Paradeigma (παραδειγμα) is a Greek term that refers to a pattern, example or sample.
In metaphysics, particulars are defined as concrete, spatiotemporal entities as opposed to abstract entities, such as properties or numbers.
Parts of Animals (or On the Parts of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων μορίων; Latin De Partibus Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.
Pathos (plural: pathea;, for "suffering" or "experience"; adjectival form: 'pathetic' from παθητικός) represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings that already reside in them.
Pederasty in ancient Greece was a socially acknowledged romantic relationship between an adult male (the erastes) and a younger male (the eromenos) usually in his teens.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Sir Peter Brian Medawar (28 February 1915 – 2 October 1987) was a British biologist born in Brazil, whose work on graft rejection and the discovery of acquired immune tolerance was fundamental to the practice of tissue and organ transplants.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Phronesis (phrónēsis) is an Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.
A premise or premiss is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
The Prior Analytics (Ἀναλυτικὰ Πρότερα; Analytica Priora) is Aristotle's work on deductive reasoning, which is known as his syllogistic.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
The Problems (Προβλήματα; Problemata) is an Aristotelian or possibly pseudo-Aristotelian, as its authenticity has been questioned, collection of problems written in a question and answer format.
Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
A proof is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Protrepticus (Προτρεπτικός) is a philosophical work by Aristotle that encouraged the young to study philosophy.
Proxenus of Atarneus (Πρόξενος ὁ Ἀταρνεύς) is most famous for being Aristotle's guardian after the death of his parents.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
Pythias (translit), also known as Pythias the Elder, was a Greek biologist and embryologist.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) is an interdisciplinary body of the International Council for Science (ICSU).
A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.
Sea bass is a common name for a variety of different species of marine fish.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
The Sophist (Σοφιστής; Sophista) is a Platonic dialogue from the philosopher's late period, most likely written in 360 BC.
Sotheby's is a British founded, American multinational corporation headquartered in New York City.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
The Mediterranean parrotfish (Sparisoma cretense) is a species of parrotfish found at depths up to along rocky shores in the Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic, from Portugal south to Senegal.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Speusippus (Σπεύσιππος; c. 408 – 339/8 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Stagira, Stagirus, or Stageira (Στάγειρα or Στάγειρος) was an ancient Greek city, located in central Macedonia, near the eastern coast of the peninsula of Chalkidice, and is chiefly known for being the birthplace of Aristotle, who was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
Stephanus of Alexandria (Stephanus Alexandrinus, Stephanos of Alexandria) was a 7th-century Byzantine philosopher, astronomer and teacher.
Francis Stephen Halliwell, (born 1953), known as Stephen Halliwell, is a British classicist and academic.
In psychology, a stimulus is any object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioral response in an organism.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
Terence Henry Irwin FBA (born 21 April 1947), usually cited as T. H. Irwin, is a scholar and philosopher specializing in ancient Greek philosophy and the history of ethics (i.e., the history of Western moral philosophy in ancient, medieval, and modern times).
The Bodley Head is an English publishing house, founded in 1887 and existing as an independent entity until the 1970s.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities by George Boole, published in 1854, is the second of Boole's two monographs on algebraic logic.
The School of Athens (Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael.
The Story of Philosophy: The Lives and Opinions of the Greater Philosophers is a 1926 book by Will Durant, in which he profiles several prominent Western philosophers and their ideas, beginning with Socrates and Plato and on through Friedrich Nietzsche.
The tale of Phyllis and Aristotle is a cautionary medieval tale about the triumph of a seductive woman, Phyllis, over the greatest male intellect, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
The theory of impetus was an auxiliary or secondary theory of Aristotelian dynamics, put forth initially to explain projectile motion against gravity.
In logical argument and mathematical proof, the therefore sign (∴) is generally used before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and based on Aristotle's four causes, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.
The trial of Socrates (399 BC) was held to determine the philosopher’s guilt of two charges: asebeia (impiety) against the pantheon of Athens, and corruption of the youth of the city-state; the accusers cited two impious acts by Socrates: “failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges” and “introducing new deities”.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.
In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.
A vanishing point is a point on the image plane of a perspective drawing where the two-dimensional perspective projections (or drawings) of mutually parallel lines in three-dimensional space appear to converge.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vipera xanthina is a venomous viper species found in northeastern Greece and Turkey, as well as certain islands in the Aegean Sea.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.
Sir William David Ross KBE FBA (15 April 1877 – 5 May 1971), known as David Ross but usually cited as W. D. Ross, was a Scottish philosopher who is known for his work in ethics.
Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
William of Moerbeke, O.P. (Willem van Moerbeke; Gulielmus de Moerbecum; 1215-35 – 1286), was a prolific medieval translator of philosophical, medical, and scientific texts from Greek language into Latin, enabled by the period of Latin rule of the Byzantine Empire.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
Xenocrates (Ξενοκράτης; c. 396/5314/3 BC) of Chalcedon was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and leader (scholarch) of the Platonic Academy from 339/8 to 314/3 BC.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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