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The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in April 1909.
The Vilayet of Adana (ولايت اطنه, Vilâyet-i Adana; was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the south-east of Asia Minor, which encompassed the region of Cilicia. It was established in May 1869. Adana Vilayet bordered with Konya Vilayet (in west), Ankara Vilayet and Sivas Vilayet (in north), and Haleb Vilayet (in east and south). Adana Vilayet corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey.
Adiss Harmandian (in Western Armenian:Ատիս Հարմանտեան) is a Lebanese-Armenian pop singer (born January 14, 1945 in Beirut, Lebanon) who now resides in Los Angeles, United States.
Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.
Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax, also AFC Ajax, Ajax Amsterdam or simply Ajax, is a Dutch professional football club based in Amsterdam.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agathangelos (in Ագաթանգեղոս Agatʿangełos, in Greek Ἀγαθάγγελος "bearer of good news" or angel, 4thEncyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge: Volume 2- 1961, p. 383. or 5th centuries AD) was a supposed secretary of Tiridates III, King of Armenia, under whose name there has come down a life of the first apostle of Armenia, Gregory the Illuminator, who died about 332.
Alain Boghossian (born 27 October 1970) is a retired French professional footballer, who played as a midfielder.
Alexander Movsesyan (Ալեքսանդր Մինասի Մովսիսյան; 18 April 1858 – 7 August 1935), better known by his pen name Alexander Shirvanzade (Ալեքսանդր Շիրվանզադե) was an Armenian playwright and novelist.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The American University of Armenia (AUA) (Հայաստանի ամերիկյան համալսարան, ՀԱՀ; Hayastani amerikyan hamalsaran, HAH) is a private independent university in Yerevan, Armenia.
Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις, (literally an "expedition up from")) is the most famous work, published in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.
Anahit (Անահիտ) was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andranik Ozanian, commonly known as Andranik (Անդրանիկ; 25 February 186531 August 1927) was an Armenian military commander and statesman, the best known fedayi and a key figure of the Armenian national liberation movement.
Andranik Eskandarian (Armenian: Անդրանիկ Իսքանտարեան, آندرانیک اسکندریان, born 31 December 1951 in Tehran) is a former Iranian-American footballer.
Andranik Timotian-Samarani, commonly known as Andranik "Ando" Teymourian (آندرانيک تیموریان, Ândrânik Teymuryân; Անդրանիկ Թէյմուրեան, Andranik T’eymurean, born 6 March 1983) is an Iranian footballer who currently plays for Gostaresh Foulad in the Persian Gulf Pro League and Iran national team.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Anna Kasyan (Աննա Կասյան) (born 7 October 1981) is a Georgian-born Armenian opera singer (soprano) living in France.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Ara Babloyan (Armenian:Արա Բաբլոյանը; born May 5, 1947) is an Armenian doctor pediatrician and politician, and the current President of the National Assembly of Armenia.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aragatzotn (Արագածոտն) is a province (marz) of Armenia.
Aram (Արամ, אַרָם) is an Armenian patriarch in the History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene), and a popular masculine name in Armenian.
Aram Il'yich Khachaturian (Ара́м Ильи́ч Хачатуря́н; Արամ Խաչատրյան, Aram Xačatryan;; 1 May 1978) was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor.
Aram Manukian (Արամ Մանուկեան, reformed spelling: Արամ Մանուկյան), also referred to as simply Aram (19 March 187929 January 1919), was an Armenian revolutionary, statesman, and a leading member of the nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) party.
Aram (’Ărām) is a son of Shem, according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 of the Hebrew Bible, and the father of Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash or Meshech.
Aramazd was the chief and creator god in pre-Christian Armenian mythology.
Ararat (Արարատ), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
Ararat (Արարատ), is a town and urban municipal community in the Ararat Province of Armenia, located on the Yerevan-Nakhchivan highway, southeast of the capital Yerevan and south of the provincial centre Artashat.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Ardahan (არტაანი, Art’aani; Արդահան, Ardahan) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.
The Areni-1 cave complex (Արենիի քարանձավ) a multicomponent site and late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age ritual site and settlement is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River.
The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia.
The Areni-1 winery is a 6100-year-old winery that was discovered in 2007 in the Areni-1 cave complex in the village of Areni in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia by a team of Armenian and Irish archaeologists.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argishti I, was the sixth known king of Urartu, reigning from 786 BC to 764 BC.
Armavir (Արմավիր), is a province (marz) in the western part of Armenia.
Armavir (Արմավիր), is a town and urban municipal community located in the west of Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Armavir Province.
Armen Mkrtchyan (Արմեն Մկրտչյան; born 6 October 1973) is an Armenian freestyle wrestler.
Armen Nazaryan (Արմեն Նազարյան, born 9 March 1974) is an Armenian Greco-Roman wrestler who later represented Bulgaria.
Armen Vardani Sarkissian (Արմեն Վարդանի Սարգսյան;His surname is also rendered as Sargsyan. As director of Eurasia House, he uses the spelling Armen Sarkissian, which is the French transcription of his name in Russian (Армен Саркисян). On former Soviet passports, the Russian names were usually transcribed to Latin alphabet using a French transcription system since French was the language used on it as the diplomatic language. born 23 June 1953) is an Armenian physicist, computer scientist and politician, who currently serves as the incumbent President of Armenia.
Armenfilm (Арменфильм, also known as Hayfilm Հայֆիլմ) is an Armenian film studio in Yerevan.
Armenia competed in the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States.
The Armenia national football team (Հայաստանի ֆուտբոլի ազգային հավաքական, Hayastani futboli azgayin havak'akan) represents Armenia in association football and is controlled by the Football Federation of Armenia, the governing body for football in Armenia.
Armenia Time (AMT) is a time zone used in Armenia.
Zakarid Armenia (Զաքարյան Հայաստան Zakaryan Hayastan), was an Armenian principality between 1201 and 1360, ruled by the Mkhargrdzeli-Zakarian dynasty.
The Armenian Air Force (Հայաստանի Ռազմաօդային Ուժեր) is the air arm formed by independent Armenia in 1992 in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Army (Հայկական բանակ, Haykakan Banak) is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Armenia and consists of the ground forces responsible for the country's land-based operations.
The Armenian Border Guard (ՀՀ Սահմանային պահպանություն) is the branch of the Armed Forces of Armenia that is responsible for monitoring and guarding Armenia's borders with neighbors Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iran and Georgia.
The Armenian Brotherhood Church (also known by names such as the Armenian Evangelical Brotherhood Church and the Armenian Brotherhood Bible Church) started within the Armenian Evangelical Church in the 19th century.
The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia and still used by the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
Armenian chant (շարական, sharakan) is the melismatic monophonic chant used in the liturgy of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
The Armenian diaspora refers to the communities of Armenians outside Armenia and other locations where Armenians are considered an indigenous population.
The dram (դրամ; sign: ֏; code: AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia and the neighboring unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh).
The Armenian dram sign (֏, image:; Դրամ; code: AMD) is the currency sign of the Armenian dram.
The Armenian Evangelical Church (Հայաստանեայց Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի) was established on July 1, 1846, by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople.
Fedayi (Western Ֆէտայի Fedayi; Eastern Ֆիդայի Fidayi), also known as the Armenian irregular units or Armenian militia, were Armenian civilians who voluntarily left their families to form self-defense units and irregular armed bands in reaction to the mass murder of Armenians and the pillage of Armenian villages by criminals, tribal Kurdish forces, and Hamidian guards during the reign of Abdul Hamid II in late 19th and early 20th centuries, known as the Hamidian massacres.
The Armenian First League is currently the second level football competition in Armenia after the Armenian Premier League.
The Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU, Հայկական Բարեգործական Ընդհանուր Միություն, ՀԲԸՄ, Haykakan Baregortsakan Endhanur Miutyun) is a non-profit Armenian organization established in Cairo, Egypt, in 1906.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenian Genocide recognition is the formal acceptance that the systematic massacres and forced deportation of Armenians committed by the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1923 constituted genocide.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.
Armenian National Agrarian University (ANAU) (Հայաստանի Ազգային Ագրարային Համալսարան, ՀԱԱՀ), is a state university and higher educational institution based in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.The university trains and prepares specialists for the agricultural sphere.
The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP), commonly known as the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, (Armenian: Մեծամորի ատոմային էլեկտրակայան) is the only nuclear power plant in the South Caucasus located 36 kilometers west of Yerevan.
The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople (İstanbul Ermeni Patrikhanesi, Western Պատրիարքութիւն Հայոց Կոստանդնուպոլսոյ, Badriark'ut'iun Hayots' Gosdantnubolsoy) is an autonomous See.
The Armenian Premier League (Հայաստանի Բարձրագույն Խումբ) is the top football competition in Armenia.
Presidential elections were held in Armenia on 19 February 2008.
The Armenian Quarter (حارة الأرمن, Harat al-Arman; הרובע הארמני, Ha-Rova ha-Armeni; Հայոց թաղ, Hayots t'agh) is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem.
The Armenian reform package was a reform plan devised by the European powers in 1912-14 that envisaged the creation of two provinces in Turkish Armenia placed under the supervision of two European inspectors general, who would be appointed to oversee matters related to the Armenian issues.
Armenian Renaissance (Հայկական վերածնունդ, Haykakan veratsnund, formerly Rule of Law (Օրինաց երկիր, abbreviated as ՕԵԿ, OEK)), is a political party in Armenia, led by Artur Baghdasaryan.
The Armenian resistance is a name given to the military and political activities of the Armenians under the Armenian political parties of Henchak, Armenakan, Dashnaktsutiun against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, considered a struggle for freedom and resistance to the Armenian Genocide by the Armenian combatants, but high treason by the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
Armenian revolutionary songs (Հայ յեղափոխական երգեր, Hay heghapokhagan yerker) are songs that promote Armenian patriotism.
The Armenian Rite is an independent liturgy used by both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic Churches.
The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Khachatur Abovian Armenian State Pedagogical University (ASPU) (Խաչատուր Աբովյանի անվան Հայկական պետական մանկավարժական համալսարան, ՀՊՄՀ), is a state university and higher education institution based in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.
The Armenian State University of Economics (ASUE) (Հայաստանի պետական տնտեսագիտական համալսարան) is a state-owned university of economics in Yerevan, the capital Armenia, founded in 1975.
The Armenian volunteer units (Հայ կամավորական ջոկատներ Hay kamavorakan jokatner) were units composed of Armenians within the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Composed of several groups at battalion strength, its ranks were primarily made up of Armenians from the Russian Empire, though there were also a number of Armenians from the Ottoman Empire.
ArmeniaNow was an independent online news publication based in Yerevan, Armenia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Azerbaijan are the Armenians who lived in great numbers in the modern state of Azerbaijan and its precursor, Soviet Azerbaijan.
Armenians in France (ֆրանսահայեր fransahayer; Arméniens de France) are French citizens of Armenian ancestry.
The association of Armenians with India and the presence of Armenians in India are very old, and there has been a mutual economic and cultural association of Armenians with India for the last several centuries.
Arminiya, also known as the Ostikanate of Arminiya (Արմինիա ոստիկանություն, Arminia vostikanut'yun), Emirate of Armenia (إمارة أرمينيا, imārat Arminiya), was a political and geographic designation given by the Muslim Arabs to the lands of Greater Armenia, Caucasian Iberia, and Caucasian Albania, following their conquest of these regions in the 7th century.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
Artashat (Արտաշատ), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Ararat Province.
The Artaxiad dynasty or Ardaxiad dynasty (Artashesian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսյան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12.
Artaxias I (Άρταξίας, Artashes Արտաշես; reigned 190/189 BC160/159 BC) was the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty whose members ruled the Kingdom of Armenia for nearly two centuries.
Artsakh (Արցախ) was the tenth province (nahang) of the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until 387 AD and afterwards a region of the Caucasian Albanian satrapy of Sasanid Persia from 387 to the 7th century.
The Artsruni (Արծրունի; also transliterated as Ardzruni) were an ancient noble (princely) family of Armenia.
Artsvi Bakhchinyan (Արծվի Բախչինյան, born 1971 in Yerevan) is an Armenian philologist, film researcher, Armenologist, Doctor of philology.
Ashot I (Աշոտ Ա; c. 820 – 890) was an Armenian king who oversaw the beginning of Armenia's second golden age (862 – 977).
Ashtarak (Armenian: Աշտարակ), is a town and urban municipal community in the Aragatsotn Province of Armenia, located on the left bank of Kasagh River along the gorge, northwest of the capital Yerevan.
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
The Association of European Journalists (founded 1961, San Remo) is an organisation promoting interests of journalists involved in European affairs.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
In the earliest prehistoric period Astghik, or Astɫik, (Աստղիկ) had been worshipped as the Armenian deity of fertility and love, later the skylight had been considered her personification, and she had been the consort of Vahagn.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayb School (Այբ դպրոց), is a private educational complex in Yerevan, Armenia, opened in 2011 by the Ayb Educational Foundation.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
The Azerbaijani Popular Front Party (APFP) (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) is an opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Abulfaz Elchibey.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Şahan Arzruni (Շահան Արծրունի; born 8 June 1943) is an Armenian classical pianist, composer, ethnomusicologist, lecturer, writer and producer, residing in New York City.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Հայաստան Bagratunyats Hayastan or Բագրատունիների թագավորություն, Bagratunineri t’agavorut’yun, "kingdom of the Bagratunis"), was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule.
The Bagratuni or Bagratid (Բագրատունի) royal dynasty was a royal family of Armenia that ruled many regional polities of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia, such as Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Vanand, Taron, and Tayk.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku pogrom was a pogrom directed against the ethnic Armenian inhabitants of Baku, Azerbaijan SSR.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bartholomew (translit; Bartholomew Israelite origin Bartholomaeus; ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus from ancient Jewish Israel.
The Battle of Avarayr (Ավարայրի ճակատամարտ Avarayri čakatamart) was fought on 26 May 451 AD on the Avarayr Plain in Vaspurakan between the Armenian Army under Vardan Mamikonian and Sassanid Persia.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
The Biblical Recorder is a bi-weekly newspaper published by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina (BSCNC).
A big band is a type of musical ensemble that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section.
Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: መጽሃፈ ኩፋሌ Mets'hafe Kufale).
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Bzoummar (بزمار; also spelled Bzommar or Bzemmar) is a village in the Keserwan District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Catholicos of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) (Ամենայն Հայոց Կաթողիկոս) is the chief bishop and spiritual leader of Armenia's national church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the worldwide Armenian diaspora.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.
Caucasus Germans (Kaukasiendeutsche) are part of the German minority in Russia and the Soviet Union.
Greek communities had settled in parts of the north Caucasus, Transcaucasia since well before the Christian and into the Byzantine era, especially as traders, Christian Orthodox scholars/clerics, refugees, or mercenaries who had backed the wrong side in the many civil wars and periods of political in-fighting in the Classical/Hellenistic and Late Roman/Byzantine periods.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.
The Chalybes (Χάλυβες, Χάλυβοι) or Chaldoi (Χάλδοι) were a people mentioned by Classical authors as living in Pontus and Cappadocia in northern Anatolia during Classical Antiquity.
Spasinu Charax, or Charax Spasinu, Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Σπασίνου Χάραξ), Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σουσιανῆς) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene.
Charles Aznavour (born Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրեան; 22 May 1924) is a French, later naturalised Armenian, singer, lyricist, actor, public activist and diplomat.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Cher (born May 20, 1946 as Cherilyn Sarkisian, Շերիլին Սարգիսեան) is an American singer and actress.
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
Christian music is music that has been written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life and faith.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The national coat of arms of Armenia (Հայաստանի զինանշանը) was adopted on April 19, 1992, by resolution of the Armenian Supreme Council.
Coele-Syria, Coele Syria, Coelesyria (Κοίλη Συρία, Koílē Syría), also rendered as Coelosyria and Celesyria, otherwise Hollow Syria (Cava Syria, Hohl Syrien), was a region of Syria in classical antiquity.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
Colonel general is a three or four-star rank in some armies, usually equivalent to that of a full general in other armies.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti إتحاد و ترقى جمیعتی), later Party of Union and Progress (İttihad ve Terakki Fırkası, Birlik ve İlerleme Partisi) began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti) in Istanbul on February 6, 1889 by medical students Ibrahim Temo, Mehmed Reshid, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti, Ali Hüseyinzade, Kerim Sebatî, Mekkeli Sabri Bey, Nazım Bey, Şerafettin Mağmumi, Cevdet Osman and Giritli Şefik.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
A death march is a forced march of prisoners of war or other captives or deportees in which individuals are left to die along the way.
The Armenian Declaration of Independence (Հայաստանի Անկախության Հռչակագիր) is the declaration of independence of the Armenian provinces from the Russian Empire.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.
The deportation of Armenian intellectuals, sometimes known as Red Sunday (Western Կարմիր կիրակի Garmir giragi), was the first major event of the Armenian Genocide.
Dhol (ढोल, ਢੋਲ, ڈھول, ঢোল, ઢોલ, ढोल, ঢোল) can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Djivan Gasparyan (var. Jivan Gasparyan; Ջիվան Գասպարյան,; born October 12, 1928) is an Armenian musician and composer.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.
The duduk (doo-DOOK) (Armenian: դուդուկ) is an ancient double reed woodwind instrument made of apricot wood.
Dvin (label, reformed; Δούβιος, or Τίβιον,;; also Duin or Dwin in ancient sources) was a large commercial city and the capital of early medieval Armenia.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Eastern Armenia (Արևելյան Հայաստան Arevelyan Hayastan) is a term used by Armenians to refer to the eastern parts of the Armenian Highlands, the traditional homeland of the Armenian people.
Edgar Manucharyan (Էդգար Մանուչարյան, born 19 January 1987) is an Armenian football player who plays forward.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
The Electoral Affairs Commission of Hong Kong (is an independent, apolitical and impartial body established under the Electoral Affairs Commission Ordinance. Its main functions include considering or reviewing the boundaries of Legislative Council geographical constituencies and constituencies of the 18 District Councils for the purpose of making recommendations, and overseeing the conduct and supervision of elections and regulating the procedures at an election. It is also responsible for supervision of the registration of electors and the promotional activities relating to registration. In 1997, the EAC succeeded the former Boundary and Election Commission, which was established on 23 July 1993. It is headed by a chairman, a position which has always been filled a High Court (formerly known as Supreme Court) judge. The executive body that is responsible for elections is the Registration and Electoral Office, which reports to the Secretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs (the Secretary for Constitutional Affairs before 1 July 2007).
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Emergent democracy refers to the rise of political structures and behaviors without central planning and by the action of many individual participants, especially when mediated by the Internet.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
The Eredivisie ("Honour Division" or "Premier Division") is the highest echelon of professional football in the Netherlands.
The Erivan Khanate (خانات ایروان – Xānāt-e Iravān; Երևանի խանություն – Yerevani khanut’yun; İrəvan xanlığı – ایروان خانلیغی), also known as Chokhur-e Sa'd, was a khanate (i.e. province) that was established in Afsharid Iran in the eighteenth century.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Customs Union (EACU) is a customs union which consists of all the Member states of the Eurasian Economic Union.
The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.
The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Faustus of Byzantium (also Faustus the Byzantine, Փավստոս Բուզանդ, P’avstos Buzand) was an Armenian historian of the 5th century.
Football Club Ararat Yerevan (Ֆուտբոլային Ակումբ Արարատ Երևան), commonly known as Ararat Yerevan, is an Armenian football club based in Yerevan.
Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria (Bayern).
Football Club Pyunik (Ֆուտբոլային Ակումբ Փյունիկ), commonly known as Pyunik, is an Armenian professional football club based in Yerevan.
The February Uprising (classical Փետրուարեան ապստամբութիւն, reformed: Փետրվարյան ապստամբություն, P'etrvaryan apstambut'yun) was an anti-Bolshevik rebellion by the nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation which started on February 13 and was suppressed on April 2, 1921 by the recapture of Yerevan by Bolshevik forces.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
The FIFA World Ranking is a ranking system for men's national teams in association football, currently led by Germany.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fondation Université Française en Arménie (UFAR, Հայաստանում ֆրանսիական համալսարան) is a French language higher education institution in Armenia.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
The Football Federation of Armenia (FFA) (Հայաստանի Ֆուտբոլի Ֆեդերացիա) is the governing body of association football in Armenia.
Football (ֆուտբոլ futbol or votnagndak ոտնագնդակ) is the most popular sport in Armenia.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of panorama (FOP) is a provision in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions that permits taking photographs and video footage and creating other images (such as paintings) of buildings and sometimes sculptures and other art works which are permanently located in a public place, without infringing on any copyright that may otherwise subsist in such works, and the publishing of such images.
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
Gagik II (Գագիկ Բ; c. 1025 - May 5/November 24, 1079) was the last Armenian king of Bagratuni dynasty.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan (Գարեգին Տէր-Յարութիւնեան) better known by his nom de guerre Garegin Nzhdeh (Գարեգին Նժդեհ) (1 January 1886 – 21 December 1955) was an Armenian statesman and military strategist.
Gavar (Գավառ), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Gegharkunik Province.
Gayane (Gayaneh or Gayne (the e is pronounced); Գայանե); is a four-act ballet with music by Aram Khachaturian.
Gegharkunik (Գեղարքունիք), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
The Generations of Noah or Table of Nations (of the Hebrew Bible) is a genealogy of the sons of Noah and their dispersion into many lands after the Flood, focusing on the major known societies.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Ghazar Parpetsi (Ղազար Փարպեցի, Lazarus Pharpensis; Ghazar of Parpi, alternatively spelled as Lazar Parpetsi and Łazar Parpetsi) was a 5th to 6th century Armenian chronicler and historian.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The global financial system is the worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors that together facilitate international flows of financial capital for purposes of investment and trade financing.
Global Heritage Fund (GHF) is a non-profit organization that operates internationally.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Saint Gregory the Illuminator (classical reformed: Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ; Grigor Lusavorich) (&ndash) is the patron saint and first official head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.
The Hamidian massacres (Համիդյան ջարդեր, Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1892–1896.
Hamo Beknazarian (Համո Բեկնազարյան; Амбарцум Бек-Назаров; 19 May 1891 – 27 April 1965), also known as Hamo Bek-Nazarov or Amo Bek-Nazarian, was a Soviet Armenian film director, actor and screenwriter.
Harout Pamboukjian (Հարութ Փամբուկչյան), (born in 1950 in Yerevan, Armenian SSR, Soviet Union), also known as Dzakh Harut (Ձախ Հարութ Left Harout), is an Armenian American pop singer living in Los Angeles.
Hasmik Papian (Հասմիկ Պապյան; born 2 September 1961) is an Armenian soprano.
Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa (Հայասա) was a Late Bronze Age confederation formed between two kingdoms of Armenian Highlands, Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located north of the Euphrates and to the south of Hayasa.
Hayk the Great (Հայկ),, or The Great Hayk, also known as Hayk Nahapet (Հայկ Նահապետ,, Hayk the "head of family" or patriarch), is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.
Heritage (Ժառանգություն, Zharangut’yun) is an Armenian national liberal party.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat.
The nation of Georgia (საქართველო sakartvelo) was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia.
The history of the Jewish community in Armenia (Հայաստանի հրեական համայնքը, Hayastani hreakan hamaynqa) dates back more than 2,000 years.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The House of Hasan-Jalalyan (Հասան-Ջալալյաններ) was an Armenian dynasty that ruled the region of Khachen (Greater Artsakh) from 1214 onwards in what are now the regions of lower Karabakh, Nagorno-Karabakh and small part of Syunik. Ulubabyan, Bagrat. "Հասան-Ջալալյաններ". Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1980, vol. 6, p. 246. It was named after Hasan-Jalal Dawla (Հասան-Ջալալ Դոլա), an Armenian feudal prince from Khachen. The Hasan-Jalalyan family was able to maintain its autonomy throughout several centuries of foreign domination of the region by Seljuk Turks, Persians and Mongols as they, as well as the other Armenian princes and meliks of Khachen, saw themselves of holding the last bastion of Armenian independence in the region. Through their many patronages of churches and other monuments, the Hasan-Jalalyans helped cultivate Armenian culture throughout the region. By the late 16th century, the Hasan-Jalalyan family had branched out to establish melikdoms in Gulistan and Jraberd, making them, along with Khachen, Varanda and Dizak, a part of what was then known as the "Melikdoms of Khamsa.".
Hrant Shahinyan (Հրանտ Շահինյան) (July 30, 1923 – May 29, 1996) also known as Grant Shaginyan was a Soviet Armenian gymnast.
Hrazdan (Հրազդան), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Kotayk Province, located northeast of the capital Yerevan.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Iğdır (Turkish; Իգդիր Igdir, also Ցոլակերտ, Tsolakert, after an ancient settlement nearby), is the capital of Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
Ijevan (Իջևան), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Tavush Province.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Independence Day of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Անկախության օրը) is the main state holiday in Armenia.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Armenia include.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) is an international non-partisan organization that seeks to further research and teaching about the nature, causes, and consequences of genocide, including the Holocaust, and to advance policy studies on the prevention of genocide.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran national football team (Tīm-e Melli-e Fūtbāl-e Īrān), also known as Team Melli (lit), represents Iran in international football competitions and is governed by the Iran Football Federation.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Isabel Bayrakdarian (born February 1, 1974) is an Armenian-Canadian operatic soprano.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus (Θαδδαῖος; ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
Kapan (Կապան), is a town at the southeast of Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of the urban community of Kapan as well as the provincial capital of Syunik Province.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
The Karabakh Khanate (خانات قرهباغ – Xānāt e Qarebāq, Qarabağ xanlığı) was a semi-independent Turkic khanate on the territories of modern-day Armenia and Azerbaijan established in about 1748 under Iranian suzerainty in Karabakh and adjacent areas.
The Karabakh movement (Ղարաբաղյան շարժում, also the Artsakh Movement Արցախյան շարժում) was a mass nationalist movement in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh from 1988 to 1992 that advocated for the transfer of the mainly Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of neighboring Azerbaijan to the jurisdiction of Armenia.
Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Musa Kâzım Karabekir (also spelled Kiazim Karabekir in English; 23 July 1882 – 26 January 1948) was a Turkish general and politician.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Artsakh (Արցախի թագավորություն), was a medieval dependent Armenian kingdom on the territory of Syunik, Artsakh (present-day Nagorno-Karabakh), Gardman and Gegharkunik.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Koryun (Armenian: Կորյուն or Կորիւն, also transliterated as Koriwn, Koriun, Goriun or Gorune) was the earliest Armenian-language historian.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.
Kotayk (Կոտայք), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The Lajat (/ALA-LC: al-Lajāʾ), also spelled Lejat, Lajah, el-Leja or Laja, is the largest lava field in southern Syria, spanning some 900 square kilometers.
Lake Sevan (Սևանա լիճ, Sevana lič̣) is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leo II (Levon I. Metsagorts; 1150 – 2 May 1219), also Leon II, Levon II or Lewon II, was the tenth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1187–1198/1199), and the first king of Armenian Cilicia (sometimes as Levon I the Magnificent or Lewon I) (1198/1199–1219).
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Levon Hagopi Ter-Petrosyan (Լևոն Հակոբի Տեր-Պետրոսյան; born 9 January 1946), also known by his initials LTP, is an Armenian politician.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lillehammer is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of countries and territories by their average elevation above sea level.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
This article contains a list of freedom indices produced by several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world, according to their own various definitions of the term, and rank countries as being free, partly free, or using various measures of freedom, including civil liberties, political rights and economic rights.
The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia (ancient southern-central Iraq), compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern archaeological findings.
This is a list of universities in Armenia.
Lori (Լոռի), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martiros Saryan (Մարտիրոս Սարյան; Мартиро́с Сарья́н; – 5 May 1972) was an Armenian painter, the founder of a modern Armenian national school of painting.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Mekhitarists (Մխիթարեաններ, Mkhit'areanner, also spelled Mechitarists) are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church founded in 1717 by Abbot Mekhitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts and their research on classical and modern Armenian language. The congregation was long divided into two branches, with the respective motherhouses being in Venice and Vienna. In July 2000 they united to form one institute.
"Mer Hayrenik" (lit) is the national anthem of Armenia.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mihran Damadian (Միհրան Տամատյան; 1863 – 1945) was an Armenian freedom fighter, political activist, writer and teacher.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
In constitutional usage in Commonwealth realms and in some other systems, a ministry (usually preceded by the definite article, i.e., the ministry) is a collective body of government ministers headed by a prime minister or premier, and also referred to as the head of government.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MOI, Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.
Mkhitar Heratsi (Մխիթար Հերացի) was a 12th-century Armenian physician.
Mkhitar Sebastatsi (Մխիթար Սեբաստացի), anglicized: Mekhitar of Sebaste, Mechitar (17 February 1676–27 April 1749) was an Armenian Catholic monk, as well as prominent scholar and theologian who founded the Mekhitarist Order, which has been based on San Lazzaro island near Venice since 1717.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
A Molokan (p or молоканин, "dairy-eater") is a member of various Spiritual Christian sects that evolved from Eastern Christianity in the East Slavic lands.
The moment magnitude scale (MMS; denoted as Mw or M) is one of many seismic magnitude scales used to measure the size of earthquakes.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Mordvins, also Mordva, Mordvinians, Mordovians (эрзят/erzät, мокшет/mokšet, мордва/mordva), are the members of a people who speak a Mordvinic language of the Uralic language family and live mainly in the Republic of Mordovia and other parts of the middle Volga River region of Russia.
Mount Aragats (Արագած,; formerly Ալագյազ, Alagyaz via Alagöz) is an isolated four-peaked volcano massif in Armenia.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A municipality in Armenia referred to as community (համայնք hamaynk, plural: համայնքներ hamaynkner), is an administrative subdivision consisting of a settlement (բնակավայր bnakavayr) or a group of settlements (բնակավայրեր bnakavayrer) that enjoys local self-government.
Nagorno-Karabakh, meaning "Mountainous Karabakh," also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nairi (Armenian: Նայիրի in TAO or Նաիրի in RAO) was the Assyrian name (KUR.KUR Na-i-ri, also Na-'i-ru) for a confederation of tribes in the Armenian Highlands, roughly corresponding to the modern Van and Hakkâri provinces of modern Turkey.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nāmūs is the Arabic word (Greek "νόμος") of a concept of an ethical category, a virtue, in Middle Eastern patriarchal character.
Namus (Նամուս, meaning "honor") is a 1925 silent drama film by Hamo Beknazarian, based on Alexander Shirvanzade's 1885 novel of the same name, which denounces the despotic rites and customs of Caucasian families.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Ազգային ժողով, Hayastani Hanrapetyut'yan Azgayin zhoghov or simply Ազգային ժողով, ԱԺ Azgayin Zhoghov, AZh), also informally referred to as the Parliament of Armenia (խորհրդարան, khorhrdaran) is the legislative branch of the government of Armenia.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Polytechnic University of Armenia, is a technical university located in Yerevan, Armenia.
National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) (Ճարտարապետության և շինարարարության Հայաստանի ազգային համալսարան, ՃՇՀԱՀ), is a state university in Yerevan, Armenia.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Net Material Product (NMP) was the main macroeconomic indicator used for monitoring growth in national accounts of socialist countries during the Soviet era.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikita Pavlovich Simonyan (Նիկիտա Մկրտիչ Սիմոնյան, born Mkrtych Pogosovich Simonyan, 12 October 1926) is a former Soviet football striker and coach of Armenian nationality.
Nikol Vovayi Pashinyan (Նիկոլ Վովայի Փաշինյան; born 1 June 1975) is an Armenian politician who has served as Prime Minister of Armenia since 8 May 2018.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Nubarashen (translit), is one of the 12 districts of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Old City (הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is a non-profit initiative established with the goal of transforming education for children around the world; this goal was to be achieved by creating and distributing educational devices for the developing world, and by creating software and content for those devices.
Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system.
The Orbelian lords of the province of Syunik were a noble family of Armenia, with a long history of political influence documented in inscriptions throughout the provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and recorded by the family historian Bishop Stepanos in his 1297 History of Syunik.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Armenia: Armenia – landlocked mountainous country, located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The Pan-Armenian Games (Համահայկական խաղեր) are a multi-sport event, held between competitors from the Armenian diaspora and Armenia.
PanARMENIAN.Net is the first Armenian online news agency, an internet portal based in Yerevan, Armenia.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه ("Qarārdād-e Amasiyeh"); Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Pepo (Պեպո) is a 1935 Soviet drama film based on Gabriel Sundukyan's 1876 play of the same name, scripted and directed by Hamo Beknazarian, with music composed by Aram Khachaturian.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia also known as Invasion of Iran (اشغال ایران در جنگ جهانی اول) was a series of engagements in Iranian Azerbaijan and western Iran (Persia) involving the forces of the Ottoman Empire against those of the British Empire and Russian Empire, and also involving local population elements, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Armenia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Armenia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
The politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and the President of Turkey is the head of state who holds a largely ceremonial role with substantial reserve powers.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
The President of Armenia (Հայաստանի Նախագահ, Hayastani Nakhagah) is the head of state and the guarantor of independence and territorial integrity of Armenia elected to a single seven year term by the National Assembly of Armenia.
The President of the National Assembly of Armenia (Ազգային ժողովի նախագահ, Azgayin zhoghovi naxagah) is the Speaker of the House in the Parliament of Armenia.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Armenia is the head of government and most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to "determine the main directions of policy of the Government, manage the activities of the Government and coordinate the work of the members of the Government." Also, according to the constitution, the Prime Minister heads the Security Council, which prescribes the main directions of the country's defense policy.
Prosperous Armenia Party (PAP; Bargavatch Hayastan kusaktsut’yun, abbreviated as ԲՀԿ BHK), is a political party in Armenia.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The kanun, ganoun or kanoon (qānūn;kanonaki; קָנוֹן, qanon; fa, qānūn; kanun; k’anon; qanun) is a string instrument played either solo, or more often as part of an ensemble, in much of the Middle East, Maghreb, West Africa, Central Asia, and southeastern regions of Europe.
The QSI International School of Yerevan (QSIY) is an international school in Yerevan, Armenia, part of the Quality Schools International group.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Raffi K. Richard Hovannisian (Րաֆֆի Կ. Ռիչարդ Հովհաննէսեան; born 20 November 1959) is an American-born Armenian politician, the first Foreign Minister of Armenia and the founding leader of the national liberal Heritage party.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
As of 2011, most Armenians are Christians (94.8%) and members of Armenia's own church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, which is one of the oldest Christian churches.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Artsakh (Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun), or simply Artsakh, commonly known by its former name of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic between 1991 and 2017, is a state with limited recognition in the South Caucasus internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan.
The Republic of Mountainous Armenia (Լեռնահայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն Leřnahayastani Hanrapetutyun), also known as simply Mountainous Armenia (Լեռնահայաստան Leřnahayastan), was an anti-Bolshevik Armenian state roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the present-day Armenian provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and some parts of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in the west and the de facto Republic of Artsakh in the east).
The Republican Party of Armenia (RPA, Հայաստանի Հանրապետական Կուսակցություն, ՀՀԿ; Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun, HHK) is a national conservative, Republican Party of Armenia, 2008.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Richard Avedis Hagopian (born 3 April 1937) is an American Oriental-style oud player and traditional Armenian musician.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Ruben I, (Ռուբեն Ա), also Roupen I or Rupen I, (1025/1035 – Kormogolo, 1095) was the first lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1080/1081/1082 – 1095).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian 102nd Military Base (ռուսական 102-րդ ռազմակայան; 102-я российская военная база), officially known as the 102nd Military Base of the Group of Russian Forces in Transcaucasia (102-я военная база Группы российских войск в Закавказье) is a Russian military base in Gyumri, Armenia, part of the Transcaucasian Group of Forces.
Russian Armenia is the period of Armenian history under Russian rule from 1828, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire following Qajar Iran's loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828) and the subsequent ceding of its territories that included Eastern Armenia per the out coming Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.
The Russian Caucasus Army (Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I. It was renowned for inflicting heavy casualties on the opposing forces of the Ottoman Empire, particularly at the Battle of Sarikamish.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russian-Armenian University (RAU) (Российско-Армянский университет, РАУ; Հայ-Ռուսական համալսարան) is an intergovernmental university being under the joint authority of the Russian Federation and Armenia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians in Armenia are ethnic Russian living in Armenia, where they make up the largest minority besides the Yazidi Kurds.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
"Sabre Dance" (Սուսերով պար, Suserov par; Танец с саблями, Tanets s sablyami) is a movement in the final act of Aram Khachaturian's ballet Gayane (1942), where the dancers display their skill with sabres.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sambo (p; САМозащита Без Оружия) is a Russian-Soviet martial art and combat sport.
San Lazzaro degli Armeni (lit. "Saint Lazarus of the Armenians"; called Saint Lazarus Island in English sources; Սուրբ Ղազար, Surb Ghazar) is a small island in the Venetian Lagoon which has been home to the monastery of the Mekhitarists, an Armenian Catholic congregation, since 1717.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Sasanian Armenia, also known as Persian Armenia and Persarmenia (Պարսկահայաստան – Parskahayastan), may either refer to the periods where Armenia (𐭠𐭫𐭬𐭭𐭩 – Armin) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire, or specifically to the parts of Armenia under its control such as after the partition of 387 AD when parts of western Armenia were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire while the rest of Armenia came under Sasanian suzerainty whilst maintaining its existing kingdom until 428.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Satrapy of Armenia (Սատրապական Հայաստան Satrapakan Hayastan; Old Persian: Armina or Arminiya), a region controlled by the Orontid Dynasty (Երվանդունիներ Yervanduniner; 570–201 BC) was one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC, which later became an independent kingdom.
Sayat-Nova (Սայաթ-Նովա; Azerbaijani: Səyyad Nova; Persian: سایاتنوفا; საიათნოვა; born Harutyun Sayatyan; 1712/1722 – 22 September 1795) was an Armenian poet, musician and ashugh, who had compositions in a number of languages.
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
Scholastic Corporation is an American multinational publishing, education and media company known for publishing, selling, and distributing books and educational materials for schools, teachers, parents, and children.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Sebeos was a 7th-century Armenian bishop and historian.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Grigory Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ კონსტანტინეს ძე ორჯონიკიძე Grigol Konstantines dze Orjonikidze; Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе Grigori Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze), generally known as Sergo Ordzhonikidze (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე; Серго́ Орджоники́дзе);, Kutais Governorate – 18 February 1937, Moscow) was a Georgian Bolshevik, later member of the CPSU Politburo and close associate of Joseph Stalin. Ordzhonikidze, Stalin and Anastas Mikoyan comprised what was jokingly referred to as the "Caucasian Clique.".
Serzh Sargsyan (Սերժ Սարգսյան,; born 30 June 1954).
Sevan (Սևան), is a town and urban municipal community, as well as one of the most and popular resorts in Armenia, located in the Gegharkunik Province on the northwestern shores of Lake Sevan.
Seyran Ohanyan (Սեյրան Օհանյան; born 1 July 1962) is a former Defence Minister of Armenia.
Shem (שֵׁם Šēm; Σήμ Sēm; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic: سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.
Shirak (Շիրակ), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
Shupria (Shubria) or Arme-Shupria (Շուպրիա; Akkadian: Armani-Subartu from the 3rd millennium BC) was a Hurrian kingdom, known from Assyrian sources beginning in the 13th century BC, located in what is now known as the Armenian Highlands, to the southwest of Lake Van, bordering on Ararat proper.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no spoken dialogue).
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.
Siranush Harutyunyan (Սիրանուշ Հարությունյան; born 7 January 1987), known professionally as Sirusho (Սիրուշո), is an Armenian singer whose musical career has been active for over 20 years.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
The Soviet Cup, or USSR Cup (Кубок СССР), was the premier football cup competition in the Soviet Union conducted by the Football Federation of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet Union national football team (сбо́рная Сове́тского Сою́за по футбо́лу, sbornaya Sovyetskogo Soyuza po futbolu) was the national football team of the Soviet Union.
A referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held on 17 March 1991.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service.
The Sumgait pogrom (Սումգայիթի ջարդեր, Sumgayit'i ĵarder lit.: "Sumgait massacres"; Sumqayıt hadisələri lit.: "Sumgait events") was a pogrom that targeted the Armenian population of the seaside town of Sumgait in Azerbaijan in late February 1988.
Sumqayit (Sumqayıt sumgɑˈjɯt, also transliterated as Sumgait or Sumgayit) is the third-largest city in Azerbaijan, located near the Caspian Sea, about away from the capital, Baku.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
System of a Down, sometimes abbreviated as SOAD or colloquially referred to as System, is an heavy metal band from Glendale, California, formed in 1994.
Syunik (Սյունիք), is the southernmost province of Armenia.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
The Tat people (also: Tati, Parsi, Daghli, Lohijon, Caucasian Persians, Transcaucasian Persians) are an Iranian people, presently living within Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia (mainly Southern Dagestan).
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Tavush (Տավուշ), is a province of Armenia.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Teach For Armenia («Դասավանդի՛ր, Հայաստան» կրթական հիմնադրամ) is a non-profit organization, which aims to expand educational opportunities for all children in Armenia, regardless of their socio-economic circumstances, by recruiting, training, and supporting high-achieving graduates and professionals to teach for a minimum of two years in the most underserved schools across Armenia.
The Tehcir Law (from tehcir, a word of Arabic origin in Ottoman Turkish and meaning "deportation" or "forced displacement" as defined by the Turkish Language Institute), or, officially by the Republic of Turkey, the "Sevk ve İskân Kanunu" (Relocation and Resettlement Law) was a law passed by the Ottoman Parliament on May 27, 1915 authorizing the deportation of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population.
The following telephone numbers in Armenia are destination codes for international calls terminating in Armenia as well as the procedures for dialing internationally from within Armenia.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
The Armenian Reporter was an independent weekly published in English in the United States since 1967, ending operations in late 2014.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
This is a timeline showing the dates when countries or polities made Christianity the official state religion, generally accompanying the baptism of the governing monarch.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
Tiridates I (Տրդատ Ա, Trdat A; 𐭕𐭉𐭓𐭉𐭃𐭕, Tīridāt; Τιριδάτης, Tiridátes) was King of Armenia beginning in 53 AD and the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.
Tiridates III (spelled Trdat; Armenian: Տրդատ Գ; 250–330) was the king of Arsacid Armenia (287–330), and is also known as Tiridates the Great Տրդատ Մեծ; some scholars incorrectly refer to him as Tiridates IV as a result of the fact that Tiridates I of Armenia reigned twice.
Tobacco Policy in Armenia is the attempt by the Armenian authorities to regulate smoking in Armenia.
Tovmas Nazarbekian (Armenian: Թովմաս Նազարբէկեան; 4 April 1855 – 19 February 1931), also known as Foma Nazarbekov (Фома Назарбеков), was an Armenian general in the Russian Caucasus Army and later promoted to commander-in-chief of the First Republic of Armenia.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Treaty of Alexandropol (Ալեքսանդրապոլի պայմանագիր; Gümrü Antlaşması) was a peace treaty between the First Republic of Armenia and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey ending the Turkish-Armenian War that had begun on 12 September 1920 with an invasion of Armenia by Turkish forces led by Kazim Karabekir.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması, Карсский договор / Karskii dogovor, ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Կարսի պայմանագիր, Qars müqaviləsi) was a peace treaty that established the common borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union (today the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan).
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The Treaty of Zuhab (عهدنامه زهاب), also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Kasr-ı Şirin Antlaşması), was an accord signed between the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Tsaghkadzor (Ծաղկաձոր, also Romanized as Tsakhkadzor), is a spa town and urban municipal community, as well as one of the most popular health resorts in Armenia, located north of the capital Yerevan in the Kotayk Province.
The Armenian Genocide memorial complex (Հայոց ցեղասպանության զոհերի հուշահամալիր Hayots tseghaspanut'yan zoheri hushahamalir) is Armenia's official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built in 1967 on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd (Ծիծեռնակաբերդ) in Yerevan.
The Tumo Center for Creative Technologies (Թումո ստեղծարար տեխնոլոգիաների կենտրոն) is a free of charge digital media learning center in Yerevan, Armenia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
The School of Global Policy and Strategy (GPS) at the University of California San Diego, formerly the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS), is devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, and policy education.
The Udis (self-name Udi or Uti) are a native people of the Caucasus.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
University of Gladzor (translit) was a medieval Armenian university, one of the two "great centres of learning" along with the University of Tatev that were "essentially of a single tradition." It was established around 1280 by Nerses of Mush and operated until 1340 and "left behind a rich intellectual heritage".
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Utik (Ուտիք, also known as Uti, Utiq, or Outi) was a historic province of the Kingdom of Armenia and a region of Caucasian Albania after the splitting of Armenia in 387 AD by Sassanid Persia.
UWC Dilijan College is the 14th member of the United World Colleges movement, one of seventeen colleges around the world, and the first international boarding school in Armenia.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vahagn Vishapakagh (Vahagn the Dragon Reaper) or Vahakn (Վահագն) was a god of fire and war worshiped anciently and historically in Armenia.
Vanadzor (Վանաձոր), is an urban municipal community and the third-largest city in Armenia serving as the capital of Lori Province in the northern part of the country.
Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian;, (Vaspourakan) meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes") was the eighth province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered on Lake Van.
Vayots Dzor (Վայոց Ձոր), is a province of Armenia.
Vazgen I also Vazken I of Bucharest,, born Levon Garabed Baljian (Լևոն Կարապետ Աբրահամի Պալճյան; September 20, 1908 – August 18, 1994) was the Catholicos of All Armenians between 1955 and 1994, for a total of 39 years, the 4th longest reign in the history of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Vazgen Sargsyan (Վազգեն Սարգսյան,; 5 March 1959 – 27 October 1999) was an Armenian military commander and politician.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
The Venetian Lagoon (Laguna di Venezia; Łaguna de Venesia) is an enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, in which the city of Venice is situated.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Armenia is underdeveloped in its waste management and recycling activities.
WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it.
Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, Arevmdian Hayasdan) is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wilsonian Armenia refers to the boundary configuration of the First Republic of Armenia in the Treaty of Sèvres, as drawn by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's Department of State.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
The World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a survey conducted and published by the International Monetary Fund.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Team Chess Championship is an international team chess event, eligible for the participation of 10 countries whose chess federations dominate their continent.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yazidis in Armenia (Yezdiner, Kurmanji: Êzidî, Yezidi, Yezidi) is the largest ethnic minority in Armenia.
Yeghegnadzor (Եղեգնաձոր), is a town and urban municipal community at the south of Armenia, serving as the provincial capital of Vayots Dzor Province.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yerevan Brusov State University of Languages and Social Sciences (Երևանի Բրյուսովի անվան պետական լեզվահասարակագիտական համալսարան), is a public university in Yerevan the capital of Armenia, operating since 1935.
Yerevan Mkhitar Heratsi State Medical University (YSMU, Երեվանի Մխիթար Հերացու անվան Պետական Բժշկական Համալսարան), is the leading medical university in Armenia.
Yerevan State University (YSU; Երևանի Պետական Համալսարան, ԵՊՀ, Yerevani Petakan Hamalsaran), also simply University of Yerevan, is the oldest continuously operating public university in Armenia.
Yerevan Vernissage (Վերնիսաժ (Vernisazh)) is a large open-air market in Yerevan, Armenia.
The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.
Youri Raffi Djorkaeff (born 9 March 1968) is a former French international footballer who played as an attacking midfielder or as a striker.
Yuri Khachaturov (Յուրի Խաչատուրով; born 1 May 1952) is the Secretary-General of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and former Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Armenia.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The zurna (also called surnay, birbynė, lettish horn, zurla, surla, sornai, dili tuiduk, zournas, or zurma), is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia.
.am is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Armenia.
.հայ (Հայ, hay, hye) is an Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Armenia, designated for two-letter country code AM, intended for domain names in the Armenian language.
The 11th Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which fought on the Caspian-Caucasian Front.
The 1952 Summer Olympics (Kesäolympialaiset 1952; Olympiska sommarspelen 1952), officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1952.
The 1965 Yerevan demonstrations took place in Yerevan, Armenia on April 24, 1965, on the 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide.
Statistics of Soviet Top League in season 1973.
The 1974–75 season of the European Cup club football tournament was won for the second consecutive time by Bayern Munich in the final against Leeds United, the first English side to reach the final since Manchester United won it seven years earlier and only the second in 20 seasons of the competition.
The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating).
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
The 1994 Winter Olympics (Olympiske vinterleker 1994), officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway.
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC.
The 42nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 42 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 43° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 47° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
ARMENIA, Armenai, Armenia (Republic), Armenian Hayastan, Armenian Republic, Armenie, Armenien, Arménie, Ermeni, Ermenistan, Etymology of Armenia, Harminuia, Hayasdan, Hayastan, Hayastan Karastan, Hayastan-Karastan, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun, Haïastan, Health in Armenia, Healthcare in Armenia, Hyester, ISO 3166-1:AM, Karastan, Republic of Armenia, Արմէնիա, Հայաստան, Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն.