183 relations: Abbot, Abgar V, Alzheimer's disease, Amman, Anahit, Antelias, Apostasy, Apostles, Apostolic succession, Aram I, Araratian Pontifical Diocese, Aravot, Archbishop, Armenia, Armenian alphabet, Armenian calendar, Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian chant, Armenian church architecture, Armenian diaspora, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Armenian language, Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Armenian Quarter, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenians, Armenians in Ethiopia, Asbarez, Axidares of Armenia, Baptism, Baptists, Bart D. Ehrman, Bartholomew the Apostle, Bentley, Bible, Bikfaya, Bishop, Canada, Canonization, Catholic Church, Catholicos, Catholicos of All Armenians, Caucasian Albania, Celibacy, Christianity, Christianity in Iran, Christmas, ..., Church of Caucasian Albania, Church of St Yeghiche, South Kensington, Cilicia, Classical Armenian, Cold War, Congregational church, Council of Chalcedon, Council of Ephesus, Cyprus, Cyril of Alexandria, Diocese, Divine Liturgy, Dvin (ancient city), Dyophysitism, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Epiphany (holiday), Episcopal polity, Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Eucharist, Eusebius, Eutyches, First Council of Constantinople, First Council of Nicaea, Full communion, Georgia (country), Gevorgian Seminary, Greece, Greek language, Gregorian calendar, Gregory IX of Cilicia, Gregory the Illuminator, History of Iran, Holy Cross Armenian Apostolic Church (New York City), Holy See, Holy See of Cilicia, Hovhannes-Smbat III of Armenia, Hrant Bagratyan, Hranush Kharatyan, Iconostasis, Image of Edessa, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, Iran, James, brother of Jesus, Jerusalem, Jordan, Jordan River, Jude the Apostle, Julian calendar, Karekin I, Karekin II, Kensington, Khosrov I of Armenia, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kozan, Adana, Krikor Bedros XX Gabroyan, Latin liturgical rites, Lebanon, Leon Tourian, List of Armenian Catholicoi of Cilicia, List of Armenian Patriarchs of Constantinople, List of Armenian Patriarchs of Jerusalem, List of Catholicoi of all Armenians, Literature, Liturgy, Manchester, Martyr, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mesrob II Mutafyan of Constantinople, Mesrop Mashtots, Miaphysitism, Mitre, Monastery, Monk, Monogenēs, Monophysitism, Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, Nakharar, National church, Nativity of Jesus, Nourhan Manougian, Nun, October Revolution, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project, Oriental Orthodoxy, Osroene, Pap of Armenia, Parthian Empire, Patriarch, Paulicianism, Peter I of Armenia, Philosophy, Pipe organ, Pope, Priest, Primate (bishop), Republic of Artsakh, Rome, Rumkale, Sahak II of Cilicia, Saint Narek chapel, Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, Samvel Karapetyan (author), Sanatruk, Sasanian Empire, Scholarly method, Seminary, Separation of church and state, Sivas, South Kensington, Soviet Union, St Sarkis, Kensington, St. Husik I, State religion, Sui iuris, Syria, Tertullian, Theology, Tigran Sargsyan, Tiridates III of Armenia, Tondrakians, Turkey, Vagharshapat, Vaskenian Theological Academy, Vazgen I, Venezuela, Washington Heights, Manhattan, Western Asia, World War I, YouTube, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Abgar V the Black or Abgarus V of Edessa (ʾAḇgar al-kḤəmiš ʾUkkāmā,ʾAḇgar Ḥəmišāyā ʾUkkāmā, Abgar Hingerord Yedesatsi, Abgaros) (BC 4 – AD 7 and AD 13–c. 40) was an Arab holding his capital at Edessa.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Anahit (Անահիտ) was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology.
Antelias (أنطلياس) is a town in Lebanon.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
Aram I Keshishian (Արամ Ա. Քեշիշեան;; born March 8, 1947 in Beirut, Lebanon), has been the head of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church since 1994 and he resides in Antelias, Lebanon.
Araratian Pontifical Diocese (Արարատյան Հայրապետական թեմ Araratyan Hayrapetakan t'em) is the largest diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church and one of the oldest dioceses in the world, covering the city of Yerevan and the Ararat Province within the Republic of Armenia.
Aravot («Առավոտ», "Morning") is a leading liberal and politically independent daily newspaper based in Yerevan, Armenia.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia and still used by the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
Armenian chant (շարական, sharakan) is the melismatic monophonic chant used in the liturgy of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Armenian church architecture is the architectural style of the Armenian church buildings created since the Apostolic era of Christianity in the Armenian Highland during the 1st century.
The Armenian diaspora refers to the communities of Armenians outside Armenia and other locations where Armenians are considered an indigenous population.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople (İstanbul Ermeni Patrikhanesi, Western Պատրիարքութիւն Հայոց Կոստանդնուպոլսոյ, Badriark'ut'iun Hayots' Gosdantnubolsoy) is an autonomous See.
The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem also known as the Armenian Patriarchate of Sts.
The Armenian Quarter (حارة الأرمن, Harat al-Arman; הרובע הארמני, Ha-Rova ha-Armeni; Հայոց թաղ, Hayots t'agh) is one of the four quarters of the walled Old City of Jerusalem.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
There is a small community of Armenians in Ethiopia, primarily in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.
Asbarez (Ասպարէզ "Arena") is an Armenian-American bilingual daily newspaper published in Armenian and English in Los Angeles, California, by the Western USA Central Committee of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Axidares or Ashkhadar also known as Exedares or Exedates (flourished second half of the 1st century & first half of the 2nd century, died 113) was a Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bart Denton Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, and the development of early Christianity.
Bartholomew (translit; Bartholomew Israelite origin Bartholomaeus; ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus from ancient Jewish Israel.
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1998.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bikfaya (بكفيا, also spelled Bickfaya, Beckfayya, or Bekfaya) is a town in the Matn District region of Mount Lebanon.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions.
The Catholicos of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) (Ամենայն Հայոց Կաթողիկոս) is the chief bishop and spiritual leader of Armenia's national church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the worldwide Armenian diaspora.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity has a long history in Iran, dating back to the early years of the faith, and pre-dating Islam.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Albanian Apostolic Church or the Church of Caucasian Albania was an ancient briefly independent autocephalous Igor Kuznetsov.
St Yeghiche Armenian Church (Սուրբ Եղիշե եկեղեցի) is the largest church of the Armenian Apostolic Church in Great Britain.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
The Council of Ephesus was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus (near present-day Selçuk in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyril of Alexandria (Κύριλλος Ἀλεξανδρείας; Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ Ⲕⲩⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲩ ⲁ̅ also ⲡⲓ̀ⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲕⲓⲣⲓⲗⲗⲟⲥ; c. 376 – 444) was the Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.
Dvin (label, reformed; Δούβιος, or Τίβιον,;; also Duin or Dwin in ancient sources) was a large commercial city and the capital of early medieval Armenia.
In Christian theology, dyophysitism (Greek: δυοφυσιτισμός, from δυο (dyo), meaning "two" and φύσις (physis), meaning "nature") is the Christological position that two natures, divine and human, exist in the person of Jesus Christ.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
Etchmiadzin Cathedral (Էջմիածնի մայր տաճար, Ēǰmiatsni mayr tačar) is the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, located in the city of Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin), Armenia.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Eutyches (Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gevorkian Theological Seminary (Գևրգյան Հոգևոր Ճեմարան Gevorkyan Hogevor Č̣emaran), also known as Gevorkian Seminary (Գևրգյան Ճեմարան Gevorkyan Č̣emaran), is a theological university-institute of the Armenian Apostolic Church founded by Catholicos George IV in 1874.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Catholicos Gregory IX Mousabegian was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church at Cilicia between 1439 and 1446.
Saint Gregory the Illuminator (classical reformed: Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ; Grigor Lusavorich) (&ndash) is the patron saint and first official head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Holy Cross Armenian Apostolic Church is a significant Armenian Apostolic Church in Washington Heights, Manhattan, New York City at 580 West 187th Street.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia (Կաթողիկոսութիւն Հայոց Մեծի Տանն Կիլիկիոյ) is a hierarchal see of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Hovhannes-Smbat III was King of Ani (1020–1040).
Hrant Bagratyan (Հրանտ Արարատի Բագրատյան; born 18 October 1958) is an Armenian politician.
Hranush Kharatyan (Հրանուշ Խառատյան; born February 18, 1952) is an Armenian ethnographer.
In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (plural: iconostases) is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church.
According to Christian tradition, the Image of Edessa was a holy relic consisting of a square or rectangle of cloth upon which a miraculous image of the face of Jesus had been imprinted—the first icon ("image").
Institute for War & Peace Reporting (or IWPR for short) is an independent not-for profit organisation that works with media and civil society to promote positive change in conflict zones, closed societies, and countries in transition around the world.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord, (יעקב Ya'akov; Ἰάκωβος Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as Jacob), was an early leader of the so-called Jerusalem Church of the Apostolic Age, to which Paul was also affiliated.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus (Θαδδαῖος; ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Karekin I (Eastern Armenian pronunciation: Garegin I) (Armenian: Գարեգին Ա. Սարգիսյան) (August 27, 1932 – June 29, 1999), served as the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1994 and 1999.
Catholicos Karekin II (Գարեգին Բ) (born August 21, 1951) is the current Catholicos of All Armenians, the supreme head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, West London, England.
Khosrov I (Խոսրով Ա, flourished second half of the 2nd century and first half of the 3rd century, died 217) was a Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
Kozan (formerly Sis Սիս) is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, northeast of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain.
Krikor Bedros XX Gabroyan (Գրիգոր Պետրոս Ի. Կապրոյեան also known in English as Gregory Petros XX Gabroyan and in French as Grégoire Pierre XX Ghabroyan born in Aleppo, Syria on 14 November 1934) is the Catholicos-Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenian Catholic Church after his election on 24 July 2015 and the necessary concession of the ecclesiastical full communion by Pope Francis one day later.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Archbishop Leon Tourian (1 January 1879 – 24 December 1933) was the primate of the Eastern Diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church of America.
This is a list of the Armenian Catholicoi of Cilicia of the Holy See of Cilicia (full name: the Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, Կաթողիկոսութիւն Հայոց Մեծի Տանն Կիլիկիոյ).
The list of Armenian Patriarchs of Constantinople presents the holders of the office of Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, the head of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople from its establishment in 1461 to the present day.
In 638, the Armenian Apostolic Church began appointing its own bishop in Jerusalem, generally known as the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem.
This is a list of the Catholicoi of all Armenians, head bishops of the Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի).
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Archbishop Mesrob II Mutafyan (in Armenian Մեսրոպ Բ Մութաֆեան), also known as Mesrop Mutafyan (June 16, 1956, Istanbul, Turkey), is the 84th Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
Miaphysitism is a Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.
The mitre (British English) (Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Monogenes has two primary definitions, "pertaining to being the only one of its kind within a specific relationship" and "pertaining to being the only one of its kind or class, unique in kind".
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin (Մայր Աթոռ Սուրբ Էջմիածին, Mayr At'oř Surb Ēĵmiatsin), is the governing body of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Nakharar (նախարար naxarar, from Parthian naxvadār "holder of the primacy") was a hereditary title of the highest order given to houses of the ancient and medieval Armenian nobility.
A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
Patriarch Nourhan Manougian (Տէր Նուրհան Արքեպիսկոպես Մանուկեան Երուսաղէմի Հայ Պատրիարք,כבוד הפאטריאך הארמני; born 22 July 1948) is the 97th Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem serving the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP), founded in 2006, is a consortium of investigative centers, media and journalists operating in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Central America.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.
Pap, also known as PapasDignas, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals, pp.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Paulicians (Պաւղիկեաններ, Pawłikeanner; Παυλικιανοί; Arab sources: Baylakānī, al Bayālika)Nersessian, Vrej (1998).
Catholicos Peter I Ketadarz (? – died 1058) (Պետրոս Ա. Գետադարձ) was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1019 and 1058.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
The Republic of Artsakh (Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun), or simply Artsakh, commonly known by its former name of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic between 1991 and 2017, is a state with limited recognition in the South Caucasus internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rumkale was a powerful fortress on the river Euphrates, 50 km west of Şanlıurfa.
Sahak II or Isaac II, last name Khabayan (Սահակ Բ. Խապայեան (Եղեգցի)) (March 25, 1849 – October 8, 1939), was Catholicos of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church in 1902–1939.
Saint Narek chapel chapel of the Armenian Apostolic Church in Vardenis village, Aragatsotn Province St.
Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (SVOTS) is an Orthodox Christian seminary in Crestwood, Yonkers, New York, in the United States.
Samvel Karapetian (Սամվել Կարապետյան; born 30 July1961) is an Armenian historian, researcher, author, and expert of medieval architecture, specializing in the study of the historical monuments of Armenia, Nagorno Karabakh and other regions of the Southern Caucasus.
Sanatruk (Սանատրուկ, Latinized as Sanatruces) was a member of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia who succeeded Tiridates I of Armenia as King of Armenia at the end of the 1st century.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
South Kensington is an affluent district of West London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
St Sarkis (Լոնդոնի Սուրբ Սարգիս հայկական եկեղեցի) is an Armenian church and a Grade II* listed building in Iverna Gardens, Kensington, London, England.
Saint Husik I, often known as Husik (Սբ.) was a Catholicos of Armenia's Holy Apostolic Church who lived in the fourth century.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Sui iuris, commonly also spelled sui juris, is a Latin phrase that literally means "of one's own right".
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Tigran Sowreni Sargsyan (Տիգրան Սուրենի Սարգսյան, born 29 January 1962) is an Armenian political figure who was Prime Minister of Armenia from 2008 to 2014.
Tiridates III (spelled Trdat; Armenian: Տրդատ Գ; 250–330) was the king of Arsacid Armenia (287–330), and is also known as Tiridates the Great Տրդատ Մեծ; some scholars incorrectly refer to him as Tiridates IV as a result of the fact that Tiridates I of Armenia reigned twice.
Tondrakians (Թոնդրակեաններ) were members of an anti-feudal, heretical Christian sect that flourished in medieval Armenia between the early 9th century and 11th century and centered on the city of Tondrak, north of Lake Van in Western Armenia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Vagharshapat (Վաղարշապատ), is the 4th-largest city in Armenia and the most populous municipal community of Armavir Province, by about west of the capital Yerevan, and north of the closed Turkish-Armenian border.
Vaskenian Theological Academy (also Vazgenian, Vazgenyan, Vazgenian Seminary), is a theological academy of the Armenian Apostolic Church on the Sevan peninsula on the shores of Lake Sevan in Armenia.
Vazgen I also Vazken I of Bucharest,, born Levon Garabed Baljian (Լևոն Կարապետ Աբրահամի Պալճյան; September 20, 1908 – August 18, 1994) was the Catholicos of All Armenians between 1955 and 1994, for a total of 39 years, the 4th longest reign in the history of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Washington Heights is a neighborhood in the northern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Armenian Apostolic, Armenian Apostolic Christians, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church, Armenian Apostolic church, Armenian Christian, Armenian Christianity, Armenian Christians, Armenian Church, Armenian Gregorian, Armenian Gregorians, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox Apostolic Church, Armenian Orthodox Christian, Armenian Orthodox Church, Armenian apostolic church, Armenian church, Armenian orthodoxy, Armenian-Gregorians, Church of Armenia, Gregorian Church, Gregorian church, Gregorian-Armenian, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi, One Holy Universal Apostolic Orthodox Armenian Church, Oriental Orthodoxy in Armenia, Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի.