85 relations: Abbreviation, Abdulmejid I, Acute accent, Alphabet, Armenian Braille, Armenian calendar, Armenian dram sign, Armenian eternity sign, Armenian Genocide, Armenian language, Armenian mythology, Armenian numerals, Armenian orthography reform, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, ArmSCII, ASCII, Assyrian people, Bardaisan, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bir el Qutt inscriptions, Book of Proverbs, Calligraphy, Caucasian Albanian alphabet, Character encoding, Christianization of Iberia, Classical Armenian, Classical Armenian orthography, Colon (punctuation), Comma, Coptic alphabet, Cyrillic script, Exclamation mark, Faiyum, Full stop, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Ge'ez script, Georgian scripts, Gnosticism, Greek alphabet, Guillemet, Hippolytus of Rome, Hyphen, Iran, Iranian Armenians, Isaac of Armenia, Karamanli Turkish, Kartli, Kemah, Erzincan, Kipchak language, Krugosvet, ..., Kurdish languages, Latin script, Leo I, King of Armenia, Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri, Mesrop Mashtots, Metrodorus of Scepsis, Mirian III of Iberia, Movses Khorenatsi, Novel, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Ottoman Turkish language, Pahlavi scripts, Philo, Philostratus, Podolia, Question mark, Quotation mark, QWERTY, Romanization of Armenian, Sayat-Nova, Semicolon, Severus Alexander, Sound change, Syriac alphabet, Tekor Basilica, Tigranes the Great, Tilde, Tiran of Armenia, Turkish language, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Vardan Areveltsi, Vartan Pasha, Windows 9x. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Armenian Braille is either of two braille alphabets used for writing the Armenian language.
The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia and still used by the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church.
The Armenian dram sign (֏, image:; Դրամ; code: AMD) is the currency sign of the Armenian dram.
The Armenian eternity sign (հավերժության նշան, haverzhut’yan nshan) or Arevakhach (Արևախաչ) (English: Sun Cross) is an ancient Armenian national symbol and a symbol of the national identity of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenian mythology began with ancient Indo-European and Urartian origins, gradually incorporating Mesopotamian, Iranian, and Greek ideas and deities.
The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system created using the majuscules (uppercase letters) of the Armenian alphabet.
The Armenian othography reform occurred between 1922 and 1924 in Soviet Armenia.
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
ArmSCII or ARMSCII is a set of obsolete single-byte character encodings for the Armenian alphabet defined by Armenian national standard 166-9.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Bardaisan (ܒܪ ܕܝܨܢ, Bardaiṣān), also known in Arabic as ابن ديصان (Ibn Daisan), also Latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syriac or ParthianProds Oktor Skjaervo.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
The Bir el Qutt inscriptions (ბირ ელ ყუტის წარწერები) are the Georgian language Byzantine mosaic inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli script which were excavated at a St. Theodore Georgian monastery in 1952 by an Italian archaeologist Virgilio Canio Corbo near Bir el Qutt, in the Judaean Desert, 6 km south-east of Jerusalem and 2 km north of Bethlehem.
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
The Caucasian Albanian alphabet was an alphabet used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient and indigenous Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Daghestan.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
The Christianization of Iberia (ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
Classical Armenian orthography, traditional orthography or Mashtotsian orthography (Հայերէնի դասական ուղղագրութիւն in classical orthography and Հայերենի դասական ուղղագրություն in reformed orthography, Hayereni tasagan ughakrutyun), is the orthography that was developed by Mesrop Mashtots in the 5th century for writing Armenian and reformed during the early 19th century.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Guillemets, or angle quotes, are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used instead of quotation marks in a number of languages.
Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian-Armenians (իրանահայեր iranahayer) also known as Persian-Armenians (պարսկահայեր parskahayer), are Iranians of Armenian ethnicity who may speak Armenian as their first language.
Isaac or Sahak of Armenia (354–439) was Catholicos (or Patriarch) of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Karamanlı Turkish is both a form of written Turkish, and a dialect of Turkish spoken by the Karamanlides, a community of Turkish-speaking Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Turkey.
Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
Kemah (Zazaki: Kemax, Անի-Կամախ Ani-Kamakh), known historically as Gamakh, Kamacha or Kamachon (Κάμαχα, Κάμαχον) is a town and district of Erzincan Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.
The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group.
Krugosvet is a Russian-language encyclopedia covering different fields of knowledge in eight supercategories and 27 subcategories, 12,000 entries, over 600 current and historic maps, and 10,000 illustrations and charts.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Leo II (Levon I. Metsagorts; 1150 – 2 May 1219), also Leon II, Levon II or Lewon II, was the tenth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1187–1198/1199), and the first king of Armenian Cilicia (sometimes as Levon I the Magnificent or Lewon I) (1198/1199–1219).
Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri (Լրաբեր հասարակական գիտությունների "Bulletin/Review of Social Sciences") is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Armenian Academy of Sciences covering Armenian studies.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
Metrodorus of Scepsis (Μητρόδωρος ὁ Σκήψιος) (c. 145 BCE – 70 BCE), from the town of Scepsis in ancient Mysia, was a friend of Mithridates VI of Pontus and celebrated in antiquity for the excellence of his memory.
Mirian III (მირიან III) was a king of Iberia or Kartli (Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337).
Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (Φλάβιος Φιλόστρατος; c. 170/172 – 247/250), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
The question mark (also known as interrogation point, query, or eroteme in journalism) is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.
There are various systems of romanization of the Armenian alphabet.
Sayat-Nova (Սայաթ-Նովա; Azerbaijani: Səyyad Nova; Persian: سایاتنوفا; საიათნოვა; born Harutyun Sayatyan; 1712/1722 – 22 September 1795) was an Armenian poet, musician and ashugh, who had compositions in a number of languages.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
The Church of Saint Sarkis in Tekor (also known as the Tekor Basilica) was a 5th-century Armenian church built in historical Armenia.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tiran (Տիրան, flourished second half of the 3rd century & first half of the 4th century) known also as Tigranes VII or Tigranes and Diran was a Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Arsacid Armenia from 339 until 350.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Vardan Areveltsi (Վարդան Արևելցի; Vardan the Easterner, circa 1198 – 1271 AD) was a thirteenth-century Armenian historian, geographer, philosopher and translator.
Vartan Pasha (Վարդան փաշա), (Hovsep Vartanian or Osep Vartanian) (1813 - 1879) was an Ottoman Armenian statesman, author, and journalist of the 19th century, promoted to the rank of "Pasha" after three decades in the service of the state.
Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.
Armenian (script), Armenian Alphabet, Armenian punctuation, Armenian script, Armeninan alphabet, Armn (script), Erkatagir, ISO 15924:Armn, Ա, Այբուբեն, Բ, Գ, Դ, Ե, Զ, Է, Ը, Թ, Ժ, Ի, Լ, Խ, Ծ, Կ, Հ, Ձ, Ղ, Ճ, Մ, Յ, Ն, Շ, Ո, Չ, Պ, Ջ, Ռ, Ս, Վ, Տ, Ր, Ց, Ւ, Փ, Ք, Օ, Ֆ, ՚, ՛, ՜, ՝, ՟, և.