196 relations: Abkhazia, Ablative case, Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe, Akhuryan, Akkadian language, Alphabet, Alveolar consonant, Anabasis (Xenophon), Analytic language, Anatolian languages, Anjar, Lebanon, Antoine Meillet, Aparan, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Armenia, Armenian alphabet, Armenian Braille, Armenian diaspora, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Highlands, Armenian hypothesis, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Armenian orthography reform, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenians, Armenians in Crimea, Armenians in Samtskhe–Javakheti, Artik, Asbarez, Aspirated consonant, Augment (linguistics), Auguste Carrière, Avestan, Back vowel, Bagratid Armenia, Bert Vaux, Bible, Brill Publishers, California, California Department of Motor Vehicles, California Department of Social Services, California executive branch, California superior courts, Caucasian Albanian alphabet, Central vowel, ..., Centum and satem languages, Clade, Classical Armenian, Classical Armenian orthography, Classical Latin, Classification des dialectes arméniens, Close vowel, Cognate, Committee on the Rights of the Child, Comparative method, Constantinople, Dative case, Dental consonant, Eastern Armenia, Eastern Armenian, Elâzığ, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, English language, Eric P. Hamp, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Full translation of the Behistun Inscription, Gavar, Genitive case, Georg Renatus Solta, Glendale, California, Glottal consonant, Glottalic theory, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical tense, Greek language, Gregory of Narek, Gyumri, Heinrich Hübschmann, Hemshin peoples, Holger Pedersen (linguist), Homshetsi dialect, Hurro-Urartian languages, Igor M. Diakonoff, Indigenous language, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Instrumental case, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iranian languages, Istanbul, J. P. Mallory, Jisr al-Shughur, Karin dialect, Kartvelian languages, Kessab, Labial consonant, Lake Sevan, Language family, Languages of the Caucasus, Laryngeal theory, Latakia, Latin, List of Indo-European languages, Loanword, Locative case, Los Angeles Times, Malatya, Mekhitarists, Mesrop Mashtots, Mid vowel, Middle Armenian, Mush dialect, Mutual intelligibility, Nakhichevan-on-Don, Nasal consonant, Nominative case, Northeast Caucasian languages, Old English, Old Irish, Open vowel, OpenDemocracy, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Palatal consonant, Parallelism (rhetoric), Parthian language, Paul de Lagarde, Persian language, Persian people, Phonological development, Phonology, Phrygian language, Pluricentric language, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Armenian language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-European homeland, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Qajar dynasty, Richard G. Hovannisian, Rowman & Littlefield, Russian Empire, Russian language, Samtskhe–Javakheti, Sanskrit, Shirak Province, Sivas, Sound change, Standard language, StarDict, Stop consonant, Sumerian language, Symplesiomorphy, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Syriac language, Talin, Armenia, Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze, Tbilisi, Tenuis consonant, Treaty of Lausanne, Trill consonant, Turkic loanwords in Armenian, University of Southern California, Urartian language, Uvular consonant, Vakıflı, Samandağ, Van, Turkey, Velar consonant, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voice onset time, Voicelessness, Vyacheslav Ivanov (philologist), Western Armenia, Western Armenian, World War I, Writing system, XDXF, Xenophon, Yerevan, Yerevan dialect, Yuxarı Əylis. Expand index (146 more) » « Shrink index
Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Akhalkalaki (ახალქალაქი, for New City (from Georgian ɑxɑli meaning "new" and kʰɑlɑkʰi meaning "city" or "town"); Ախալքալաք; Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
Akhaltsikhe (ახალციხე, literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις, (literally an "expedition up from")) is the most famous work, published in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.
Anjar (عنجر / ALA-LC: ‘Anjar; Անճար Anjar, meaning "unresolved or running river"), also known as Haoush Mousa (حوش موسى / Ḥawsh Mūsá), is a town of Lebanon located in the Bekaa Valley.
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet (11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century.
Aparan (Armenian: Ապարան), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia, located in the Aragatsotn Province, about 50 kilometers northwest of the capital Yerevan.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
Armenian Braille is either of two braille alphabets used for writing the Armenian language.
The Armenian diaspora refers to the communities of Armenians outside Armenia and other locations where Armenians are considered an indigenous population.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European homeland, proposed by Georgian Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Russian linguist Vyacheslav Ivanov in 1985, suggests that Proto-Indo-European was spoken during the 4th millennium BC in the Armenian Highlands.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.
The Armenian othography reform occurred between 1922 and 1924 in Soviet Armenia.
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians have maintained a presence in the Crimea since the Middle Ages.
Armenians in Samtskhe–Javakheti are ethnic Armenians of Georgian nationality living in the Samtskhe–Javakheti region of the Republic of Georgia.
Artik (Armenian: Արթիկ), is a town and urban municipal community in the Shirak Province of Armenia.
Asbarez (Ասպարէզ "Arena") is an Armenian-American bilingual daily newspaper published in Armenian and English in Los Angeles, California, by the Western USA Central Committee of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In linguistics, the augment is a syllable added to the beginning of the word in certain Indo-European languages, most notably Greek, Armenian and Indo-Iranian languages such as Sanskrit, to form the past tenses.
Auguste Carrière (19 August 1838, Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux – 25 January 1902, Paris) was a linguist, grammarian and French historian, specializing in comparative grammar and Armenian culture.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Հայաստան Bagratunyats Hayastan or Բագրատունիների թագավորություն, Bagratunineri t’agavorut’yun, "kingdom of the Bagratunis"), was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule.
Bert Vaux (born November 19, 1968, Houston, Texas) teaches phonology and morphology at the University of Cambridge.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the state agency that registers motor vehicles and boats and issues driver's licenses in the U.S. state of California.
The California Department of Social Services (CDSS) is a California state agency for many of the programs defined as part of the social safety net in the United States, and is within the auspices of the California Health and Human Services Agency.
The California executive branch consists of elected officers and other offices and officers.
Superior courts in California are the state trial courts with general jurisdiction to hear and decide any civil or criminal action which is not specially designated to be heard in some other court or before a governmental agency.
The Caucasian Albanian alphabet was an alphabet used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient and indigenous Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Daghestan.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
Classical Armenian orthography, traditional orthography or Mashtotsian orthography (Հայերէնի դասական ուղղագրութիւն in classical orthography and Հայերենի դասական ուղղագրություն in reformed orthography, Hayereni tasagan ughakrutyun), is the orthography that was developed by Mesrop Mashtots in the 5th century for writing Armenian and reformed during the early 19th century.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Classification des dialectes arméniens (Classification of Armenian dialects) is a 1909 book by the Armenian linguist Hrachia Adjarian, published in Paris.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is a body of independent experts that monitors and reports on implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child by governments that ratify the Convention.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Eastern Armenia (Արևելյան Հայաստան Arevelyan Hayastan) is a term used by Armenians to refer to the eastern parts of the Armenian Highlands, the traditional homeland of the Armenian people.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
Elazığ) is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative center of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1067 metres. Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.http://www.kultur.gov.tr/genel/medya/iltanitimbrosuru-eng/elazig_eng.pdf Elazığ initially developed in 1834 as an extension of the historic city of Harput, which was situated on a hill and difficult to access in winter.
The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (abbreviation: EIEC) is an encyclopedia of Indo-European studies and the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eric Pratt Hamp (born November 16, 1920) is an American linguist widely respected as a leading authority on Indo-European linguistics, with particular interests in Celtic languages and Albanian.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
The following translation of the Behistun Inscription was made by L.W. King and R.C. Thompson Where names are rendered by the Greek or Biblical form, the Persian original regularly follows in square brackets.
Gavar (Գավառ), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia serving as the administrative centre of Gegharkunik Province.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Georg Renatus Solta (18 April 1919 in Vienna – 2 May 2005) was an Austrian Indo-Europeanist who specialized in Balkan linguistics.
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottalic theory is that Proto-Indo-European had ejective stops,, instead of the plain voiced ones,, hypothesized by the usual Proto-Indo-European phonological reconstructions.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory of Narek (Գրիգոր Նարեկացի Grigor Narekatsi, Western Armenian: Krikor Naregatsi; 9511003) was an Armenian monk, poet, mystical philosopher, theologian, and composer who is venerated as a Saint by both the Armenian Apostolic and Roman Catholic Churches.
Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.
Johann Heinrich Hübschmann (1 July 1848 – 20 January 1908) was a German philologist.
The Hemshin people (Համշենցիներ, Hamshentsiner; Hemşinliler), also known as Hemshinli or Hamshenis or Homshetsi, are a diverse group of peoples who in the past or present have been affiliated with the Hemşin district in the province of Rize, Turkey.
Holger Pedersen (7 April 1867 – 25 October 1953) was a Danish linguist who made significant contributions to language science and wrote about 30 authoritative works concerning several languages.
The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, comprising only two known languages: Hurrian and Urartian, both of which were spoken in the Taurus mountains area.
Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
James Patrick Mallory (born 1945) is an Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist.
Jisr ash-Shugur (جسر الشغور,, Cisr eş-ŞuğurGünümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri. — ORSAM Rapor № 83. ORSAM – Ortadoğu Türkmenleri Programı Rapor № 14. Ankara — Kasım 2011, 33 pages. also spelled Jisr al-Shughour) is a city in the Idlib Governorate in northwestern Syria.
The Karin dialect (Կարնոյ բարբառ, Karno barbař) is a Western Armenian dialect originally spoken in and around the city of Erzurum (called Karin by Armenians), now located in eastern Turkey.
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
Kessab, Kesab or Kasab (كسب, Քեսապ, Kesab) is a mostly Armenian-populated town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located 59 kilometers north of Latakia.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lake Sevan (Սևանա լիճ, Sevana lič̣) is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The laryngeal theory aims to produce greater regularity in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonology than from the reconstruction that is produced by the comparative method.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Indo-European languages include some 439 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Malatya (Մալաթիա Malat'ya; Meletî; ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná; مالاتيا) is a large city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital of Malatya Province.
The Mekhitarists (Մխիթարեաններ, Mkhit'areanner, also spelled Mechitarists) are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church founded in 1717 by Abbot Mekhitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts and their research on classical and modern Armenian language. The congregation was long divided into two branches, with the respective motherhouses being in Venice and Vienna. In July 2000 they united to form one institute.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Cilician Armenian, also called Middle Armenian, but the former term may be confused for modern dialects, corresponds to the second period in written Armenian with which numerous books were published between the 12th and 18th centuries.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nakhichevan-on-Don (Нахичевань-на-Дону, Naxičevan’-na-Donu), also known as New Nakhichevan (Նոր Նախիջևան, Nor Naxiĵevan; as opposed to the "old" Nakhichevan), was a city near Rostov-on-Don, in southern Russia founded in 1779 by Armenians from Crimea.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
openDemocracy is a United Kingdom-based political website.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Parallelism is a rhetorical device that compounds words or phrases that have equivalent meanings so as to create a definite pattern.
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
Paul Anton de Lagarde (2 November 1827 – 22 December 1891) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist, sometimes regarded as one of the greatest orientalists of the 19th century.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Sound is at the beginning of language learning.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Asia Minor during Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE to 5th century CE).
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The Proto-Albanian language is the unattested language from which Albanian later developed.
Proto-Armenian is the earlier, unattested stage of the Armenian that has been reconstructed by linguists.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
The Proto-Indo-European homeland (or Indo-European homeland) was the prehistoric urheimat of the Indo-European languages – the region where their reconstructed common ancestor, the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), was originally spoken.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Richard Gable Hovannisian (Ռիչարդ Հովհաննիսյան, born November 9, 1932) is an Armenian American historian and professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Samtskhe–Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), is a region (Mkhare) formed in 1995 in southern Georgia from the historical provinces of Meskheti (Samtskhe), Javakheti and Tori (Borjomi gorge).
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Shirak (Շիրակ), is a province (marz) of Armenia.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
StarDict, developed by Hu Zheng (胡正), is a free GUI released under the GPL for accessing StarDict dictionary files (a dictionary shell).
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Talin (Թալին), is a town and urban municipal community in the Aragatsotn Province of Armenia.
Tamaz (Thomas) Valerianis dze Gamkrelidze (Georgian: თამაზ ვალერიანის ძე გამყრელიძე, Тама́з Валериа́нович Гамкрели́дзе; born 23 October 1929) is a distinguished Georgian linguist, orientalist public benefactor and Hittitologist, Academic (since 1974) and President (since February, 2005) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS), Doctor of Sciences (1963), Professor (1964).
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The vast majority of loanwords from the Turkic languages in the Armenian language are geographically located close to Turkic-speaking regions.
The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.
The Urartian or Vannic language was spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in the region of Lake Van, with its capital near the site of the modern town of Van, in the Armenian Highland, modern-day Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Vakıflı Köyü (Վաքըֆ Vak'ëf) is the only remaining Armenian village in Turkey.
Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In phonetics, voice onset time (VOT) is a feature of the production of stop consonants.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (Вячесла́в Все́володович Ива́нов, 21 August 1929 – 7 October 2017) was a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist, semiotician and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Armenian Highlands and Lake Urmia.
Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, Arevmdian Hayasdan) is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians.
Western Armenian (Classical spelling:, arevmdahayerên) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Eastern Armenian.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
XDXF (XML Dictionary eXchange Format) is a project to unite all existing open dictionaries and provide both users and developers with a universal XML-based format, convertible from and to other popular formats like Mova, PtkDic, and StarDict.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
The Yerevan dialect (Երևանի բարբառ Yerevani barbař) is an Eastern Armenian dialect spoken in and around Yerevan.
Yuxarı Əylis (Վերին Ագուլիս, Verin Agulis, both meaning "Upper Agulis/Əylis") is a village and municipality in the Ordubad Rayon of Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan.
Armenian (family), Armenian (language), Armenian Grammar, Armenian Language, Armenian grammar, Armenian languages, Armenian phonology, Armenian-language, Ashkharhabar, Haieren, Hayeren, Hwjtptu, ISO 639:hy, ISO 639:hye, ISO 639:hyx, Modern Armenian, Nuclear Armenian language, Zwjtptu, Հայերեն, Հայերէն.