187 relations: Absolute monarchy, Air force, American Revolutionary War, Aristocracy (class), Army aviation, Army group, Army of Northern Virginia, Auxilia, Barracks, Battalion, Battle of Castillon, Battle of the Ten Kings, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Brandenburg, Brigade, Brigadier, Brigadier general, British Army, Calais, Canada, Canton System (Prussia), Cavalry, Charles II of England, China, Chu (state), Cold War, Colonel, Compagnie d'ordonnance, Company (military unit), Conscription, Continental Army, Corps, Devshirme, Division (military), Douglas MacArthur, Dutch Republic, Eight Banners, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, England, English Civil War, Estates General (France), Expeditionary warfare, Fencibles, Field army, First American Regiment, First United States Army, France, Frederick William I of Prussia, French Air Force, French First Republic, ..., French language, French Revolutionary Wars, Fronde, Front (military formation), Ghazi (warrior), Grande Armée, Great Wall of China, Green Standard Army, Gupta Empire, Han (state), Heavy cavalry, Helots, Hesse, History of the Roman Empire, Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, Hoplite, Hundred Years' War, Imperial Russian Army, Indenture, India, Indian Army, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indus Valley Civilisation, Irregular military, Italy, Janissaries, Japan, Joseph Needham, Knight, Latin, Legion of the United States, Levée en masse, Lieutenant colonel, Lieutenant general, List of armies, List of armies by country, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of numbered armies, List of Soviet armies, Logistics, Longbow, Major, Major general, Mamluk, Manchu people, Mao Zedong, Marian reforms, Maurya Empire, Mercenary, Middle Ages, Military, Military branch, Military deception, Military district, Military history, Military organization, Military reserve force, Militia, Ming dynasty, Modern warfare, Monarch, Motilal Banarsidass, Nanda Empire, Napoleon, Nation, Nation state, National Defence Act, Native Americans in the United States, Nobility, Old French, Ottoman Empire, Paramilitary, Peasant, People's Liberation Army, People's Liberation Army Ground Force, Peter the Great, Piedmont, Pike (weapon), Portsmouth, Prussia, Prussian Army, Qi (state), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Rajput, Ratha, Red Army, Regular army, Roman army, Roman legion, Roman Republic, Russia, Scholar-official, Science and Civilisation in China, Scutage, Serfdom, Seven Military Classics, Siege of Calais (1558), Skirmisher, Soldier, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Union, Spartan army, Spring and Autumn Annals, Standing army, State (polity), Streltsy, Sun Tzu, Swiss Armed Forces, Switzerland, Taille, Takeda Shingen, Terracotta Army, The Art of War, Theater (warfare), Tributary state, Troop, Tsar, United States Military Academy, Võ Nguyên Giáp, Veteran, Vietnam War, Viktor Suvorov, Visigoths, Wallonia, Walloon Guards, War, War elephant, Warring States period, Wei (state), World War I, World War II, Xi'an, Yan (state), Yeomen of the Guard, Zhao (state), 2nd Armored Division (United States). Expand index (137 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
An army aviation unit is an aviation-related unit of a nation's army, sometimes described as an air corps.
An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods.
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.
A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Castillon was a battle fought on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne (later Castillon-la-Bataille).
The Battle of the Ten Kings is a battle alluded to in the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4–8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canton System (German: Kantonsystem or Kantonssystem) or Canton Regulation (Kantonreglement) was a system of recruitment used by the Prussian army between 1733 and 1813.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
The compagnie d'ordonnance system was the first standing army of late medieval and early modern France and the forefather of the modern company.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.
Devshirme (دوشيرمه, devşirme, literally "lifting" or "collecting"), also known as the blood tax or tribute in blood, was chiefly the practice where by the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take Christian boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in Eastern and Southeastern Europe in order that they be raised to serve the state.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
Expeditionary warfare is the deployment of a state's military to fight abroad, especially away from established bases.
The Fencibles (from the word defencible) were British regiments raised in the United Kingdom and in the colonies for defence against the threat of invasion during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.
The First American Regiment (also known as Harmar's Regiment, The United States Regiment, The Regiment of Infantry, 1st Sub-legion, 1st Regiment of Infantry and 1st Infantry Regiment) was the first peacetime regular army Infantry unit authorized by United States Congress after the American Revolutionary War.
The First Army is the oldest and longest established field army of the United States Army, having seen service in both World War I and World War II, under some of the most famous and distinguished officers of the U.S. Army.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
The French Air Force (Armée de l'Air Française), literally Aerial Army) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 241 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 133 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.
A front (фронт, front) is a type of military formation that originated in the Russian Empire, and has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Soviet Army, and Turkey.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
The Green Standard Army (Manchu: niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran) was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty China.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Han (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China, located in modern-day Shanxi and Henan.
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.
The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD.
Her Majesty's Body Guard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms is a bodyguard to the British Monarch.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
An indenture is a legal contract that reflects or covers a debt or purchase obligation.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Irregular military is any non-standard military component that is distinct from a country's national armed forces.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Legion of the United States was a reorganization and extension of the Continental Army from 1792 to 1796 under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne.
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The article provides links to lists of armies arranged by ordinal number, name, country or conflict.
This is a list of Armies (Land Forces) of the countries of the World.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of armies arranged by ordinal number.
An army, besides the generalized meanings of ‘a country's armed forces’ or its ‘land forces’, is a type of formation in militaries of various countries, including the Soviet Union.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
A longbow is a type of bow that is tall – roughly equal to the height of the user – allowing the archer a fairly long draw, at least to the jaw.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state.
Military deception refers to attempts to mislead enemy forces during warfare.
Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Defence Act (NDA; French: Loi sur la défense nationale; LDN) is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada's military.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
The People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF) is the land-based service branch of the People's Liberation Army and it is the largest and oldest branch of the entire Chinese armed forces.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Ratha (Sanskrit: रथ,, Avestan raθa) is the Indo-Iranian term for a spoked-wheel chariot or a cart of antiquity.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces), contrasting with irregular forces, such as volunteer irregular militias, private armies, mercenaries, etc.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.
Science and Civilisation in China (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995).
Scutage is a medieval English tax levied on holders of a knight's fee under the feudal land tenure of knight-service.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The Seven Military Classics were seven important military texts of ancient China, which also included Sun-tzu's The Art of War.
The Siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spartan army stood at the center of the Spartan state, whose citizens trained in the disciplines and honor of a warrior society.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Streltsy (t; стреле́ц) were the units of Russian firearm infantry from the 16th to the early 18th centuries and also a social stratum, from which personnel for Streltsy troops were traditionally recruited.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles in Ancien Régime France.
, of Kai Province, was a pre-eminent daimyō in feudal Japan with exceptional military prestige in the late stage of the Sengoku period.
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
A troop is a military sub-subunit, originally a small formation of cavalry, subordinate to a squadron.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
Võ Nguyên Giáp (25 August 1911 – 4 October 2013) was a Vietnamese general in the Vietnam People's Army and a politician.
A veteran (from Latin vetus, meaning "old") is a person who has had long service or experience in a particular occupation or field.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, Влади́мир Богда́нович Резу́н, born April 20, 1947, in Barabash, Primorsky Krai, and known as Viktor Suvorov (Ви́ктор Суво́ров), is a Russian writer and a former Soviet military intelligence officer who defected to the United Kingdom.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
The Walloon Guards (Gardes Wallonnes; in Spanish, Guardia Valona) were an infantry corps recruited for the Spanish Army in the region now known as Belgium, mainly from Catholic Wallonia.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wei (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Queen's Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard are a bodyguard of the British Monarch.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.
The 2nd Armored Division ("Hell on Wheels") was an armored division of the United States Army.
Armies, Army history, Ground Defense Force, Ground Forces, Ground forces, Ground formation, Ground formations, Ground units, History of the Army, Land Army, Land Force, Land force, Land forces, Vast armies.