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Arnold J. Toynbee

Index Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books. [1]

146 relations: A Study of History, Academy, Adolf Hitler, Aeon (digital magazine), Alas, Babylon, Albert O. Hirschman, Amazon River, American Historical Association, Ampleforth, Amu Darya, Another Roadside Attraction, Armenian Genocide, Arnold Toynbee, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Balliol College, Oxford, Barbara Ward, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth, BBC, BBC Radio 4, Brian Urquhart, British School at Athens, Bruce Mazlish, Byzantine Empire, Carroll Quigley, Charity Organization Society, Charles A. Beard, Charles L. Harness, Chatham House, Christopher Bayly, Christopher Dawson, Civilization (video game), Columba Cary-Elwes, Comparative history, Constable & Robinson, Constantine VII, D. C. Somervell, Daisaku Ikeda, E. W. F. Tomlin, Earl of Cromer, Encyclopædia Britannica, England, Eric Voegelin, Ernst Robert Curtius, Fernand Braudel, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Frederick Buechner, George F. Kennan, George Urban, German Historical Institutes, Gifford Lectures, Gilbert Murray, ..., Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), H. A. L. Fisher, H. G. Wells, Harold Innis, Harold Temperley, Herodotus, Historian, History of modern Greece, History of the world, Holt McDougal, International relations, Iraq, James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, Jane Caplan, Jared Diamond, Jürgen Osterhammel, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jewish state, Jocelyn Toynbee, John McNeill (botanist), Joseph Toynbee, Journal of World History, Kenneth Clark, King's College London, Kyoto Sangyo University, Lewis Mumford, Lewis Namier, Literae Humaniores, London, London School of Economics, Maule River, Medieval Latin, Michael Adas, Natalie Zemon Davis, Niger River, Nile, Oswald Spengler, Oxford University Press, Palestine (region), Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Peter Lang (publisher), Philip Toynbee, Philosophy of history, Pierre Laval, Pitirim Sorokin, Plutarch, Political Intelligence Department (1918–1920), Polly Toynbee, Polybius, Porter Sargent, Princeton University Press, R. G. Collingwood, Ralf Dahrendorf, Ray Bradbury, Raymond Aron, Reith Lectures, Richard L. Gage, Robert Borden, Russian Revolution, Short story, Social science, Soka Gakkai, Soka Gakkai International, Solomon Zeitlin, Sumer, Swinging Sixties, T. E. Lawrence, The Guardian, The Jewish Quarterly Review, The New York Review of Books, The Toynbee Convector, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, TheGuardian.com, Thucydides, Time (magazine), Tom Robbins, Toynbee tiles, Treaty of Versailles, Universal history, University of Denver, University of Edinburgh, University of London, University of Toronto Press, Will Durant, William H. McNeill (historian), Winchester College, World history, World War I, Xenophon, Yaakov Herzog, Yamuna, York, Zionism, 1940s in sociology, 1950s in sociology, 19th-century philosophy. Expand index (96 more) »

A Study of History

A Study of History is a 12-volume universal history by the British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, published in 1934–61.

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Academy

An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aeon (digital magazine)

Aeon is a digital magazine of ideas, philosophy and culture.

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Alas, Babylon

Alas, Babylon is a 1959 novel by American writer Pat Frank (the pen name of Harry Hart Frank) It was one of the first apocalyptic novels of the nuclear age and has remained popular more than half century after it was first published, consistently ranking in Amazon.com's Top 20 Science Fiction Short Stories list (which groups together short story collections and novels) and has an entry in David Pringle's book Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels.

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Albert O. Hirschman

Albert Otto Hirschman (born Otto-Albert Hirschmann; April 7, 1915 – December 10, 2012) was an influential economist and the author of several books on political economy and political ideology.

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Amazon River

The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.

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American Historical Association

The American Historical Association (AHA) is the oldest and largest society of historians and professors of history in the United States.

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Ampleforth

Ampleforth is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England, north of York.

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Amu Darya

The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.

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Another Roadside Attraction

Another Roadside Attraction is the first novel by Tom Robbins, published in 1971.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Arnold Toynbee

Arnold Toynbee (23 August 18529 March 1883) was a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.

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Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.

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Balliol College, Oxford

Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.

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Barbara Ward, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth

Barbara Mary Ward, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth, (23 May 1914 – 31 May 1981) was a British economist and writer interested in the problems of developing countries.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC Radio 4

BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.

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Brian Urquhart

Sir Brian Urquhart (born 28 February 1919) is a World War II veteran, author and a former Undersecretary-General of the United Nations.

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British School at Athens

The British School at Athens (BSA) (Βρετανική Σχολή Αθηνών) is one of the 17 Foreign Archaeological Institutes in Athens, Greece.

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Bruce Mazlish

Bruce Mazlish (September 15, 1923 – November 27, 2016) was an American historian who was a professor in the Department of History at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Carroll Quigley

Carroll Quigley (November 9, 1910 – January 3, 1977) was an American historian and theorist of the evolution of civilizations.

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Charity Organization Society

The Charity Organization Societies were founded in England in 1869 following the 'Goschen Minute' (Poor Law Board; 22nd Annual Report (1869–70), Appendix A No.4. Relief to the Poor in the Metropolis. PP XXXI, 1871) that sought to severely restrict outdoor relief distributed by the Poor Law Guardians.

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Charles A. Beard

Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.

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Charles L. Harness

Charles Leonard Harness (December 29, 1915 – September 20, 2005)Clute, John.

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Chatham House

The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.

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Christopher Bayly

Sir Christopher Alan Bayly, FBA, FRSL (18 May 1945 – 18 April 2015) was a British historian specializing in British Imperial, Indian and global history.

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Christopher Dawson

Christopher Henry Dawson FBA (12 October 1889, Hay Castle – 25 May 1970, Budleigh Salterton) was a British independent scholar, who wrote many books on cultural history and Christendom.

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Civilization (video game)

Sid Meier's Civilization is the first in a series of turn-based "4X"-type strategy video game created by Sid Meier and Bruce Shelley for MicroProse in 1991.

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Columba Cary-Elwes

Charles Evelyn George Cary-Elwes (6 November 1903 – 22 January 1994), professed a monk as Dom Columba Cary-Elwes, OSB, of Ampleforth Abbey in York, England.

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Comparative history

Comparative history is the comparison of different societies which existed during the same time period or shared similar cultural conditions.

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Constable & Robinson

Constable & Robinson Ltd. is an imprint of Little, Brown which publishes fiction and non-fiction books and ebooks.

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Constantine VII

Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.

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D. C. Somervell

David Churchill Somervell (16 July 1885– 17 January 1965) was an English historian and teacher.

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Daisaku Ikeda

is a Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocate.

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E. W. F. Tomlin

Eric Walter Frederick Tomlin CBE (30 January 1913 – 16 January 1988) was a British essayist, known mostly for many books and articles on philosophical topics.

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Earl of Cromer

Earl of Cromer is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, held by members of the Baring family, of German descent.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Eric Voegelin

Eric Voegelin (born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin;; January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a German-born American political philosopher.

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Ernst Robert Curtius

Ernst Robert Curtius (April 14, 1886 – April 19, 1956) was a German literary scholar, philologist, and Romance language literary critic, best known for his 1948 study Europäische Literatur und Lateinisches Mittelalter, translated in English as European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages.

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Fernand Braudel

Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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Frederick Buechner

Carl Frederick Buechner (born July 11, 1926) is an American writer and theologian.

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George F. Kennan

George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American diplomat and historian.

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George Urban

George Robert Urban, born Gyorgy Robert Ungar (12 April 1921 Miskolc, Hungary – 3 October 1997) was a Hungarian writer, best known as a broadcaster for Radio Free Europe (RFE).

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German Historical Institutes

The German Historical Institutes (GHI), Deutsche Historische Institute, (DHI) are six independent academic research institutes of the Max Weber Foundation dedicated to the study of historical relations between Germany and the host countries in which they are based.

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Gifford Lectures

The Gifford Lectures are an annual series of lectures which were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887).

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Gilbert Murray

George Gilbert Aimé Murray, (2 January 1866 – 20 May 1957) was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres.

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Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.

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H. A. L. Fisher

Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher H.A.L. Fisher: A History of Europe, Volume II: From the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century to 1935, Glasgow: Fontana/Collins, 1984, p. i. (21 March 1865 – 18 April 1940) was an English historian, educator, and Liberal politician.

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H. G. Wells

Herbert George Wells.

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Harold Innis

Harold Adams Innis (November 5, 1894 – November 8, 1952) was a Canadian professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on media, communication theory, and Canadian economic history.

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Harold Temperley

Harold William Vazeille Temperley, (20 April 1879 – 11 July 1939) was a British historian, Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge from 1931, and Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Historian

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.

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History of modern Greece

The history of modern Greece covers the history of Greece from the recognition of its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire by the Great Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) in 1828, after the Greek War of Independence, to the present day.

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History of the world

The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.

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Holt McDougal

Holt McDougal is an American publishing company, a division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools.

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International relations

International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce

James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, (10 May 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.

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Jane Caplan

Jane Caplan is an academic and historian specialising in Nazi Germany and the history of the documentation of individual identity.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Jürgen Osterhammel

Jürgen Osterhammel (born 1952 in Wipperfürth, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German historian.

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Jewish state

The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe the nation state of Israel.

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Jocelyn Toynbee

Jocelyn Mary Catherine Toynbee, (3 March 1897 in Paddington, London – 31 December 1985 in OxfordMalcolm Todd,, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 4 July 2008) was an English archaeologist and art historian.

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John McNeill (botanist)

John McNeill (born 15 September 1933) is a British and Canadian botanist and museum director who has worked particularly on the plant order Caryophyllales.

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Joseph Toynbee

Joseph Toynbee FRS (30 December 1815 – 7 July 1866) was an English otologist, whose career was dedicated to pathological and anatomical studies of the ear.

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Journal of World History

The Journal of World History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that presents historical analysis from a global point of view, focusing especially on forces that cross the boundaries of cultures and civilizations, including large-scale population movements, economic fluctuations, transfers of technology, the spread of infectious diseases, long-distance trade, and the spread of religious faiths, ideas, and values.

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Kenneth Clark

Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron Clark (13 July 1903 – 21 May 1983) was a British art historian, museum director, and broadcaster.

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King's College London

King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Kyoto Sangyo University

is a private university in Kita-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan.

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Lewis Mumford

Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic.

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Lewis Namier

Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (27 June 1888 – 19 August 1960) was a British historian of Polish-Jewish background.

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Literae Humaniores

Literae Humaniores is the name given to an undergraduate course focused on Classics (Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Latin, ancient Greek and philosophy) at the University of Oxford and some other universities.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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London School of Economics

The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Maule River

The Maule river or Río Maule (Mapudungun: rainy) is one of the most important rivers of Chile.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Michael Adas

Michael Adas (born 4 February 1943 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American historian and currently the Abraham E. Voorhees Professor of History at Rutgers University.

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Natalie Zemon Davis

Natalie Zemon Davis, (born 8 November 1928) is a Canadian and American historian of the early modern period.

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Niger River

The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Oswald Spengler

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Peter Lang (publisher)

Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.

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Philip Toynbee

Theodore Philip Toynbee (25 June 1916 – 15 June 1981) was a British writer and communist.

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Philosophy of history

Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.

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Pierre Laval

Pierre Jean-Marie Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician.

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Pitirim Sorokin

Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин, – 10 February 1968) was a Russian-born American sociologist and political activist, best known for his contributions to the social cycle theory.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Political Intelligence Department (1918–1920)

The Political Intelligence Department (1918–1920) was a department of the British Foreign Office created towards the end of World War I. It was created on 11 March 1918 by Permanent Under-Secretary Lord Hardinge.

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Polly Toynbee

Mary Louisa "Polly" Toynbee (born 27 December 1946) is a British journalist and writer.

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Polybius

Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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Porter Sargent

Porter Edward Sargent (June 6, 1872 – March 27, 1951), born in Brooklyn, New York, was a prominent educational critic and founder of Porter Sargent Publishers in Boston in 1915.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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R. G. Collingwood

Robin George Collingwood, FBA (22 February 1889 – 9 January 1943), was an English philosopher, historian and archaeologist.

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Ralf Dahrendorf

Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, (1 May 1929 – 17 June 2009) was a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and liberal politician.

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Ray Bradbury

Ray Douglas Bradbury (August 22, 1920June 5, 2012) was an American author and screenwriter.

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Raymond Aron

Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals.

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Reith Lectures

The Reith Lectures is a series of annual radio lectures given by leading figures of the day, commissioned by the BBC and broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and the BBC World Service.

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Richard L. Gage

Richard L. Gage is an American historian.

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Robert Borden

Sir Robert Laird Borden, (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the eighth Prime Minister of Canada, in office from 1911 to 1920.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Short story

A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Soka Gakkai

is a Japanese Buddhist religious movement based on the teachings of the 13th-century Japanese priest Nichiren as taught by its first three presidents Tsunesaburō Makiguchi, Jōsei Toda and Daisaku Ikeda.

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Soka Gakkai International

The Soka Gakkai International (SGI—"Value Creation Association International") is an international Nichiren Buddhist organization founded in 1975 by Daisaku Ikeda.

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Solomon Zeitlin

Solomon Zeitlin, שְׁלֹמֹה צײטלין, Шломо Цейтлин Shlomo Cejtlin (Tseitlin, Tseytlin) (28 May 1886 or 31 May 1892, in Chashniki, Vitebsk Governorate (now in Vitebsk Region) in Russia – 28 December 1976, in United States) was a Jewish historian, Talmudic scholar and in his time the world’s leading authority on the Second Commonwealth.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Swinging Sixties

Swinging Sixties was a youth-driven cultural revolution that took place in the UK during the mid-to-late 1960s, emphasising modernity and fun-loving hedonism, with Swinging London as its epicentre.

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T. E. Lawrence

Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Jewish Quarterly Review

The Jewish Quarterly Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering Jewish studies.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The Toynbee Convector

"The Toynbee Convector" is a science fiction short story by American writer Ray Bradbury.

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The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles

The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is an American television series that aired on ABC from March 4, 1992, to July 24, 1993.

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TheGuardian.com

TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.

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Thucydides

Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tom Robbins

Thomas Eugene "Tom" Robbins (born July 22, 1932) is an American novelist.

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Toynbee tiles

The Toynbee tiles (also called Toynbee plaques) are messages of unknown origin found embedded in asphalt of streets in about two dozen major cities in the United States and four South American cities.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Universal history

A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.

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University of Denver

The University of Denver (DU) is a research coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado.

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University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.

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University of London

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.

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University of Toronto Press

The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.

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Will Durant

William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.

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William H. McNeill (historian)

William Hardy McNeill (October 31, 1917 – July 8, 2016) was a historian and author, noted for his argument that contact and exchange among civilizations is what drives human history forward, first postulated in The Rise of the West (1963).

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Winchester College

Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire.

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World history

World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Xenophon

Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Yaakov Herzog

Yaakov Herzog (יעקב הרצוג, 11 December 1921 – 9 March 1972) (50) was an Israeli diplomat.

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Yamuna

The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.

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York

York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.

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Zionism

Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

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1940s in sociology

The following events related to sociology occurred in the 1940s.

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1950s in sociology

The following events related to sociology occurred in the 1950s.

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19th-century philosophy

In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.

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Arnold J. Toynbee CH, Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Arnold Joseph Toynbee CH, Arnold Toynbee History Prize, Toynbee Foundation, Toynbee Prize, Toynbee Prize Foundation, Toynbee's law of challenge and response, Toynbee's law of challenge and response..

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_J._Toynbee

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