335 relations: Acute promyelocytic leukemia, Adamsite, Adenosine triphosphate, Adsorption, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Agent Blue, Agriculture, Albertus Magnus, Alkaline copper quaternary, Allotropes of phosphorus, Allotropy, Aluminium, Aluminium arsenide, Ammunition, Antibiotic, Apoptosis, Aqua Tofana, Aquifer, Argentina, Arsenate, Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin), Arsenic acid, Arsenic biochemistry, Arsenic contamination of groundwater, Arsenic pentachloride, Arsenic pentafluoride, Arsenic pentoxide, Arsenic poisoning, Arsenic trioxide, Arsenic trisulfide, Arsenical bronze, Arsenide, Arsenite, Arsenobetaine, Arsenopyrite, Arsenous acid, Arsine, Arsphenamine, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Australia, Automotive battery, Autopsy, Bacteria, Band gap, Belgium, Beta decay, Bioaugmentation, Bioremediation, Bleeding, ..., Blister agent, Borate, Brain damage, British Geological Survey, Broiler, Bromine, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bronzing, Building material, Bulgaria, Bullet, Cacodyl, Cacodylic acid, Cadet's fuming liquid, Cadmium arsenide, Calcium arsenate, Cambodia, Cancer, Candy, Carcinogen, Carcinogenesis, Catalysis, Chalk, Chao Phraya River, Chemical element, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Chemotroph, Chicken, Chile, Chromated copper arsenate, Citric acid cycle, Cobalt, Coenzyme A, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colombia, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, Complexion, Consumer Reports, Copper, CRC Press, Crust (geology), Crystal, Cysteine, D-block contraction, Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC), Dartmouth College, DDT, Dead zone (ecology), Denmark, Detoxification, Dimercaprol, Direct and indirect band gaps, Disodium methyl arsonate, Dispersity, Dopant, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, Egypt, Electricity, Electron, Electron donor, Electronic band structure, Enzyme, Epigenetics, European Union, Feed conversion ratio, Finland, Folk etymology, Food and Drug Administration, Food chain, Food coloring, Fowler's solution, Fruit tree, Function (biology), Fungus, Gallium arsenide, Gammaproteobacteria, Garlic, Geological Survey of Canada, Germanium, GFAJ-1, Gold, Gradient, Grainger challenge, Greek language, Groundwater, Group (periodic table), Gulf of Mexico, Half-life, Hazard, Herbicide, Heterotroph, Homology (biology), Humidity, Hungary, Hygroscopy, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, Immediately dangerous to life or health, India, Indium arsenide, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, Insect, Insecticide, Integrated circuit, Intermetallic, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Association of Hydrogeologists, Iodine, Iron, Isotope, Japan, Johann Schröder, Jordan, Kalgoorlieite, Kidney, Landfill, Laser diode, Lead, Lead hydrogen arsenate, Lewisite, Light, Light-emitting diode, Lipoic acid, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, List of semiconductor materials, Liver, Lone pair, Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt, Lung, Magnetite, Magyar Nemzet, Marsh test, Mehmet Oz, Metabolite, Metal, Metalloid, Methylation, Mexico, Michigan, Microascus brevicaulis, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Minnesota, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Monoisotopic element, Monosodium methyl arsonate, Morocco, Mucous membrane, Murder, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nanocrystal, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Science Foundation, Necrosis, Neosalvarsan, New England, New Zealand, Nickel, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitarsone, Nitric acid, Non-governmental organization, Norway, Nuclear isomer, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid sequence, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Optoelectronics, Organ dysfunction, Organoarsenic chemistry, Organometallic chemistry, Orpiment, Oxford University Press, Oxidation state, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxide, Oxygen, P16, P53, Paris green, Parts-per notation, Paul Ehrlich, PDF, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Persian language, Pesticide, Phar Lap, Philippines, Phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorous acid, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Phytoremediation, Pig farming, Pigment, Poison, Poland, Positron emission tomography, Potassium acetate, Poultry farming, Poultry feed, Precipitation (chemistry), Propiconazole, Psoriasis, Pteris vittata, PubMed, Pyrite, Pyrotechnics, Pyruvate dehydrogenase, Radionuclide, Rainbow Herbicides, Realgar, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Reinsch test, RNA, Roasting (metallurgy), Roxarsone, Russia, San Pedro de Atacama, Scheele's Green, Science (journal), Selective leaching, Selenium, Semiconductor, Semimetal, Shot (pellet), Silicon, Singapore, Skutterudite, Soil, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Space group, Stimulant, Strain (biology), Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superfund, Superfund Research Program, Sweden, Syphilis, Syriac language, Tetrahedron, Thailand, Thiol, Thomas Fowler (inventor), Tobacco smoke, Toxic heavy metal, Toxicity, Toxics Release Inventory, TOXMAP, Tretinoin, Trimethylarsine, Triple point, Trypanosomiasis, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, United States National Library of Medicine, University of Maine, Victorian era, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Vinegar, Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh, Water well, West Bengal, White blood cell, Wisconsin, Wood preservation, World Health Organization, World War I, Zoetis, Zosimos of Panopolis, 1858 Bradford sweets poisoning. 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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.
Adamsite or DM is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine, that can be used as a riot control agent.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Agent Blue, (CH3)2AsOOH, obtained by the oxidation of cacodyl, and having the properties of an exceedingly stable acid; is one of the "rainbow herbicides" that is known for its use by the United States during the Vietnam War.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Alkaline Copper Quaternary (also known as ACQ) is a water based wood preservative method recently introduced in countries where there is a demand for alternatives to Chromated copper arsenate (CCA).
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium arsenide or aluminum arsenide is a semiconductor material with almost the same lattice constant as gallium arsenide and aluminium gallium arsenide and wider band gap than gallium arsenide.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aqua Tofana (also known as Acqua Toffana, Aqua Tophana, and Aqua Tufania and "Manna di San Nicola") was a strong poison that was reputedly widely used in Naples and Rome, Italy.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The arsenate ion is.
Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are arsenate and glutaredoxin, whereas its 3 products are arsenite, glutaredoxin disulfide, and water.
Arsenic acid is the chemical compound with the formula H3AsO4.
Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.
Arsenic pentachloride is a chemical compound of arsenic and chlorine.
Arsenic pentafluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine.
Arsenic pentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2O5.
Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body.
Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula.
Arsenic trisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2S3.
Arsenical bronze is an alloy in which arsenic, as opposed to or in addition to tin or other constituent metals, is added to copper to make bronze.
In chemistry, an arsenide is a compound of arsenic with a less electronegative element or elements.
In chemistry, an arsenite is a chemical compound containing an arsenic oxoanion where arsenic has oxidation state +3.
Arsenobetaine is an organoarsenic compound that is the main source of arsenic found in fish.
Arsenopyrite is an iron arsenic sulfide (FeAsS).
Arsenous acid (or arsenious acid) is the inorganic compound with the formula H3AsO3.
Arsine is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3.
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Biological augmentation is the addition of archaea or bacterial cultures required to speed up the rate of degradation of a contaminant.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
A blister agent, or vesicant, is a chemical compound that causes severe skin, eye and mucosal pain and irritation.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
A broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) is any chicken that is bred and raised specifically for meat production.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bronzing is a process by which a bronze-like surface is applied to other materials (metallic or non-metallic).
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
Cacodyl, also known as dicacodyl or tetramethyldiarsine, (CH3)2As—As(CH3)2, is an organoarsenic compound that constitutes a major part of "Cadet's fuming liquid" (named after the French chemist Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt).
Cacodylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2AsO2H.
Cadet's fuming liquid was a red-brown oily liquid prepared in 1760 by the French chemist Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt (1731-1799) by the reaction of potassium acetate with arsenic trioxide.
Cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2) is an inorganic semimetal in the II-V family.
Calcium arsenate is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3(AsO4)2.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
The Chao Phraya (แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา, or) is the major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a wood preservative that has been used for timber treatment since the mid-1930s.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public website and research tool launched in November 2004 that curates scientific data describing relationships between chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, GO annotations, pathways, and interaction modules.
Complexion in humans is the natural color, texture, and appearance of the skin, especially on the face.
Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
The d-block contraction (sometimes called scandide contraction) is a term used in chemistry to describe the effect of having full d orbitals on the period 4 elements.
The Dangerous Substances Directive (as amended) was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008), starting in 2016.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
In semiconductor physics, the band gap of a semiconductor is of two types, a direct band gap or an indirect band gap.
Disodium methyl arsonate (DSMA) is the organoarsenic compound with the formula CH3AsO3Na2.
A monodisperse, or uniform, polymer is composed of molecules of the same mass.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
The Ectothiorhodospiraceae are a family of purple sulfur bacteria, distinguished by producing sulfur globules outside of their cells.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In animal husbandry, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or feed conversion rate is a ratio or rate measuring of the efficiency with which the bodies of livestock convert animal feed into the desired output.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Fowler's solution is a solution containing 1% potassium arsenite (KAsO2), and once prescribed as a remedy or a tonic.
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.
In biology, function has been defined in many ways.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC; Commission géologique du Canada (CGC)) is a Canadian federal government agency responsible for performing geological surveys of the country, developing Canada's natural resources and protecting the environment.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
GFAJ-1 is a strain of rod-shaped bacteria in the family Halomonadaceae.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
The Grainger challenge is a scientific competition to find an economical way to remove arsenic from arsenic-contaminated groundwater.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hazard is an agent which has the potential to cause harm to a vulnerable target.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indium arsenide, InAs, or indium monoarsenide, is a semiconductor composed of indium and arsenic.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part in 1015 (part per quadrillion, ppq) on non-interfered low-background isotopes.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is a scientific and educational organisation whose aims are to promote research into and understanding of the proper management and protection of groundwater for the common good throughout the world.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Johann Schröder (1600, Bad Salzuflen – 1664) was a German physician and pharmacologist who was the first person to recognise that arsenic was an element.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kalgoorlieite (IMA2015-119) is a recently identified mineral from Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead hydrogen arsenate, also called lead arsenate, acid lead arsenate or LA, chemical formula PbHAsO4, is an inorganic insecticide used primarily against the potato beetle.
Lewisite (L) is an organoarsenic compound.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt (24 July 1731 – 17 October 1799) was a French chemist who synthesised the first organometalic compound.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Magyar Nemzet (Hungarian nation) was a major Hungarian newspaper published in Hungary.
The Marsh test is a highly sensitive method in the detection of arsenic, especially useful in the field of forensic toxicology when arsenic was used as a poison.
Mehmet Cengiz Öz (born June 11, 1960), better known as Dr.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Microascus brevicaulis is a microfungus in the Ascomycota.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
A monoisotopic element is one of 26 chemical elements which have only a single stable isotope (nuclide).
Monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) is an arsenic-based herbicide.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Nakhon Si Thammarat (นครศรีธรรมราช,; from Pali Nagara Sri Dhammaraja) is a city (thesaban nakhon) in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat Province and the Nakhon Si Thammarat District.
A nanocrystal is a material particle having at least one dimension smaller than 100 nanometres, based on quantum dots (a nanoparticle) and composed of atoms in either a single- or poly-crystalline arrangement.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neosalvarsan is a synthetic chemotherapeutic that is an organoarsenic compound.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nitarsone is an organoarsenic compound that is used in poultry production as a feed additive to increase weight gain, improve feed efficiency, and prevent histomoniasis (blackhead disease).
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.
Organ dysfunction is a condition where an organ does not perform its expected function.
Organoarsenic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing a chemical bond between arsenic and carbon.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Orpiment is a deep orange-yellow colored arsenic sulfide mineral with formula.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
p16 (also known as p16INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Paris green (copper(II) acetate triarsenite or copper(II) acetoarsenite) is an inorganic compound.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Phar Lap (4 October 1926 – 5 April 1932) was a champion Thoroughbred racehorse whose achievements captured the Australian public's imagination during the early years of the Great Depression.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorous acid is the compound described by the formula H3PO3.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.
Pig farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock, and is a branch of animal husbandry.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium acetate (KCH3COO) is the potassium salt of acetic acid.
Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food.
Poultry feed is food for farm poultry, including chickens, ducks, geese and other domestic birds.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Propiconazole is a triazole fungicide, also known as a DMI, or demethylation inhibiting fungicide due to its binding with and inhibiting the 14-alpha demethylase enzyme from demethylating a precursor to ergosterol.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Pteris vittata, commonly known variously as the Chinese brake, Chinese ladder brake, or simply ladder brake, is a fern species in the Pteridoideae subfamily of the Pteridaceae.
PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase is the first component enzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
The Rainbow Herbicides are a group of "tactical use" chemicals used by the United States military in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic".
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Reinsch test is an initial indicator to detect the presence of one or more of the following heavy metals in a biological sample, and is often used by toxicologists where poisoning by such metals is suspected.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
Roxarsone is an organoarsenic compound that was widely used in poultry production prior to June of 2011 as a feed additive to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency, and as a coccidiostat.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
San Pedro de Atacama is a Chilean town and commune in El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region.
Scheele's Green, also called Schloss Green, is chemically a cupric hydrogen arsenite (also called copper arsenite or acidic copper arsenite),.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Selective leaching, also called dealloying, demetalification, parting and selective corrosion, is a corrosion type in some solid solution alloys, when in suitable conditions a component of the alloys is preferentially leached from the material.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
A semimetal is a material with a very small overlap between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band.
Shot is a collective term for small balls or pellets, often made of lead.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Named after the city of Skotterud, Norway, Skutterudite is a cobalt arsenide mineral containing variable amounts of nickel and iron substituting for cobalt with a general formula: CoAs3.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
The Superfund Research Program (SRP) was created within the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in 1986 under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA).
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thomas Fowler (born 1777 in Great Torrington, Devon, England – died 31 March 1843) was an English inventor whose most notable invention was the thermosiphon which formed the basis of early hot water central heating systems.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available database containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities in the United States.
TOXMAP is a geographic information system (GIS) from the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to help users explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Superfund programs with visual projections and maps.
Tretinoin, also known as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), is medication used for the treatment of acne and acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Trimethylarsine (abbreviated TMA or TMAs) is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)3As, commonly abbreviated AsMe3 or TMAs.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The University of Maine (also referred to as UMaine, Maine or UMO) is a public research university in Orono, Maine, United States.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh is characterised by a number of achievements and challenges.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zoetis, Inc. (/zō-EH-tis/) is the world's largest producer of medicine and vaccinations for pets and livestock.
Zosimos of Panopolis (Ζώσιμος ὁ Πανοπολίτης; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Alchemista, i.e. "Zosimus the Alchemist") was an Egyptian alchemist and Gnostic mystic who lived at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century AD.
The 1858 Bradford sweets poisoning was the arsenic poisoning of more than 200 people in Bradford, England, when sweets accidentally made with arsenic were sold from a market stall.