291 relations: Abstract expressionism, Academic art, Aesthetic Realism, Aesthetic relativism, Aesthetics, Affective fallacy, African art, Age of Enlightenment, Agency (philosophy), Ancient Egypt, Ancient Near East, Ancient Roman pottery, Andres Serrano, Andy Warhol, Aniconism, Anti-art, Apollo, Applied arts, Aristotle, Art critic, Art criticism, Art movement, Art therapy, Art world, Artforum, Arthur Danto, Artist-in-residence, Artnet, Authorial intent, Autism, Avant-garde, Édouard Manet, Benedetto Croce, British Museum, Byzantine art, Carl Jung, Carol Armstrong, Carpentry, Catherine de Zegher, Cave painting, Ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Christopher Kasparek, Clement Greenberg, Clive Bell, Coin, Color theory, Commercial art, Communism, Composition (visual arts), Concept, ..., Conceptual art, Connotation, Constructivism (art), Contemporary art, Contour drawing, Contrast (vision), Craft, Crucifixion of Jesus, Cubism, Cylinder seal, Dada, Daily Mail, Damien Hirst, Dana Arnold, Darfur, Decorative arts, Decorum, Denis Dutton, Denotation, Depictions of Muhammad, Dithyramb, Egyptian temple, Elements of art, Elitism, Emotion, Emphasis (typography), Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, Epic poetry, Equestrianism, Ernst Gombrich, Etymology, Evolutionary psychology, Expressionism, Fauvism, Ferdinand de Saussure, Figurae, Fine art, Fisherian runaway, Florence, Formal balance, Formalism (art), Found object, Fountain (Duchamp), Fourth dimension in art, Francisco Goya, French Revolution, Geometry, George Dickie (philosopher), Globalization, Grand Tour, Griselda Pollock, Guernica (Picasso), Handicap principle, Harmony, Hayden White, Henri Matisse, Hierarchical proportion, History of Iran, Homer, Homo erectus, Human behavior, Human condition, Human trafficking, Iconoclasm, Iconography, Idea, Idealism, Iliad, Imagination, Immanuel Kant, Importance, Impressionism, Inca Empire, Interactive media, Ion (dialogue), Islamic architecture, Islamic art, Islamic calligraphy, Islamic geometric patterns, J. M. W. Turner, J. S. G. Boggs, Jacques Derrida, Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Jesus, Johann Georg Hamann, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Locke Lectures, John Ruskin, John Russon, John Singer Sargent, John Taylor Johnston, Judith Butler, Julia Kristeva, Kristine Stiles, Language, Languages of Art, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe, Leo Tolstoy, Leon Golub, Leonardo da Vinci, Lightness, Linda Nochlin, List of art media, List of postmodern critics, Louvre, Luce Irigaray, Marcel Duchamp, Marina DeBris, Mark Tansey, Martin Heidegger, Mathematics and art, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Maurizio Bolognini, Maya civilization, Meaning (semiotics), Medieval art, Melody, Mesopotamia, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Michael Fried, Michel Foucault, Michelangelo, Mimesis, Ming dynasty, Modern art, Modern Painters, Modernism, Molding (process), Monochrome painting, Monroe Beardsley, Morality, Museo del Prado, Muses, Napoleon, Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne, Negative space, Nelson Goodman, New Criticism, New Scientist, Nudity, Objectivity (philosophy), Olmecs, Outline of the visual arts, Oxford University Press, Pablo Picasso, Palace of Versailles, Palais-Royal, Peafowl, Peasant, Performance art, Performing arts, Perspective (graphical), Peter Selz, Petroglyph, Phaedrus (dialogue), Philosopher, Philosophy of language, Piss Christ, Plato, Pop art, Popular print, Portrait of Madame X, Post-structuralism, Postmodern art, Postmodernism, Prehistoric art, Principles of grouping, Printmaking, Prophecy, Public art, R. G. Collingwood, Reader-response criticism, Realism (arts), Reed Business Information, Relativism, Rembrandt, Renaissance art, Representation (arts), Republic (Plato), Richard Wollheim, Roger Fry, Roger Wolcott Sperry, Roland Barthes, Romanticism, Rosalind E. Krauss, Royal Collection, Royal manuscripts, British Library, Science, Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Singleness of heart, Situationist International, Skepticism, Socrates, Spray painting, Stanley Fish, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Stencil, Street art, Structuralism, Stuckism, Surrealism, Swoon of the Virgin, Symbolism (arts), T. J. Clark (art historian), Tanagra figurine, Tang dynasty, Tate, Techne, Terracotta Army, Texture (painting), Théodore Géricault, The arts, The Invention of Art, The Last Judgment (Michelangelo), The Observer, The Origin of the Work of Art, The Raft of the Medusa, Theodor W. Adorno, Theory of art, Tracey Emin, Trashion, Tree structure, Uffizi, Upper Paleolithic, Ute Meta Bauer, Video art, Video game, Vienna, Visual arts, Wang Ximeng, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Will Gompertz, William Blake, William K. Wimsatt, Woodblock printing, Woodcut, Work of art, Young British Artists, Zeitgeist. Expand index (241 more) » « Shrink index
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
Aesthetic Realism is a philosophy founded by poet and critic Eli Siegel (1902–1978) in 1941.
Aesthetic relativism is the idea that views of beauty are relative to differences in perception and consideration, and intrinsically, have no absolute truth or validity.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Affective fallacy is a term from literary criticism used to refer to the supposed error of judging or evaluating a text on the basis of its emotional effects on a reader.
African art describes the modern and historical paintings, sculptures, installations, and other visual culture from native or indigenous Africans and the African continent.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.
Andres Serrano (born August 15, 1950) is an American photographer and artist who has become famous through his photos of corpses and his use of feces and bodily fluids in his work, notably his controversial work "Piss Christ", a red-tinged photograph of a crucifix submerged in a glass container of what was purported to be the artist's own urine.
Andy Warhol (born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art.
Aniconism is the absence of material representations of the natural and supernatural world in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions.
Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday objects to make them aesthetically pleasing.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting and evaluating art.
Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
Art therapy (also known as arts therapy) is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique.
The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, commissioning, presenting, preserving, promoting, chronicling, criticizing, and selling fine art.
Artforum is an international monthly magazine specializing in contemporary art.
Arthur Coleman Danto (January 1, 1924 – October 25, 2013) was an American art critic and philosopher.
Artist-in-residence programs and other residency opportunities exist to invite artists, academicians, curators, to reside within the premises of an institution.
Artnet.com is an art market website.
In literary theory and aesthetics, authorial intent refers to an author's intent as it is encoded in his or her work.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
Carol Armstrong is an American professor, art historian, art critic, and photographer.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
Catherine de Zegher (born Groningen, April 14, 1955) is a prominent international curator, and a modern and contemporary art critic and art historian.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Native American pottery is an art form with at least a 7500-year history in the Americas.
Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a Scottish-born writer of Polish descent who has translated works by numerous authors, including Ignacy Krasicki, Bolesław Prus, Florian Znaniecki, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Marian Rejewski, and Władysław Kozaczuk, as well as the Polish-Lithuanian Constitution of 3 May 1791.
Clement Greenberg, occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994), was an American essayist known mainly as an influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art of the mid-20th century.
Arthur Clive Heward Bell (16 September 1881 – 18 September 1964) was an English art critic, associated with formalism and the Bloomsbury Group.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.
Commercial art is the art of creative services, referring to art created for commercial purposes, primarily advertising.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
In the visual arts, composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or 'ingredients' in a work of art, as distinct from the subject.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
Conceptual art, sometimes simply called conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns.
A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin.
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
Contour drawing, is an artistic technique used in the field of art in which the artist sketches the contour of a subject by drawing lines that result in a drawing that is essentially an outline; the French word contour meaning, “outline.” The purpose of contour drawing is to emphasize the mass and volume of the subject rather than the detail; the focus is on the outlined shape of the subject and not the minor details.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Damien Steven Hirst (born 7 June 1965) is an English artist, entrepreneur, and art collector.
Dana Rebecca Arnold is professor of architectural history and theory at the University of Middlesex, UK where she is currently director of the Centre for Ideas.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Decorum (from the Latin: "right, proper") was a principle of classical rhetoric, poetry and theatrical theory that was about the fitness or otherwise of a style to a theatrical subject.
The phrase "Dennis Dutton" redirects here.
Denotation is a translation of a sign to its meaning, precisely to its literal meaning, more or less like dictionaries try to define it.
The permissibility of depictions of Muhammad in Islam has been a contentious issue.
The dithyramb (διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god: Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb." Plato also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control.
A work of art can be analyzed by considering a variety of aspects of it individually.
Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, published in 1998 by Oxford University Press, is an encyclopedia that covers philosophical, historical, sociological, and biographical aspects of Art and Aesthetics worldwide.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
Figurae (singular, figura) are the non-signifying constituents of signifiers (signs).
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
Fisherian runaway or runaway selection is a sexual selection mechanism proposed by the mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher in the early 20th century, to account for the evolution of exaggerated male ornamentation by persistent, directional female choice.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Formal balance, also called symmetrical balance, is a concept of aesthetic composition involving equal weight and importance on both sides of a composition.
In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style.
Found object originates from the French objet trouvé, describing art created from undisguised, but often modified, objects or products that are not normally considered materials from which art is made, often because they already have a non-art function.
Fountain is a 1917 work produced by Marcel Duchamp.
New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space (and difficulties involved in trying to visualize it) helped inspire many modern artists in the first half of the twentieth century.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
George Dickie (born at 12. august 1926 in Palmetto, Florida) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University of Illinois at Chicago.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).
Griselda Pollock (born 11 March 1949) is a visual theorist, cultural analyst and scholar of international, postcolonial feminist studies in the visual arts.
Guernica is a mural-sized oil painting on canvas by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso completed in June 1937,Richardson (2016) at his home on Rue des Grands Augustins, in Paris.
The handicap principle is a hypothesis originally proposed in 1975 by Israeli biologist Amotz Zahavi to explain how evolution may lead to "honest" or reliable signaling between animals which have an obvious motivation to bluff or deceive each other.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
Hayden White (July 12, 1928 – March 5, 2018) was an American historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973/2014).
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Hierarchical proportion is a technique used in art, mostly in sculpture and painting, in which the artist uses unnatural proportion or scale to depict the relative importance of the figures in the artwork.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Importance is a subjective indicator of value.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Interactive media normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user's actions by presenting content such as text, moving image, animation, video, audio, and video games.
In Plato's Ion (Ἴων) Socrates discusses with the titular character, a professional rhapsode who also lectures on Homer, the question of whether the rhapsode, a performer of poetry, gives his performance on account of his skill and knowledge or by virtue of divine possession.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.
Islamic decoration, which tends to avoid using figurative images, makes frequent use of geometric patterns which have developed over the centuries.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
James Stephen George Boggs (January 16, 1955 – January 22, 2017) was an American artist, best known for his hand-drawn depictions of banknotes.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johann Georg Hamann (27 August 1730 – 21 June 1788) was a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student J. G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
The John Locke Lectures are a series of annual lectures in philosophy given at the University of Oxford.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
John Russon (born 1960) is a Canadian philosopher, working primarily in the tradition of Continental Philosophy.
John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury.
John Taylor Johnston was an American businessman and patron of the arts.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.
Kristine Stiles (born Kristine Elaine Dolan in Denver, Colorado, 1947) is the France Family Professor of Art, Art History and Visual Studies at Duke University.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols is a book by American philosopher Nelson Goodman.
Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (English: The Luncheon on the Grass) – originally titled Le Bain (The Bath) – is a large oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet created in 1862 and 1863.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Leon Golub (January 23, 1922 – August 8, 2004) was an American painter.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness.
Linda Nochlin (née Weinberg; January 30, 1931 – October 29, 2017) was an American art historian, Lila Acheson Wallace Professor Emerita of Modern Art at New York University Institute of Fine Arts, and writer.
Art media is the material used by an artist, composer or designer to create a work of art.
This is a list of postmodern literary critics.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Luce Irigaray (born 3 May 1930) is a Belgian-born French feminist, philosopher, linguist, psycholinguist, psychoanalyst and cultural theorist.
Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, conceptual art, and Dada, although he was careful about his use of the term Dada and was not directly associated with Dada groups.
Marina DeBris is the name used by an Australian based artist whose work focuses on reusing trash to raise awareness of ocean and beach pollution.
Mark Tansey (born 1949, San Jose, California) is an American painter.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Mathematics and art are related in a variety of ways.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Maurizio Bolognini (born July 27, 1952) is a post-conceptual media artist.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
In semiotics, the meaning of a sign is its place in a sign relation, in other words, the set of roles that it occupies within a given sign relation.
The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.
A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
Michael Martin Fried (born April 12, 1939 in New York City) is a modernist art critic and art historian.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
Modern Painters (1843–60) is a five-volume work by the eminent Victorian art critic, John Ruskin, begun when he was 24 years old.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
Monochromatic painting has been an important component of avant-garde visual art throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century.
Monroe Curtis Beardsley (December 10, 1915 – September 18, 1985) was an American philosopher of art.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne (Napoléon Ier sur le trône impérial) is an 1806 portrait of Napoleon I of France in his coronation costume, painted by the French painter Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.
Negative space, in art, is the space around and between the subject(s) of an image.
Henry Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906 – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, irrealism, and aesthetics.
New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nudity, or nakedness, is the state of wearing no clothing.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the visual arts: Visual arts – class of art forms, including painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking and others, that focus on the creation of works which are primarily visual in nature.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
Peter Selz (born March 27, 1919 in Munich) is an art historian of German Expressionism.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
Immersion (Piss Christ) is a 1987 photograph by the American artist and photographer Andres Serrano.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s.
Popular prints is a term for printed images of generally low artistic quality which were sold cheaply in Europe and later the New World from the 15th to 18th centuries, often with text as well as images.
Madame X or Portrait of Madame X is the title of a portrait painting by John Singer Sargent of a young socialite named Virginie Amélie Avegno Gautreau, wife of the French banker Pierre Gautreau.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events.
The principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects, a principle known as Prägnanz.
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all.
Robin George Collingwood, FBA (22 February 1889 – 9 January 1943), was an English philosopher, historian and archaeologist.
Reader-response criticism is a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader (or "audience") and their experience of a literary work, in contrast to other schools and theories that focus attention primarily on the author or the content and form of the work.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Reed Business Information is a provider of data services, analytics and information to businesses.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.
Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Richard Arthur Wollheim (5 May 1923 – 4 November 2003) was a British philosopher noted for original work on mind and emotions, especially as related to the visual arts, specifically, painting.
Roger Eliot Fry (14 December 1866 – 9 September 1934) was an English painter and critic, and a member of the Bloomsbury Group.
Roger Wolcott Sperry (August 20, 1913 – April 17, 1994) was a neuropsychologist, neurobiologist and Nobel laureate who, together with David Hunter Hubel and Torsten Nils Wiesel, won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work with split-brain research.
Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rosalind Epstein Krauss (born November 30, 1941) is an American art critic, art theorist and a professor at Columbia University in New York City.
The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family and the largest private art collection in the world.
The Royal manuscripts are one of the "closed collections" of the British Library, consisting of some 2,000 manuscripts collected by the sovereigns of England in the "Old Royal Library" and given to the British Museum by George II in 1757.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press.
Singleness of heart (also called singleheartedness) is the ideal of having sole devotion to a task or endeavour.
The Situationist International (SI) was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists, intellectuals, and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating (paint, ink, varnish, etc.) through the air onto a surface.
Stanley Eugene Fish (born April 19, 1938) is an American literary theorist, legal scholar, author and public intellectual.
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus there.
Stencilling produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a surface over an intermediate object with designed gaps in it which create the pattern or image by only allowing the pigment to reach some parts of the surface.
Street art is visual art created in public locations, usually unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Stuckism is an international art movement founded in 1999 by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting as opposed to conceptual art.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
The Swoon of the Virgin, in Italian Lo Spasimo della Vergine, or Fainting Virgin Mary was an idea developed in the late Middle Ages, that the Virgin Mary had fainted during the Passion of Christ, most often placed while she watched the Crucifixion of Jesus.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Timothy James "T.J." Clark (born on 12 April 1943 in Bristol, England) is a British art historian and writer.
The Tanagra figurines were a mold-cast type of Greek terracotta figurines produced from the later fourth century BCE, primarily in the Boeotian town of Tanagra.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art.
"Techne" is a term, etymologically derived from the Greek word τέχνη, that is often translated as "craftsmanship", "craft", or "art".
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
Texture in painting refers to the look and feel of the canvas.
Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Invention of Art: A Cultural History (2001) is an art history book by Dr.
The Last Judgment (Il Giudizio Universale) is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance painter Michelangelo covering the whole altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Origin of the Work of Art (Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes) is an essay by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger.
The Raft of the Medusa (Le Radeau de la Méduse) is an oil painting of 1818–1819 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault (1791–1824).
Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
At the broadest level, a theory of art aims to shed light on some aspect of the project of defining art or to theorize about the structure of our concept of ‘art’ without providing classical definitions, namely definitions formulated in terms of “necessary and sufficient” conditions.
Tracey Emin, CBE, RA (born 3 July 1963) is an English contemporary artist known for her autobiographical and confessional artwork.
Trashion (a portmanteau of "trash" and "fashion") is a term for art, jewellery, fashion and objects for the home created from used, thrown-out, found and repurposed elements.
A tree structure or tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form.
The Uffizi Gallery (italic) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Ute Meta Bauer (born 1958).
Video art is an art form which relies on using video technology as a visual and audio medium.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
Wang Ximeng (1096–1119) was a Chinese painter during the Song Dynasty, in the early twelfth century.
Władysław Tatarkiewicz (3 April 1886, Warsaw – 4 April 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and ethicist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).
William Edward Gompertz (born 25 August 1965) is the BBC's arts editor.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Kurtz Wimsatt Jr. (November 17, 1907 – December 17, 1975) was an American professor of English, literary theorist, and critic.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.
The Young British Artists, or YBAs—also referred to as Brit artists and Britart—is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988.
The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times".