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An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages. [1]

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Aarhus University Press (Danish: Aarhus Universitetsforlag) is a commercial Foundation, founded in 1985 by Aarhus University, Denmark.

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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Acanthomeridion is an extinct arthropod found in the Chengjiang fauna deposits of China.

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Acceleration, in physics, is the rate of change of velocity of an object.

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Aedes is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents excluding Antarctica.

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Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever or pollinosis, is when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that normally causes little problem.

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The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America, chiefly from Labrador to New Jersey.

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The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds and mammals that lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother.

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Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 17,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is an annual scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, is the non-profit publisher of a collection of 46 review series in specific disciplines in science and social science.

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Anomalocarida is an extinct clade of stem-group arthropods.

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Anomalocaris ("abnormal shrimp") is an extinct genus of anomalocaridid, a family of animals thought to be closely related to ancestral arthropods.

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Anopheles (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.

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Antennae (singular: antenna) in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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The anus (which is from the Proto-Indo-European ano–, meaning "ring") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).

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An aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in water for most or all of its life.

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Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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The family Argulidae contains the carp lice or fish lice – a group of parasitic crustaceans of uncertain position within the Maxillopoda.

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The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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The cuticle forms the major part of the integument of the Arthropoda.

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The arthropod head problem is a long-standing zoological dispute concerning the segmental composition of the heads of the various arthropod groups, and how they are evolutionarily related to each other.

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The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.

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The Articulata hypothesis is the grouping in a higher taxon of animals with segmented bodies, consisting of Annelida and Panarthropoda.

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Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.

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Atelocerata is a proposed clade of arthropods that includes Hexapoda (insects and a few related taxa) and Myriapoda (millipedes, centipedes, and similar taxa), but excludes Crustacea (such as shrimp and lobsters) and Chelicerata (such as spiders and horseshoe crabs).

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Attercopus fimbriunguis belongs to an extinct order of arachnids named Uraraneida; spider-like animals able to produce silk, but which lacked true spinnerets and retained a segmented abdomen bearing a flagellum-like tail resembling that of a whip scorpion.

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Aysheaia was a genus of Cambrian-aged soft-bodied, caterpillar-shaped fossil organisms with average body lengths of 1–6 cm.

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The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries.

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.

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In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees (i.e. practices beekeeping).

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The bilateria are the animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a front and a back end, as well as an upside and downside, and therefore a left and a right.

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Global Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on Earth and the variations within species.

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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes research involving the study and distillation of principles and functions found in biological systems that have been developed through evolution.

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The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a direct descendant of the oldest biological journal in the world, the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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Biological control is a bioeffector-method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms.

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Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.

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Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.

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Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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A blood cell, also called a hematocyte, is a cell produced by hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood.

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BMC Biology is an online open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research in all fields of biology, together with opinion and comment articles.

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BMC Evolutionary Biology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering all fields of evolutionary biology, including phylogenetics and palaeontology.

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A body plan (also written bodyplan), Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is "an assemblage of morphological features shared among many members of a phylum-level group".

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A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders.

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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are marine animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Branchiopoda is a class of crustaceans.

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Branchiura is a group of crustaceans ranked as a subclass of the class Maxillopoda.

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Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans known as brine shrimp.

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The Bulletin of Geosciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research papers, review articles, and short contributions.

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The Burgess Shale Formation is a fossil field in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.

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A butterfly house, or conservatory is a facility which is specifically intended for the breeding and display of butterflies with an emphasis on education.

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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from to million years ago (mya) and is succeeded by the Ordovician.

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The Cambrian explosion, or less commonly Cambrian radiation, was the relatively short evolutionary event, beginning around in the Cambrian Period, during which most major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by the fossil record.

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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camptophyllia is a small to average size arthropod (to) of uncertain affiliation, that lived during the Upper Carboniferous in what is today England.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian Period, at 358.9 ± 0.4 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, at 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma.

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Caterpillar is the common name for the larvae of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering cellular and molecular life sciences.

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Cengage Learning, Inc. is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education and K-12, professional and library markets worldwide.

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The Cenozoic Era (or; also Cænozoic, Caenozoic or Cainozoic or; meaning "new life", from Greek καινός kainos "new", and ζωή zoe "life") is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and covering the period from 65 million years ago to present day.

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Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda.

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The Cephalocarida are a class in the subphylum Crustacea comprising only 12 benthic species.

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The chelicerae, are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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The subphylum Chelicerata (or; New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.

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The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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The cochineal (or; Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.

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Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, sometimes called Blattaria, of which about 30 species out of 4,600Beccaloni, G. W. 2014. Cockroach Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. World Wide Web electronic publication. total are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which is about long; the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, about long; the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai, also about in length; and the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, about. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger, and, contrary to popular opinion, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

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The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for "Book of Food") is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety.

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The coelom (plural coeloms or coelomata) (Greek koilōma, hollow, cavity) refers to the main body cavity in most multicellular animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Commercial butterfly breeding or captive butterfly breeding is the practice of breeding butterflies and moths in controlled environments with the purpose of supplying the stock to research facilities, universities, zoos, insectariums, elementary and secondary schools, butterfly exhibits, conservation organizations, nature centers, individuals and other commercial facilities.

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A commissure is the place where two things are joined.

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A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Courtship is the period in a couple's relationship which precedes their engagement and marriage, or establishment of an agreed relationship of a more enduring kind.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (βραχύς / brachys.

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Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, or mudbugs, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.

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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.

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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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In geometry and science, a cross section is the intersection of a body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional space.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.

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Crustaceans may pass through a number of larval and immature stages between hatching from their eggs and reaching their adult form.

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A cuisine (from French, in turn from Latin coquere.

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Culex is a genus of mosquitoes, several species of which serve as vectors of one or more important diseases of birds, humans and other animals.

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A cuticle, or cuticula, is a term used for any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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Cycloneuralia is a clade of ecdysozoan animals including the Scalidophora (Kinorhynchans, Loriciferans, Priapulids) and the Nematoida (Nematodes, Nematomorphs).

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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is inflammation of the skin.

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Detritivores, also known as detritophages, detritus feeders, detritus eaters, or saprophages, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about Mya (million years ago), to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, suborder Anisoptera (from Greek ανισος anisos "uneven" + πτερος pteros, "wings", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).

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In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods.

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Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), nematoda, and several smaller phyla.

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Ecological Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Society for Ecological Economics.

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In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is a term with a variety of meanings related to the behavior of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.

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The Ediacaran Period, named after the Ediacara Hills of South Australia, is the last geological period of the Neoproterozoic Era and of the Proterozoic Eon, immediately preceding the Cambrian Period, the first period of the Paleozoic Era and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.

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The Entognatha are a class of wingless (ametabolous) arthropods, which, together with the insects, makes up the subphylum Hexapoda.

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Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human consumption of insects as food: human insectivory.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) is a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges, placozoa, and several other obscure or extinct life forms, such as Dickinsonia.

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Eurypterids (sea scorpions) are an extinct group of arthropods that are related to arachnids and include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.

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Euthycarcinoidea was a group of enigmatic, possibly amphibious arthropods that ranged from Cambrian to Triassic times.

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Exaptation (a replacement for the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.

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Excretion is the process by which waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism.

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The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Experimental and Applied Acarology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of acarology.

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External fertilization is a strategy of fertilization in which a sperm cell unites with an egg cell in the open, rather than inside specialized organs within the bodies of the parents.

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Eyes are the organs of vision.

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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and some non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

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Feces (US) or faeces (UK), also known by many other names, is a solid waste product from an animal digestive tract, discharged through the anus or cloaca during a process called defecation.

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Felt is a textile that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibres together.

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Filariasis (or philariasis) is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.

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Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Forensic entomology is the application and study of insect and other arthropod biology to criminal matters.

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Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek an-, without + oura, tail).

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In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ganglia) is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system.

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In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.

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The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC; Commission géologique du Canada (CGC) is a branch of the Earth Sciences Sector of Natural Resources Canada. The GSC is responsible for performing geological surveys of the country, developing Canada's natural resources and protecting the environment. The GSC is the country's oldest scientific agency and one of its first government organizations.

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Geology is a publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.

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Gonopods are specialized appendages of various arthropods used in reproduction or egg-laying.

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Graham Edward Budd (born September 7, 1968, Colchester) is a British palaeontologist, Professor of palaeobiology at Uppsala University.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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A guild (or ecological guild) is any group of species that exploit the same resources, often in related ways.

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Hallucigenia is a genus of Cambrian animals known from articulated fossils in Burgess Shale-type deposits in Canada and China, and from isolated spines around the world.

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A head is the part of an organism, which usually comprises the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste.

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a polygon with six edges and six vertices.

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The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).

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Historical Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of paleobiology.

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Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.

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Horseshoe crabs are marine arthropods of the family Limulidae and order Xiphosura or Xiphosurida, that live primarily in and around shallow ocean waters on soft sandy or muddy bottoms.

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Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air.

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Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids or fluids.

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A hydrostatic skeleton or hydroskeleton is a structure found in many ectothermic organisms and soft-bodied animals consisting of a fluid-filled cavity, the coelom, surrounded by muscles.

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Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.

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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.

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robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.

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The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an agriculture, life science, pathogen, and invasive species research facility in Florida affiliated with University of Florida.

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Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as Integrated Pest Control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.

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Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).

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Fertilization which takes place inside the female body is called Internal fertilization in animals is done through the following different ways:Research conducted by Patricia Adair Gowaty.

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The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN or ICZN Code) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebrae (vertebral column), derived from the notochord.

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Invertebrate paleontology (also spelled Invertebrate palaeontology) is sometimes described as Invertebrate paleozoology or Invertebrate paleobiology.

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James W. Valentine is an American evolutionary biologist and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.

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The, Macrocheira kaempferi, is a species of marine crab that lives in the waters around Japan.

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A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the location at which bones connect.

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The Journal of Morphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of anatomy and morphology featuring primary research articles, review articles, and meeting abstracts.

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The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.

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The jumping spider family (Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and about 5,000 described species, making it the largest family of spiders with about 13% of all species.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) is a geologic period and system that extends from 201.3± 0.6 Ma (million years ago) to 145± 4 Ma; from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous.

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Kerygmachela kierkegaardi was a blind nektonic organism from the Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, from Cambrian Greenland.

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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.

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Kinorhyncha (Gr. κινέω, kīneō 'move' + ῥυνχος, rhynchos 'snout') is a phylum of small (1 mm or less) marine invertebrates that are widespread in mud or sand at all depths as part of the meiobenthos.

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The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.

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A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive structure, usually having a columnar shape.

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The crystalline lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lethaia is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal of Earth science, covering research on palaeontology and stratigraphy.

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In anatomy, a ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament.

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Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is an aqueous extract of blood cells (amoebocytes) from the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.

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The lobopodians, members of the informal group Lobopodia, (from the Greek, meaning "blunt feet") are worm-like taxa with stubby legs.

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Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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The Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") are a major grouping of protostome animals.

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Loricifera (from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine sediment-dwelling animals with twenty-two described species, in eight genera.

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Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.

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The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids, and tardigrades.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).

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The Mandibulata or mandibulates is a clade of arthropods that comprises the extant subphyla Myriapoda (millipedes and others), Crustacea and Hexapoda (insects and others).

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Marrella splendens is an arthropod known from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia.

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The Marrellomorphs are arthropods known from the Cambrian to the early Devonian.

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Maxillopoda is a diverse class of crustaceans including barnacles, copepods and a number of related animals.

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The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for the Maya hieroglyphic script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.

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The Mazon Creek fossil beds are a conservation lagerstätte found near Morris, in Grundy County, Illinois.

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Meningitis (from Greek μῆνιγξ méninx, "membrane" and the medical suffix -itis, "inflammation") is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Merostomata is a class of chelicerate arthropods that contains the extinct Eurypterida (sea scorpions) and the extant Xiphosura (horseshoe crabs).

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.

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Microdictyon is an extinct "armored worm" coated with net-like scleritic scales, known from the Early Cambrian Maotianshan shale of Yunnan China.

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Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.

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Millipedes are arthropods in the class Diplopoda characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments.

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Mites, along with ticks, are small arthropods belonging to the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina) and the class Arachnida.

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Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics.

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The molluscs or mollusksSpelled mollusks in the USA, see reasons given in Rosenberg's; for the spelling mollusc see the reasons given by compose the large phylum of invertebrate animals known as the Mollusca.

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In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.

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In biology, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a group are directly descended.

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A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a nerve cell (neuron) whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control muscles.

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In biology, moulting or molting (see spelling differences), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.

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The Myriochelata or Paradoxopoda, is a proposed grouping of arthropods comprising the Myriapoda (including millipedes and centipedes) and Chelicerata (including spiders and scorpions).

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Mystacocarida is a subclass of crustaceans, that form part of the meiobenthos.

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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda.

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Nematoida is a grouping of animals, including the roundworms and horsehair worms.

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The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.

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The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.

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New College of Florida is a public liberal arts college located in Sarasota, Florida, United States.

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New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Olfaction, also known as olfactics, is the sense of smell.

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The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).

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The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words.

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The velvet worms (Onychophora — literally "claw bearers") are a minor ecdysozoan phylum with ~180 species.

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Opabinia regalis is an extinct arthropod found in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Lagerstätte of British Columbia, Canada.

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Opiliones (formerly Phalangida) is an order of arachnids commonly known as harvestmen.

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The penis of the Opiliones (harvestmen) is an intromittent organ that is not present in other arachnids.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six of the Paleozoic Era, and covers the time between and million years ago.

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In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

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The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body.

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Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.

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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Palaeontology is one of the two scientific journals of the Palaeontological Association (the other being Papers in Palaeontology).

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Panarthropoda is an animal taxon combining the phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and the genus Thelxiope.

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Parapeytoia was a prehistoric animal that lived over 530 million years ago that lived in Maotianshan shales of prehistoric China.

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In taxonomy, a group is said to be paraphyletic if it consists of all the descendants of the group's last common ancestor minus a small number of monophyletic subgroups of descendants, typically just one or two such subgroups.

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In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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Parvancorina is a genus of shield-shaped bilaterally symmetrical fossil animal that lived in the late Ediacaran seafloor.

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Pauropods are small, pale, centipede-like arthropods.

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Pentastomida are an enigmatic group of parasitic invertebrates commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of the species of the genus Linguatula to a vertebrate tongue.

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Peripatus is a genus of Onychophora (velvet worms).

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The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Pesticides are substances meant for attracting, seducing, and then destroying, or mitigating any pest.

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Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla)The term was coined by Haeckel from Greek φῦλον phylon, "race, stock," related to φυλή phyle, "tribe, clan." is a taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class.

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The Piaroa are an indigenous people of the middle Orinoco Basin in present-day Venezuela, living in an area equivalent to the size of Belgium, roughly circumscribed by the Parguaza (north), the Ventuari (south-east), the Manapiare (north-east) and the right bank of the Orinoco (west).

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Polarization (also polarisation) is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation.

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Pollination is a process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the plant, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction.

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A polyphyletic (Greek for "of many races") group is characterized by one or more homoplasies: phenotypes which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors.

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In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Priapulida (priapulid worms or penis worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive) is a phylum of marine worms.

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Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual," and ''capio'', capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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The prostomium (sometimes also called the acron) is the first body segment in an annelid worm's body in the anterior end.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protostomia (from Greek meaning "mouth first") are a clade of animals.

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Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in coastal aquifers which contain saline groundwater, with populations identified in almost every ocean basin so far explored, including in Australia, the Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean.

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Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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A respiratory pigment is a molecule, such as hemoglobin in humans and other vertebrates, that increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

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The respiratory system (called also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.

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Rhyniognatha hirsti is the world’s oldest known insect.

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A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.

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Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California.

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Scalidophora is a group of marine pseudocoelomate invertebrates, consisting of the three phyla Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera.

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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.

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Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida.

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Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Segmentation in biology refers to the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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A sensory nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of sensory nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that link sensory receptors on the body surface or deeper within it with relevant processing circuits in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Seta, plural: setae, is a biological term derived from the Latin word for "bristle".

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex.

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Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Sidnie Milana Manton, FRS (4 May 1902 — 2 January 1979) was a British entomologist.

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The Silurian is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period.

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Lepisma saccharina, commonly known as a silverfish or fishmoth, is a small, wingless insect in the order Thysanura.

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A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletos "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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A spinneret is a silk-spinning organ of a spider or the larva of an insect.

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Fossils of Spriggina are known from the Ediacaran period, around.

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The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including bivalves, cnidarians, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

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Stygotantulus stocki is a species of crustacean, living as an ectoparasite on harpacticoid copepods of the families Tisbidae and Canuellidae.

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In scientific classification of biota, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank in zoological nomenclature.

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The Swiss Army knife is a pocket knife or multi-tool manufactured by Victorinox AG (and up to 2005 also by Wenger SA).

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Symphylans, also known as garden centipedes or pseudocentipedes, are soil-dwelling arthropods of the class Symphyla in the subphylum Myriapoda.

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This article is about the biology term.

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Tarantulas comprise a group of very large and often hairy arachnids belonging to the Theraphosidae family of spiders, of which approximately 900 species have been identified.

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Tardigrades (also known as water bears or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, segmented micro-animals, with eight legs.

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Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is the sensory impression of food or other substances on the tongue and is one of the five traditional senses.

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Taxonomy (from τάξις taxis, "arrangement," and -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.

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Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals.

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The telson is the posterior-most division of the body of an arthropod.

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Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or some crabs).

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The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.

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The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.

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Thecostraca are a subclass of marine invertebrates containing about 1,320 described species.

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The thorax or chest (θώραξ (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"), thorax is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.

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Ticks are small arachnids in the order Parasitiformes.

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Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism.

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The trachea, colloquially called windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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The order Trigonotarbida is an extinct group of arachnids whose fossil record extends from the late Silurian to the early Permian.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uniramia (uni - one, ramus - branch, i.e. single-branches) is a group within the arthropods.

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The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

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The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, California or simply Cal) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California.

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The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in North Central Florida.

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The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is a member institution of the State University System of Florida and a public research university located in Tampa, Florida, USA.

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Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urine (from Latin Urina, ae, f.) is a liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination (or micturition) and excreted through the urethra.

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Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that attacks the honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

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The ventral nerve cord makes up the nervous system of some phyla of the invertebrates, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.

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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vivipary has two different meanings.

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Waxes are a class of chemical compounds that are malleable near ambient temperatures.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History is a 1989 book on the evolution of Cambrian fauna by Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.

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A woodlouse (plural woodlice), also known by many common names (see below), is an isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.

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Yellow fever, known historically as yellow jack, yellow plague, or bronze john, is an acute viral disease.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod

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