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Index Arthropod

An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. [1]

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Aarhus University Press

Aarhus University Press (Danish: Aarhus Universitetsforlag) is a commercial Foundation, founded in 1985 by Aarhus University, Denmark.

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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Acanthomeridion is an extinct arthropod found in the Chengjiang fauna deposits of China.

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In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

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Aedes is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents except Antarctica.

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Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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American lobster

The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America, chiefly from Labrador to New Jersey.

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American Society for Microbiology

The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics

The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is an annual scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Annual Reviews (publisher)

Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

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Anomalocarida is an extinct clade of stem-group arthropods.

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Anomalocaris ("abnormal shrimp") is an extinct genus of anomalocaridid, a family of animals thought to be closely related to ancestral arthropods.

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Anopheles (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.

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Antenna (biology)

Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).

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Aquatic animal

A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.

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Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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The family Argulidae contains the carp lice or fish lice – a group of parasitic crustaceans of uncertain position within the Maxillopoda.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Arthropod cuticle

The cuticle forms the major part of the integument of the Arthropoda.

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Arthropod head problem

The arthropod head problem is a long-standing zoological dispute concerning the segmental composition of the heads of the various arthropod groups, and how they are evolutionarily related to each other.

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Arthropod leg

The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.

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Articulata hypothesis

The Articulata hypothesis is the grouping in a higher taxon of animals with segmented bodies, consisting of Annelida and Panarthropoda.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Atelocerata is a proposed clade of arthropods that includes Hexapoda (insects and a few related taxa) and Myriapoda (millipedes, centipedes, and similar taxa), but excludes Crustacea (such as shrimp and lobsters) and Chelicerata (such as spiders and horseshoe crabs).

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Attercopus is an extinct genus of arachnids, containing one species Attercopus fimbriunguis, known from a Devonian-aged fossil.

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Aysheaia was a genus of Cambrian-aged soft-bodied, caterpillar-shaped fossil organisms with average body lengths of 1–6 cm.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

Bioinspiration & Biomimetics is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes research involving the study and distillation of principles and functions found in biological systems that have been developed through evolution.

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Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a direct descendant of the oldest biological journal in the world, the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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Biological pest control

Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.

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Biology Letters

Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.

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Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.

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BMC Biology

BMC Biology is an online open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research in all fields of biology, together with opinion and comment articles.

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BMC Evolutionary Biology

BMC Evolutionary Biology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering all fields of evolutionary biology, including phylogenetics and palaeontology.

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Body plan

A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.

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Book lung

A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders.

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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Branchiopoda is a class of crustaceans.

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Branchiura is a group of crustaceans ranked as a subclass of the class Maxillopoda.

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Brine shrimp

Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans also known as brine shrimp.

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Bulletin of Geosciences

The Bulletin of Geosciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research papers, review articles, and short contributions.

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Burgess Shale

The Burgess Shale is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.

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Butterfly house

A butterfly house, conservatory, or lepidopterarium is a facility which is specifically intended for the breeding and display of butterflies with an emphasis on education.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camptophyllia is a genus of small to average size arthropods (to) of uncertain affiliation, that lived during the Upper Carboniferous in what is today England.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carnarvonia (animal)

Carnarvonia is a genus of arthropods of uncertain affinities, known from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale.

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Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering cellular and molecular life sciences.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.

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Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures.

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The Cephalocarida are a class in the subphylum Crustacea comprising only 12 benthic species.

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Chaetognatha, meaning bristle-jaws, and commonly known as arrow worms, is a phylum of predatory marine worms which are a major component of plankton worldwide.

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The chelicerae are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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The subphylum Chelicerata (New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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The cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.

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Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

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Codex Alimentarius

The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.

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The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Commercial butterfly breeding

Commercial butterfly breeding or captive butterfly breeding is the practice of breeding butterflies and moths in controlled environments with the purpose of supplying the stock to research facilities, universities, zoos, insectariums, elementary and secondary schools, butterfly exhibits, conservation organizations, nature centers, individuals and other commercial facilities.

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A commissure is the place where two things abut or are joined.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Compound eye

A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.

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Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Crustacean larva

Crustaceans may pass through a number of larval and immature stages between hatching from their eggs and reaching their adult form.

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Culex is a genus of mosquitoes, several species of which serve as vectors of one or more important diseases of birds, humans, and other animals.

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A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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Cycloneuralia is a clade of ecdysozoan animals including the Scalidophora (Kinorhynchans, Loriciferans, Priapulids) and the Nematoida (nematodes, Nematomorphs).

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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.

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Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).

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In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.

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Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.

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Ecological Economics (journal)

Ecological Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Society for Ecological Economics.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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The Entognatha are a class of wingless (ametabolous) arthropods, which, together with the insects, makes up the subphylum Hexapoda.

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Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human use of insects as food.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epidermis (zoology)

In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Eurypterids, often informally called sea scorpions, are an extinct group of arthropods related to arachnids that include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.

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Euthycarcinoidea was an enigmatic group of possibly amphibious arthropods that ranged from Cambrian to Triassic times.

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Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.

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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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Excretory system

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Experimental and Applied Acarology

Experimental and Applied Acarology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of acarology.

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External fertilization

External fertilization is a male organism’s sperm fertilizing a female organism’s egg outside of the female’s body.

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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.

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Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Forensic entomology

Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the invasion of the succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations.

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A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Geological Journal

Geological Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal focusing on Geology.

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Geological Survey of Canada

The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC; Commission géologique du Canada (CGC)) is a Canadian federal government agency responsible for performing geological surveys of the country, developing Canada's natural resources and protecting the environment.

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Geology (journal)

Geology is a peer-reviewed publication of the Geological Society of America (GSA).

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.

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Gonopods are specialized appendages of various arthropods used in reproduction or egg-laying.

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Graham Budd

Graham Edward Budd (born 7 September 1968, Colchester) is a British palaeontologist, Professor of palaeobiology at Uppsala University.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guild (ecology)

A guild (or ecological guild) is any group of species that exploit the same resources, or who exploit different resources in related ways.

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Hallucigenia is a genus of Cambrian xenusiids known from articulated fossils in Burgess Shale-type deposits in Canada and China, and from isolated spines around the world.

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A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.

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The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).

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Historical Biology

Historical Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of paleobiology.

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Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.

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Horseshoe crab

Horseshoe crabs are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.

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Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Hydrostatic skeleton

A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.

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Incertae sedis

Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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Inner ear

The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.

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Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an agriculture, life science, pathogen, and invasive species research facility in Florida affiliated with University of Florida.

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Integrated pest management

Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.

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Integrative and Comparative Biology

Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).

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Internal fertilization

Internal fertilization is the union of an egg cell with a sperm during sexual reproduction inside the body of a parent.

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International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Invertebrate paleontology

Invertebrate paleontology (also spelled Invertebrate palaeontology) is sometimes described as Invertebrate paleozoology or Invertebrate paleobiology.

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James W. Valentine

James W. Valentine is an American evolutionary biologist and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Japanese spider crab

The, Macrocheira kaempferi, is a species of marine crab that lives in the waters around Japan.

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A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.

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Journal of Morphology

The Journal of Morphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of anatomy and morphology featuring primary research articles, review articles, and meeting abstracts.

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Journal of Paleontology

The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.

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Jumping spider

Jumping spiders are a group of spiders that constitute the family Salticidae.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Kerygmachela kierkegaardi was a gilled lobopod from the Buen Formation (Cambrian Stage 3) of the Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, in northern Greenland.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kinorhyncha (I move, ῥύγχος "snout") is a phylum of small (1 mm or less) marine invertebrates that are widespread in mud or sand at all depths as part of the meiobenthos.

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Late Devonian extinction

The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.

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A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lethaia is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal of Earth science, covering research on palaeontology and stratigraphy.

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A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.

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Limulus amebocyte lysate

Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is an aqueous extract of blood cells (amoebocytes) from the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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The lobopodians, members of the informal group Lobopodia Snodgrass 1938 (from the Greek, meaning "blunt feet") are worm-like taxa with stubby legs.

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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Lophotrochozoa ("crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia.

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Loricifera (from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine cycloneuralian sediment-dwelling animals with 37 described species, in nine genera.

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Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malpighian tubule system

The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids, and tardigrades.

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Mandible (insect mouthpart)

Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).

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Mandibulata, termed "mandibulates", is a clade of arthropods that comprises the extant subphyla Myriapoda (millipedes and others), Crustacea and Hexapoda (insects and others).

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Marrella splendens is an extinct arthropod known from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia.

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Marrellomorphs are a group of arthropods known from the Cambrian to the Early Devonian.

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Maxillopoda is a diverse class of crustaceans including barnacles, copepods and a number of related animals.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Mazon Creek fossil beds

The Mazon Creek fossil beds are a conservation lagerstätte found near Morris, in Grundy County, Illinois.

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Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Merostomata is a class of chelicerate arthropods that contains the extinct Eurypterida (sea scorpions) and the extant Xiphosura (horseshoe crabs).

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Michael S. Engel

Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.

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Microdictyon is an extinct "armored worm" coated with net-like scleritic scales, known from the Early Cambrian Maotianshan shale of Yunnan China.

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Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.

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Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.

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Mineralization (biology)

In biology, mineralization refers to a process where an inorganic substance precipitates in an organic matrix.

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Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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Motor nerve

A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.

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In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.

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The Myriochelata or Paradoxopoda, is a proposed grouping of arthropods comprising the Myriapoda (including millipedes and centipedes) and Chelicerata (including spiders and scorpions).

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Mystacocarida is a subclass of crustaceans, that form part of the meiobenthos.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Nematoida is a grouping of animals, including the roundworms and horsehair worms.

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The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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New College of Florida

New College of Florida is a public liberal arts honors college located in Sarasota, Florida, United States.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Onychophora (from Ancient Greek, onyches, "claws"; and pherein, "to carry"), commonly known as velvet worms (due to their velvety texture and somewhat wormlike appearance) or more ambiguously as peripatus (after the first described genus, Peripatus), is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods.

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Opabinia regalis is an extinct, stem group arthropod found in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Lagerstätte of British Columbia, Canada.

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The Opiliones or (formerly Phalangida) are an order of arachnids colloquially known as harvestmen, harvesters or daddy longlegs.

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Opiliones penis

The penis of the Opiliones (harvestmen) is an intromittent organ that is not present in other arachnids.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Oribatida (formerly Cryptostigmata), also known as moss mites or beetle mites, are an order of mites, in the "chewing Acariformes" clade Sarcoptiformes.

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The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body.

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Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.

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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Palaeontology (journal)

Palaeontology is one of the two scientific journals of the Palaeontological Association (the other being Papers in Palaeontology).

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Panarthropoda is a proposed animal clade combining the extant phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora, Not all studies support it, but most do, including neuroanatomical, mitogenomic and palaeontological studies.

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Pancrustacea is a clade, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods.

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Parapeytoia was a prehistoric animal that lived over 530 million years ago that lived in Maotianshan shales of prehistoric China.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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Parvancorina is a genus of shield-shaped bilaterally symmetrical fossil animal that lived in the late Ediacaran seafloor.

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Pauropods are small, pale, millipede-like arthropods.

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Pentastomida are an enigmatic group of parasitic crustaceans commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of the species of the genus Linguatula to a vertebrate tongue.

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Peripatus is a genus of velvet worms in the Peripatidae family.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Pesticide resistance

Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Piaroa people

The Piaroa are an indigenous people of the middle Orinoco Basin in present-day Venezuela, living in an area equivalent to the size of Belgium, roughly circumscribed by the Parguaza (north), the Ventuari (south-east), the Manapiare (north-east) and the right bank of the Orinoco (west).

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.

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Polyxenida is an order of millipedes readily distinguished by a unique body plan consisting of a soft, non-calcified body ornamented with tufts of bristles – traits that have inspired the common names "bristly millipedes" or "pincushion millipedes".

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Prawn is a common name for small aquatic crustaceans with an exoskeleton and ten legs (i.e. a member of the order decapoda), some of which can be eaten.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Priapulida (priapulid worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive), sometimes referred to as penis worms, is a phylum of unsegmented marine worms.

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Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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The prostomium (sometimes also called the acron) is the first body segment in an annelid worm's body in the anterior end.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.

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Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in coastal aquifers which contain saline groundwater, with populations identified in almost every ocean basin so far explored, including in Australia, the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.

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Respiratory pigment

A respiratory pigment is a molecule, such as hemoglobin in humans and other vertebrates, that increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Rhyniognatha hirsti is often considered the world’s oldest known insect.

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A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

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Royal Society of South Australia

The Royal Society of South Australia (RSSA) is a Learned Society whose interest is in Science, particularly, but not only, of South Australia.

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Santa Barbara, California

Santa Barbara (Spanish for "Saint Barbara") is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U.S. state of California.

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Scalidophora is a group of marine pseudocoelomate protostomes that was proposed on morphological grounds to unite three phyla: the Kinorhyncha, the Priapulida and the Loricifera.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.

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Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.

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Sea spider

Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Segmentation (biology)

Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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Sensory nerve

A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).

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In biology, setae (singular seta; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Sidnie Manton

Sidnie Milana Manton, FRS (4 May 1902 – 2 January 1979) was a British entomologist.

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The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.

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A silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is a small, wingless insect in the order Zygentoma (formerly Thysanura).

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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A spinneret is a silk-spinning organ of a spider or the larva of an insect.

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The Spiralia are a morphologically diverse clade of protostome animals, including within their number the molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and other taxa.

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Spriggina is a genus of early bilaterian animals whose relationship to living animals is unclear.

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Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).

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The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

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Stygotantulus stocki is a species of crustacean, living as an ectoparasite on harpacticoid copepods of the families Tisbidae and Canuellidae.

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Suboesophageal ganglion

The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of arthropods and in particular insects is part of the arthropod central nervous system (CNS).

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In zoological nomenclature, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum.

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Swiss Army knife

The Swiss Army knife is a pocketknife or multi-tool manufactured by Victorinox AG (and up to 2005 also by Wenger SA).

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Symphylans, also known as garden centipedes or pseudocentipedes, are soil-dwelling arthropods of the class Symphyla in the subphylum Myriapoda.

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Tactopoda is a proposed clade of protostome animals that includes the phyla Tardigrada and Euarthropoda, supported by various morphological observations.

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Tagma (biology)

In biology a tagma (Greek: τάγμα, plural tagmata – τάγματα) is a specialized grouping of multiple segments or metameres into a coherently functional morphological unit.

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Tarantulas comprise a group of large and often hairy arachnids belonging to the Theraphosidae family of spiders, of which about 900 species have been identified.

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Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.

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Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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The telson is the posterior-most division of the body of an arthropod.

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Terrestrial animal

Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).

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The Journal of Experimental Biology

The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.

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The Sunday Telegraph

The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.

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Thecostraca is a subclass of marine invertebrates containing about 1,320 described species.

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Thelxiope is a genus of arthropod from the Burgess Shale.

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The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

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Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.

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Tick paralysis

Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism.

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The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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The order Trigonotarbida is an extinct group of arachnids whose fossil record extends from the late Silurian to the early Permian.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uniramia (uni - one, ramus - branch, i.e. single-branches) is a group within the arthropods.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Florida

The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.

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University of South Florida

The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is an American metropolitan public research university in Tampa, Florida, United States.

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University of the Witwatersrand

The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Varroa destructor

Varroa destructor (Varroa mite) is an external parasitic mite that attacks the honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

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Ventral nerve cord

The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wonderful Life (book)

Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History is a 1989 book on the evolution of Cambrian fauna by Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.

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A woodlouse (plural woodlice) is a terrestrial isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod

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