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Arthur Schopenhauer

Index Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher. [1]

273 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, A priori and a posteriori, Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron, Academy, Adele Schopenhauer, Aenesidemus (book), Aesthetics, Afanasy Fet, Albert Einstein, Alfred Adler, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Ancient Greek, Anthropic principle, Anti-Judaism, Antinatalism, Aristarchus of Samos, Arthur Schopenhauer (sculpture), Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics, Aryan, Asceticism, Atheism, Axiom, Émile Zola, Ātman (Hinduism), Baruch Spinoza, Bertrand Russell, Biology, Bryan Magee, Buddhism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Carl Jung, Cartesianism, Castration, Chandogya Upanishad, Charles Darwin, Cholera, Christopher Janaway, Concept, Continental philosophy, Creator in Buddhism, Crime, Critique of Pure Reason, Cymbeline, Dara Shukoh, David Hume, Despotism, Dharma, Doctor of Philosophy, ..., Dresden, Eastern philosophy, Egalitarianism, Elisabet Ney, Empirical evidence, Erwin Schrödinger, Ethics, Ethics (Spinoza), Ettore Majorana, Euclid's Elements, Euclidean geometry, Eugenics, Evolution, Evolutionary psychology, Eye of a needle, F.A. Brockhaus AG, Feminism, Four Noble Truths, Frankfurt, Frederick C. Beiser, Frederick Copleston, French language, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Gautama Buddha, Gdańsk, General relativity, Geometry, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, George Bernard Shaw, George Santayana, German Confederation, German idealism, German language, German literature, German mysticism, Gilbert Ryle, Gioachino Rossini, Giordano Bruno, Gotha, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Gottlob Frege, Gustav Mahler, Guy de Maupassant, Gymnasium (school), Hamburg, Hans Vaihinger, Harem, Hedgehog's dilemma, Helen Zimmern, Hermann Hesse, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hicetas, Hindu, Hinduism, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hyperbolic geometry, Immanuel Kant, Indian religions, Individuation, Indology, Intellect, Internet Archive, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Intuition, Intuitionism, Italian language, Jack Matthews (author), James Clerk Maxwell, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johanna Schopenhauer, Johannes Volkelt, John Gray (philosopher), Jorge Luis Borges, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Joscelyn Godwin, Joseph Campbell, Judeo-Christian, Julius Bahnsen, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, Karl Eugen Neumann, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, Karl Kraus (writer), Karl Popper, Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann, Keiji Nishitani, Kingdom of Prussia, Konrad Wachsmann, Kuusankoski, L. E. J. Brouwer, Latin, Law of noncontradiction, Laws (dialogue), Léon Poliakov, Leipzig, Leo Tolstoy, Libido, LibriVox, Limited government, List of works published posthumously, Longman, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Machado de Assis, Mahāvākyas, Malwida von Meysenbug, Man and Superman, Massacre of the Innocents (Guido Reni), Mating, Matter, Max Horkheimer, Meditation, Mel Thompson, Metaphysics, Methodology, Michael Faraday, Misotheism, Monarch, Monism, Monogamy, Morality, Moritz Schlick, Mortal coil, Neo-Kantianism, Nigel Rodgers, Nihilism, Nirvana, On the Basis of Morality, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, On the Freedom of the Will, On Vision and Colors, Ontology, Orientalism, Original sin, Oswald Spengler, Otto Rank, Otto Weininger, Parallel postulate, Parerga and Paralipomena, Patrician (post-Roman Europe), Patrick Gardiner, Paul Deussen, Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Pericles, Pessimism, Peter Wessel Zapffe, Petrarch, Phenomenon, Philipp Mainländer, Philolaus, Philosopher, Philosophers Behaving Badly, Philosophy of music, Plato, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Positivism, Principle of sufficient reason, Protagoras (dialogue), Psyche (psychology), Psychology, Puruṣārtha, Rüdiger Safranski, Reincarnation, René Descartes, Republic, Respiratory failure, Richard Wagner, Salvation, Samuel Beckett, Samuel von Pufendorf, Sangharakshita, Sanskrit, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Scholasticism, Seneca the Younger, Sigmund Freud, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Sociobiology, Southern Methodist University, Southwest Review, Space, Spanish language, Suffering, Taṇhā, Tat Tvam Asi, Tautology (logic), The Art of Being Right, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The World as Will and Representation, Theory of Colours, Thing-in-itself, Thomas Bernhard, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Ligotti, Thomas Little Heath, Thomas Mann, Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione, Transcendental idealism, Transcendental realism, Unconscious mind, University of Göttingen, University of Jena, Untimely Meditations, Upanishads, Urs App, Vedanta, Vedas, Vincenzo Bellini, Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher), Voluntarism (philosophy), War and Peace, Weimar, Western philosophy, Will (philosophy), William Shakespeare, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wolfgang Pauli, 19th-century philosophy. Expand index (223 more) »

A History of Western Philosophy

A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.

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A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Abolitionism in the United States

Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.

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Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron

Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron (7 December 173117 January 1805) was the first professional French Indologist.

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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Adele Schopenhauer

Luise Adelaide Lavinia Schopenhauer, known as Adele Schopenhauer (12 July 1797 – 25 August 1849), was a German author.

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Aenesidemus (book)

Aenesidemus is a German book published anonymously by Professor Gottlob Ernst Schulze of Helmstedt in 1792.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Afanasy Fet

Afanasy Afanasyevich Fet (a), later known as Shenshin (a); –), was a renowned Russian poet regarded as the finest master of lyric verse in Russian literature.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alfred Adler

Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.

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Analytic–synthetic distinction

The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anthropic principle

The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.

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Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior." Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism.

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Antinatalism, or anti-natalism, is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth.

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Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).

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Arthur Schopenhauer (sculpture)

Arthur Schopenhauer is a sculpture of German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer by sculptor Elisabet Ney.

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Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics

Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics result from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that individuation of the Will is evil.

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"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Émile Zola

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.

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Ātman (Hinduism)

Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bryan Magee

Bryan Edgar Magee (born 12 April 1930) is a British philosopher, broadcaster, politician, author, and poet, best known as a popularizer of philosophy.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Cartesianism is the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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Chandogya Upanishad

The Chandogya Upanishad (Sanskrit: छांदोग्योपनिषद्, IAST: Chāndogyopaniṣad) is a Sanskrit text embedded in the Chandogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda of Hinduism.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christopher Janaway

Christopher Janaway (BA, DPhil Oxford) is a philosopher and author.

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Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Continental philosophy

Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.

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Creator in Buddhism

Buddhist thought consistently rejects the notion of a creator deity.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.

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Cymbeline, also known as Cymbeline, King of Britain, is a play by William Shakespeare set in Ancient Britain and based on legends that formed part of the Matter of Britain concerning the early Celtic British King Cunobeline.

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Dara Shukoh

Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.

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Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Eastern philosophy

Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Elisabet Ney

Franzisca Bernadina Wilhelmina Elisabeth Ney (26 January 1833 – 29 June 1907) was a celebrated German-American sculptor who spent the first half of her life and career in Europe, producing portraits of famous leaders such as Otto von Bismarck, Giuseppe Garibaldi and King George V of Hanover.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethics (Spinoza)

Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order (Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata), usually known as the Ethics, is a philosophical treatise written by Benedict de Spinoza.

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Ettore Majorana

Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.

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Euclid's Elements

The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.

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Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Eye of a needle

The term "eye of a needle" is used as a metaphor for a very narrow opening.

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F.A. Brockhaus AG

F.A. Brockhaus AG, known as Brockhaus for short, is a German publishing firm founded by Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Four Noble Truths

The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Frederick C. Beiser

Frederick Charles Beiser (born November 27, 1949) is an American author and professor of philosophy at Syracuse University.

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Frederick Copleston

Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Friedrich Schleiermacher

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.

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George Santayana

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.

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German Confederation

The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.

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German idealism

German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German literature

German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language.

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German mysticism

German mysticism, sometimes called Dominican mysticism or Rhineland mysticism, was a late medieval Christian mystical movement that was especially prominent within the Dominican order and in Germany.

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Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.

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Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.

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Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.

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Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located west of Erfurt and east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000.

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Gottlob Ernst Schulze

Gottlob Ernst Schulze (23 August 1761 – 14 January 1833) was a German philosopher, born in Heldrungen (modern-day Thuringia, Germany).

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.

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Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hans Vaihinger

Hans Vaihinger (September 25, 1852 – December 18, 1933) was a German philosopher, best known as a Kant scholar and for his Die Philosophie des Als Ob (The Philosophy of 'As if'), published in 1911 but written more than thirty years earlier.

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Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.

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Hedgehog's dilemma

The hedgehog's dilemma, or sometimes the porcupine dilemma, is a metaphor about the challenges of human intimacy.

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Helen Zimmern

Helen Zimmern (25 March 1846 – 11 January 1934) was naturalised British writer and translator born in Germany.

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Hermann Hesse

Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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Hicetas (Ἱκέτας or Ἱκέτης; c. 400 – c. 335 BC) was a Greek philosopher of the Pythagorean School.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.

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Hyperbolic geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry (also called Bolyai–Lobachevskian geometry or Lobachevskian geometry) is a non-Euclidean geometry.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things.

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Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.

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Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.

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In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans rather than the discovery of fundamental principles claimed to exist in an objective reality.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Jack Matthews (author)

Jack Matthews (22 July 1925 – 28 November 2013) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright and former professor.

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Johanna Schopenhauer

Johanna Schopenhauer (née Trosiener; July 9, 1766 – April 17, 1838) was a German author.

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Johannes Volkelt

Johannes Immanuel Volkelt (21 July 1848 in Lipnik near Biala, Austrian Galicia – 8 May 1930 in Leipzig) was a German philosopher.

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John Gray (philosopher)

John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.

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Joris-Karl Huysmans

Charles-Marie-Georges Huysmans (5 February 1848 in Paris – 12 May 1907 in Paris) was a French novelist and art critic who published his works as Joris-Karl Huysmans (variably abbreviated as J. K. or J.-K.). He is most famous for the novel À rebours (1884, published in English as Against the Grain or Against Nature).

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Joscelyn Godwin

Joscelyn Godwin (born 16 January 1945 at Kelmscott, Oxfordshire, England) is a composer, musicologist, and translator, known for his work on ancient music, paganism, and music in the occult.

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Joseph Campbell

Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American Professor of Literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion.

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Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.

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Julius Bahnsen

Julius Friedrich August Bahnsen (March 30, 1830 – December 7, 1881) was a German philosopher.

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Karl Christian Friedrich Krause

Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (6 May 1781 – 27 September 1832) was a German philosopher, born at Eisenberg, in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.

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Karl Eugen Neumann

Karl Eugen Neumann (18 October 1865 in Vienna18 October 1915) was the first translator of large parts of the Pali Canon of Buddhist scriptures from the original Pali into a European language (German) and one of the pioneers of European Buddhism.

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Karl Heinrich Ulrichs

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (28 August 1825 – 14 July 1895) was a German writer who is seen today as a pioneer of the modern gay rights movement.

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Karl Kraus (writer)

Karl Kraus (April 28, 1874 – June 12, 1936) was an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann

Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann (23 February 1842 – 5 June 1906) was a German philosopher, author of Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869).

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Keiji Nishitani

was a Japanese philosopher of the Kyoto School and a disciple of Kitarō Nishida.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Konrad Wachsmann

Konrad Wachsmann (May 16, 1901 in Frankfurt an der Oder, Germany – November 25, 1980 in Los Angeles, California) was a German modernist architect.

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Kuusankoski is a neighborhood of city of Kouvola, former industrial town and municipality of Finland, located in the region of Kymenlaakso in the province of Southern Finland.

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L. E. J. Brouwer

Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (27 February 1881 – 2 December 1966), usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician and philosopher, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law of noncontradiction

In classical logic, the law of non-contradiction (LNC) (also known as the law of contradiction, principle of non-contradiction (PNC), or the principle of contradiction) states that contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B" are mutually exclusive.

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Laws (dialogue)

The Laws (Greek: Νόμοι, Nómoi; Latin: De Legibus) is Plato's last and longest dialogue.

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Léon Poliakov

Léon Poliakov (Лев Поляков; 25 November 1910, Saint Petersburg – 8 December 1997, Orsay) writer of "The Aryan Myth" was a French historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and antisemitism.

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Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

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LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet.

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Limited government

In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.

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List of works published posthumously

The following is a list of works that were published or distributed posthumously.

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Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Machado de Assis

Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme VelhoVainfas, p. 505.

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The Mahavakyas (sing.: mahāvākyam, महावाक्यम्; plural: mahāvākyāni, महावाक्यानि) are "The Great Sayings" of the Upanishads, as characterized by the Advaita school of Vedanta.

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Malwida von Meysenbug

Malwida von Meysenbug (28 October 1816 — 23 April 1903) was a German writer, her work including Memories of an Idealist, the first volume of which she published anonymously in 1869.

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Man and Superman

Man and Superman is a four-act drama written by George Bernard Shaw in 1903.

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Massacre of the Innocents (Guido Reni)

Massacre of the Innocents is a painting by the Italian Baroque painter Guido Reni, created in 1611 for the Basilica of San Domenico in Bologna, but now in the Pinacoteca Nazionale in that same city.

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In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.

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In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Max Horkheimer

Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a German philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the 'Frankfurt School' of social research.

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Mel Thompson

Mel Thompson (born 1946) writes book on Philosophy and Ethics for the general reader and for students.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Misotheism is the "hatred of God" or "hatred of the gods" (from the Greek adjective μισόθεος "hating the gods", a compound of μῖσος "hatred" and θεός "god").

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.

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Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.

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Mortal coil

Mortal coil is a poetic term for the troubles of daily life and the strife and suffering of the world.

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Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

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Nigel Rodgers

Nigel Rodgers (born 1952) is a British writer, environmentalist and critic.

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Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

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(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.

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On the Basis of Morality

On the Basis of Morality (Ueber die Grundlage der Moral, 1840) is one of Arthur Schopenhauer's major works in ethics, in which he argues that morality stems from compassion.

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On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason

On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde) is an elaboration on the classical Principle of Sufficient Reason, written by German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer as his doctoral dissertation in 1813.

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On the Freedom of the Will

On the Freedom of the Will (Ueber die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens) is an essay presented to the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences in 1839 by Arthur Schopenhauer as a response to the academic question that they had posed: "Is it possible to demonstrate human free will from self-consciousness?" It is one of the constituent essays of his work Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik.

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On Vision and Colors

On Vision and Colors (Ueber das Sehn und die Farben) is a treatise by Arthur Schopenhauer that was published in May 1816 when the author was 28 years old.

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).

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Original sin

Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

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Oswald Spengler

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art.

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Otto Rank

Otto Rank (né Rosenfeld; April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher.

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Otto Weininger

Otto Weininger (3 April 1880 – 4 October 1903) was an Austrian philosopher.

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Parallel postulate

In geometry, the parallel postulate, also called Euclid's fifth postulate because it is the fifth postulate in Euclid's ''Elements'', is a distinctive axiom in Euclidean geometry.

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Parerga and Paralipomena

Parerga and Paralipomena (Greek for "Appendices" and "Omissions", respectively; Parerga und Paralipomena) is a collection of philosophical reflections by Arthur Schopenhauer published in 1851.

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Patrician (post-Roman Europe)

Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.

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Patrick Gardiner

Patrick Lancaster Gardiner (1922–1997) was a British academic philosopher, a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.

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Paul Deussen

Paul Jakob Deussen (7 January 1845 – 6 July 1919) was a German Indologist and professor of Philosophy at University of Kiel.

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Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach

Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach (14 November 177529 May 1833) was a German legal scholar.

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Pedro Calderón de la Barca

Pedro Calderón de la Barca y Barreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño, usually referred as Pedro Calderón de la Barca (17 January 160025 May 1681), was a dramatist, poet and writer of the Spanish Golden Age.

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Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

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Pessimism is a mental attitude.

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Peter Wessel Zapffe

Peter Wessel Zapffe (December 18, 1899 – October 12, 1990) was a Norwegian metaphysician, author, lawyer and mountaineer.

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Philipp Mainländer

Philipp Mainländer (October 5, 1841 – April 1, 1876) was a German poet and philosopher.

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Philolaus (Φιλόλαος, Philólaos) was a Greek Pythagorean and pre-Socratic philosopher.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Philosophers Behaving Badly

Philosophers Behaving Badly is a 2004 book by Nigel Rodgers and Mel Thompson.

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Philosophy of music

Philosophy of music is the study of "...fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it".

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Principle of sufficient reason

The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause.

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Protagoras (dialogue)

Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας) is a dialogue by Plato.

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Psyche (psychology)

In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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(Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ) literally means an "object of human pursuit".

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Rüdiger Safranski

Rüdiger Safranski (born January 1, 1945) is a German philosopher and author.

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Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.

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Samuel von Pufendorf

Freiherr Samuel von Pufendorf (8 January 1632 – 13 October 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian.

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Sangharakshita (born August 26, 1925 as Dennis Philip Edward Lingwood) is a Buddhist teacher and writer, and founder of the Triratna Buddhist Community, which was known until 2010 as the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order, or FWBO.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

A Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) is a common name for non-profit animal welfare organizations around the world.

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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.

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Southern Methodist University

Southern Methodist University (commonly referred to as SMU) is a private research university in metropolitan Dallas, with its main campus spanning portions of the town of Highland Park and the cities of University Park and Dallas.

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Southwest Review

The Southwest Review is a literary journal published quarterly, based on the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas, Texas.

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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.

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is a Pāli word, related to the Vedic Sanskrit word and, which means "thirst, desire, wish".

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Tat Tvam Asi

Tat Tvam Asi (Devanagari: तत्त्वमसि), a Sanskrit phrase, translated variously as "Thou art that," (That thou art, That art thou, You are that, or That you are, or You're it) is one of the Mahāvākyas (Grand Pronouncements) in Vedantic Sanatana Dharma.

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Tautology (logic)

In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.

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The Art of Being Right

The Art of Being Right: 38 Ways to Win an Argument (also Eristic Dialectic: The Art of Winning an Argument; German: Eristische Dialektik: Die Kunst, Recht zu behalten; 1831) is an acidulous and sarcastic treatise written by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in sardonic deadpan.

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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.

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The World as Will and Representation

The World as Will and Representation (WWR; Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, WWV) is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.

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Theory of Colours

Theory of Colours (German: Zur Farbenlehre) is a book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the poet's views on the nature of colours and how these are perceived by humans.

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The thing-in-itself (Ding an sich) is a concept introduced by Immanuel Kant.

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Thomas Bernhard

Thomas Bernhard (born Nicolaas Thomas Bernhard; 9 February 1931 – 12 February 1989) was an Austrian novelist, playwright and poet.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Ligotti

Thomas Ligotti (born July 9, 1953) is a contemporary American horror author and reclusive literary cult figure.

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Thomas Little Heath

Sir Thomas Little Heath (5 October 1861 – 16 March 1940) was a British civil servant, mathematician, classical scholar, historian of ancient Greek mathematics, translator, and mountaineer.

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Thomas Mann

Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.

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Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione

Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione (TIE) or On the Improvement of the Understanding is a seventeenth-century unfinished work of philosophy by the 17th century philosopher Baruch Spinoza, published posthumously in 1677.

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Transcendental idealism

Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.

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Transcendental realism

Initially developed by Roy Bhaskar in his book A Realist Theory of Science (1975), transcendental realism is a philosophy of science that was initially developed as an argument against epistemic realism of positivism and hermeneutics.

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Unconscious mind

The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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University of Jena

Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.

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Untimely Meditations

Untimely Meditations (Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen), also translated as Unfashionable Observations and Thoughts Out Of Season) consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, started in 1873 and completed in 1876. The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European, especially German, culture. A fifth essay, published posthumously, had the title "We Philologists", and gave as a "Task for philology: disappearance". Glenn W. Most,, HyperNietzsche, 2003-11-09 Nietzsche here began to discuss the limitations of empirical knowledge, and presented what would appear compressed in later aphorisms. It combines the naivete of The Birth of Tragedy with the beginnings of his more mature polemical style. It was Nietzsche's most humorous work, especially for "David Strauss: the confessor and the writer.".

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The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.

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Urs App

Urs App (born 1949 in Rorschach, Switzerland) is a historian of ideas, religions, and philosophies with a special interest in the history and modes of interaction between East and West.

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Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".

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Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)

Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (Влади́мир Серге́евич Соловьёв; –) was a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, pamphleteer, and literary critic.

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Voluntarism (philosophy)

Voluntarism is "any metaphysical or psychological system that assigns to the will (Latin: voluntas) a more predominant role than that attributed to the intellect", or, equivalently, "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct".

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War and Peace

War and Peace (pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform translit) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy.

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Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Will (philosophy)

Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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19th-century philosophy

In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Schopenhauer

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