543 relations: A* search algorithm, A.I. Artificial Intelligence, Abductive reasoning, Acute myeloid leukemia, AdSense, Aerospace engineering, Affect (psychology), Affective computing, Agent architecture, AI effect, AI winter, AI-complete, AI@50, AIXI, Alan Turing, Aldous Huxley, Alexey Ivakhnenko, Algorithm, Algorithm characterizations, Aliens (film), Alison Gopnik, Allen Newell, AlphaGo, AlphaGo versus Ke Jie, AlphaZero, Alternating decision tree, Alvey, Ambiguity, Ancient history, Andrew Ng, Animal rights, Ant, Ant colony optimization algorithms, Anthropomorphism, Apple Inc., Applied information economics, Arthur Samuel, Artificial brain, Artificial consciousness, Artificial general intelligence, Artificial intelligence in fiction, Artificial intelligence, situated approach, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Artificial life, Artificial neural network, Association for Computing Machinery, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Atari 2600, Athletics (physical culture), Automated planning and scheduling, ..., Automated reasoning, Automatic differentiation, Autonomous car, Backpropagation, Backward chaining, Bank, Bayes estimator, Bayesian inference, Bayesian network, BBC News, Beam search, Behavior selection algorithm, Behavior-based robotics, Behavioral pattern, Bernard Widrow, Best-first search, Big data, Bill Gates, Black swan, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking, Bloomberg News, Brad Rutter, Breadth-first search, Business, Byte (magazine), Cambridge University Press, CAPTCHA, Carl Benedikt Frey, Carnegie Mellon University, Case-based reasoning, Certainty, Charles T. Rubin, Chatbot, Chess, Chinese room, Church–Turing thesis, Circumscription (logic), Clark Glymour, Claude Shannon, Closed-world assumption, CNN, Cognitive architecture, Cognitive science, Combinatorial explosion, Commonsense knowledge (artificial intelligence), Commonsense reasoning, Competitive learning, Computational complexity, Computational complexity theory, Computational intelligence, Computational learning theory, Computational theory of mind, Computer (magazine), Computer Go, Computer performance, Computer Power and Human Reason, Computer science, Computer vision, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Conditional independence, Configuration space (physics), Connectionism, Consciousness, Consciousness Explained, Content delivery network, Control system, Control theory, Convolutional neural network, Cooperation, Counterfactual thinking, Customer service, Cybernetics, Cyborg, Cyc, Cycle (graph theory), Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence Research, Daniel G. Bobrow, DARPA, Dartmouth College, Dartmouth workshop, Darwin among the Machines, Data mining, David Rumelhart, Decision analysis, Decision theory, Decision tree learning, Deep Blue (chess computer), Deep learning, DeepMind, Default logic, Denver, Depth-first search, Description logic, Desktop computer, Developmental robotics, Diophantine equation, Discovery One, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, Donald O. Hebb, Douglas Lenat, Draughts, Dune (novel), Dynamic Bayesian network, Economics, Eduardo R. Caianiello, Edward Feigenbaum, Edward Fredkin, ELIZA, Elon Musk, Embodied agent, Embodied cognition, Emergence, Emergent algorithm, Endoscopy, Equality (mathematics), ESports, Ethics of artificial intelligence, Event calculus, Evolutionary algorithm, Evolutionary computation, Expectation–maximization algorithm, Expert system, Explainable Artificial Intelligence, Explanation-based learning, Facial recognition system, Family (biology), Feedforward neural network, Fifth generation computer, Financial institution, First-order logic, Fitness function, Flocking (behavior), Fluent calculus, Folk psychology, Forward chaining, Frame (artificial intelligence), Frame problem, Frank Rosenblatt, Frankenstein, Friendly artificial intelligence, Function (mathematics), Future of Go Summit, Future of Life Institute, Fuzzy control system, Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy set, Game show, Game theory, Garry Kasparov, Gary Marcus, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Gene expression programming, Genetic algorithm, Genetic programming, Geoffrey Hinton, George Dyson (science historian), George Lucas, Gerald Edelman, Ghost in the Shell, Global catastrophic risk, Glossary of artificial intelligence, Go (game), Google, Google Search, Google Voice, Gradient descent, Graham Oppy, Group method of data handling, Hajime Sorayama, HAL 9000, Handicap (go), Hans Moravec, Hard problem of consciousness, Hebbian theory, Hellenistic period, Herbert A. Simon, Heuristic, Heuristic (computer science), Hidden Markov model, Hierarchical control system, Hierarchical temporal memory, Hilary Putnam, Hill climbing, History of artificial intelligence, Hopfield network, Horn clause, Hubert Dreyfus, Hubert Dreyfus's views on artificial intelligence, Human biology, Human intelligence, Human–computer interaction, Hybrid intelligent system, IBM, IBM 701, Igor Aleksander, Inductive logic programming, Industrial robot, Influence diagram, Influenza, Information asymmetry, Information retrieval, Information theory, Inheritance (object-oriented programming), Institute for the Future, Instrumental convergence, Intelligence, Intelligence explosion, Intelligent agent, Intelligent control, Intention, Introduction to quantum mechanics, Intrusion detection system, Isaac Asimov, James Lighthill, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Jeopardy!, Jerry Fodor, John Haugeland, John Hopfield, John Lucas (philosopher), John McCarthy (computer scientist), John Searle, John von Neumann, Johns Hopkins Beast, Joseph Weizenbaum, K-nearest neighbors algorithm, Kalman filter, Karel Čapek, Ke Jie, Ken Jennings, Kenneth Colby, Kernel method, Kevin Warwick, Kinect, Knowledge engineering, Knowledge representation and reasoning, Kolmogorov complexity, Kurt Gödel, Large numbers, Latent variable, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lee Sedol, Left 4 Dead, Lewis turning point, Lidar, Lighthill report, Linear regression, Linguistics, Lisp machine, List of cognitive biases, List of narrative techniques, Local search (optimization), Logic, Logic programming, Logic Theorist, Logical consequence, Long short-term memory, Machine, Machine learning, Machine Learning (journal), Machine perception, Machine translation, Management science, Manga, Margaret Boden, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Markov decision process, Martin Ford (author), Marvin Minsky, Mary Shelley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical optimization, Mathematics, Means-ends analysis, Mechanism design, Medical diagnosis, Mergers and acquisitions, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, Microsoft, Mike Mansfield, Military simulation, Mind, Mind–body problem, Mixture model, Modal logic, Moore's law, Moral agency, Moravec's paradox, Motion planning, Multi-agent planning, Multi-agent system, Multilayer perceptron, Multimodal sentiment analysis, Naïve physics, Naive Bayes classifier, Natural language processing, Natural language understanding, Natural selection, Natural-language user interface, Nature (journal), Neats and scruffies, Necessity and sufficiency, Neocognitron, Neocortex, Neuroevolution, Neuron, Neuroscience, New York City, Nick Bostrom, Nils John Nilsson, Noise (signal processing), Non-monotonic logic, Non-player character, Norbert Wiener, Nouvelle AI, On Intelligence, Ontology (information science), Ontology engineering, OpenAI, Operations research, Optical character recognition, Outline of object recognition, Overfitting, Oxford University Press, Pamela McCorduck, Paradigm, Particle swarm optimization, Pathfinding, Pattern matching, Pattern recognition, Paul Werbos, Perceptron, Peter Norvig, Peter Thiel, Philip K. Dick, Philosopher, Philosophy, Philosophy of artificial intelligence, Philosophy of mind, Physical symbol system, Plug & Pray, Portfolio optimization, Predicate (mathematical logic), Premise, Prentice Hall, Princeton University, Probability, Prolog, Pronoun, Propositional calculus, Pruning (decision trees), Psychology, Psychotherapy, Qualification problem, Quantifier (logic), Question answering, R.U.R., Radial basis function network, Random optimization, Random walk, Ratio Club, Rational choice theory, Rational expectations, Ray Kurzweil, Ray Solomonoff, Reason, Recurrent neural network, Regression analysis, Reinforcement learning, Restricted Boltzmann machine, Rina Dechter, Robert Ettinger, Robotic arm, Robotic mapping, Robotics, Rodney Brooks, Roger Penrose, Roger Schank, Rule of inference, Sample complexity, Samuel Butler (novelist), San Francisco, Satplan, Science (journal), Science and Civilisation in China, Science fiction, Scientific American, Scientific method, Script theory, Search algorithm, Search tree, Security Pacific Bank, Selective breeding, Semantic network, Semantics, Sentience, Sentiment analysis, Sepp Hochreiter, Seppo Linnainmaa, Seymour Papert, SHRDLU, Shun'ichi Amari, Simulated annealing, Siri, Situated, Situation calculus, Smartphone, Soar (cognitive architecture), Social intelligence, Soft computing, South China Morning Post, SpaceX, Speech recognition, Springer Science+Business Media, SRI International, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, Stanford University centers and institutes, StarCraft, State space search, Statistical classification, Statistics, Stephen Grossberg, Stephen Hawking, Stock trader, Strategic Computing Initiative, Strategy game, Stuart J. Russell, STUDENT (computer program), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies, Supervised learning, Supply and demand, Support vector machine, Supreme Commander 2, Swarm intelligence, Symbolic artificial intelligence, Tactile sensor, Technological singularity, Technology company, Terry Winograd, Tesla, Inc., Teuvo Kohonen, Text mining, The Age of Spiritual Machines, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Economist, The Emotion Machine, The Master Algorithm, The Matrix, The New York Times, The Singularity Is Near, The Terminator, Theory of computation, Three Laws of Robotics, Tic-tac-toe, Time complexity, Tom M. Mitchell, Transfer learning, Transhumanism, Truth function, Turing completeness, Turing test, Turtle (robot), Uber, Uncertainty, Unintended consequences, University of Edinburgh, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Unsupervised learning, Upper ontology, Utility, Vanishing gradient problem, Vernor Vinge, Vicarious (company), Virtual assistant, Vladimir Putin, Walter Pitts, Warren Sturgis McCulloch, Wason selection task, Watson (computer), Weak AI, Web Ontology Language, Where Mathematics Comes From, William Grey Walter, Word-sense disambiguation, World Wide Web, Xbox 360, Xbox Live, Yann LeCun, Zenon Pylyshyn, 2001: A Space Odyssey, 2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 2001: A Space Odyssey (novel). Expand index (493 more) » « Shrink index
In computer science, A* (pronounced as "A star") is a computer algorithm that is widely used in pathfinding and graph traversal, which is the process of plotting an efficiently directed path between multiple points, called "nodes".
A.I. Artificial Intelligence, also known as A.I., is a 2001 American science fiction drama film directed by Steven Spielberg.
Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,For example: abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation or set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to site content and audience.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
Affective computing (sometimes called artificial emotional intelligence, or emotion AI) is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects.
Agent architecture in computer science is a blueprint for software agents and intelligent control systems, depicting the arrangement of components.
The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not real intelligence.
In the history of artificial intelligence, an AI winter is a period of reduced funding and interest in artificial intelligence research.
In the field of artificial intelligence, the most difficult problems are informally known as AI-complete or AI-hard, implying that the difficulty of these computational problems is equivalent to that of solving the central artificial intelligence problem—making computers as intelligent as people, or strong AI.
AI@50, formally known as the "Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty Years" (July 13–15, 2006), was a conference commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Dartmouth workshop which effectively inaugurated the history of artificial intelligence.
AIXI is a theoretical mathematical formalism for artificial general intelligence.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
Alexey Ivakhnenko (Олексíй Григо́рович Іва́хненко, Алексей Григо́рьевич Іва́хненко); (30 March 1913 – 16 October 2007) was a Soviet and Ukrainian mathematician most famous for developing the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH), a method of inductive statistical learning, for which he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of Deep Learning".
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Algorithm characterizations are attempts to formalize the word algorithm.
Aliens is a 1986 American science fiction action film written and directed by James Cameron, produced by Gale Anne Hurd and starring Sigourney Weaver.
Alison Gopnik (born June 16, 1955) is an American professor of psychology and affiliate professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.
Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.
AlphaGo is a computer program that plays the board game Go.
AlphaGo versus Ke Jie was a three-game Go match between the computer Go program AlphaGo and current world No.
AlphaZero is a computer program developed by the Alphabet-owned AI research company DeepMind, which uses an approach similar to AlphaGo Zero's to master not just Go, but also chess and shogi.
An alternating decision tree (ADTree) is a machine learning method for classification.
The Alvey Programme was a British government sponsored research program in information technology that ran from 1983 to 1987.
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Andrew Yan-Tak Ng (born 1976) is a Chinese American computer scientist and entrepreneur.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
In computer science and operations research, the ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) is a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Applied information economics (AIE) is a decision analysis method developed by Douglas W. Hubbard and partially described in his book How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of Intangibles in Business (2007; 2nd ed. 2010; 3rd ed. 2014).
Arthur Lee Samuel (December 5, 1901 – July 29, 1990) was an American pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence.
An artificial brain (or artificial mind) is software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain.
Artificial consciousness (AC), also known as machine consciousness (MC) or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics.
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the intelligence of a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can.
The literature of science fiction and fantasy is extensive and includes many subgenres which includes artificial intelligence as a recurrent theme in science fiction.
In artificial intelligence research, the situated approach builds agents that are designed to behave effectively successfully in their environment.
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (AIMA) is a university textbook on artificial intelligence, written by Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig.
Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is an international, nonprofit, scientific society devoted to promote research in, and responsible use of, artificial intelligence.
The Atari 2600 (or Atari Video Computer System before November 1982) is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.
Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.
Automated planning and scheduling, sometimes denoted as simply AI Planning, is a branch of artificial intelligence that concerns the realization of strategies or action sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles.
Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.
In mathematics and computer algebra, automatic differentiation (AD), also called algorithmic differentiation or computational differentiation, is a set of techniques to numerically evaluate the derivative of a function specified by a computer program.
An autonomous car (also known as a driverless car, self-driving car, and robotic car) is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.
Backpropagation is a method used in artificial neural networks to calculate a gradient that is needed in the calculation of the weights to be used in the network.
Backward chaining (or backward reasoning) is an inference method that can be described colloquially as working backward from the goal(s).
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
In estimation theory and decision theory, a Bayes estimator or a Bayes action is an estimator or decision rule that minimizes the posterior expected value of a loss function (i.e., the posterior expected loss).
Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.
A Bayesian network, Bayes network, belief network, Bayes(ian) model or probabilistic directed acyclic graphical model is a probabilistic graphical model (a type of statistical model) that represents a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph (DAG).
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
In computer science, beam search is a heuristic search algorithm that explores a graph by expanding the most promising node in a limited set.
In artificial intelligence, a behavior selection algorithm, or action selection algorithm, is an algorithm that selects appropriate behaviors or actions for one or more intelligent agents.
Behavior-based robotics or behavioral robotics is an approach in robotics that focuses on robots that are able to exhibit complex-appearing behaviors despite little internal variable state to model its immediate environment, mostly gradually correcting its actions via sensory-motor links.
In software engineering, behavioral design patterns are design patterns that identify common communication patterns between objects and realize these patterns.
Bernard Widrow (born December 24, 1929) is a U.S. professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University.
Best-first search is a search algorithm which explores a graph by expanding the most promising node chosen according to a specified rule.
Big data is data sets that are so big and complex that traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.
The black swan (Cygnus atratus) is a large waterbird, a species of swan which breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia.
Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (2005) is Malcolm Gladwell's second book.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Bradford Gates Rutter (born January 31, 1978) is the highest-earning contestant on the U.S. syndicated game show Jeopardy! and also the highest-earning American game show contestant of all time.
Breadth-first search (BFS) is an algorithm for traversing or searching tree or graph data structures.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A CAPTCHA (an acronym for "Completely Automated Public '''T'''uring test to tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.
Carl Benedikt Frey is a Swedish-German economist and economic historian.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Case-based reasoning (CBR), broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems.
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.
Charles T. Rubin is a political science professor at Duquesne University.
A chatbot (also known as a talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The Chinese room argument holds that a program cannot give a computer a "mind", "understanding" or "consciousness", regardless of how intelligently or human-like the program may make the computer behave.
In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.
Circumscription is a non-monotonic logic created by John McCarthy to formalize the common sense assumption that things are as expected unless otherwise specified.
Clark N. Glymour (born 1942) is the Alumni University Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Carnegie Mellon University.
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
The closed-world assumption (CWA), in a formal system of logic used for knowledge representation, is the presumption that a statement that is true is also known to be true.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of the human mind.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
In mathematics, a combinatorial explosion is the rapid growth of the complexity of a problem due to how the combinatorics of the problem is affected by the input, constraints, and bounds of the problem.
In artificial intelligence research, commonsense knowledge consists of facts about the everyday world, such as "Lemons are sour", that all humans are expected to know.
Commonsense reasoning is one of the branches of artificial intelligence (AI) that is concerned with simulating the human ability to make presumptions about the type and essence of ordinary situations they encounter every day.
Competitive learning is a form of unsupervised learning in artificial neural networks, in which nodes compete for the right to respond to a subset of the input data.
In computer science, the computational complexity, or simply complexity of an algorithm is the amount of resources required for running it.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
The expression computational intelligence (CI) usually refers to the ability of a computer to learn a specific task from data or experimental observation.
In computer science, computational learning theory (or just learning theory) is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence devoted to studying the design and analysis of machine learning algorithms.
In philosophy, the computational theory of mind (CTM) refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of computation.
Computer is an IEEE Computer Society practitioner-oriented magazine issued to all members of the society.
Computer Go is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to creating a computer program that plays the traditional board game Go.
Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.
Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment To Calculation (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1976) by Joseph Weizenbaum displays his ambivalence towards computer technology and lays out the case that while artificial intelligence may be possible, we should never allow computers to make important decisions because computers will always lack human qualities such as compassion and wisdom.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence.
In probability theory, two events R and B are conditionally independent given a third event Y precisely if the occurrence of R and the occurrence of B are independent events in their conditional probability distribution given Y. In other words, R and B are conditionally independent given Y if and only if, given knowledge that Y occurs, knowledge of whether R occurs provides no information on the likelihood of B occurring, and knowledge of whether B occurs provides no information on the likelihood of R occurring.
In classical mechanics, the parameters that define the configuration of a system are called generalized coordinates, and the vector space defined by these coordinates is called the configuration space of the physical system.
Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, that hopes to represent mental phenomena using artificial neural networks.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Consciousness Explained is a 1991 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, in which the author offers an account of how consciousness arises from interaction of physical and cognitive processes in the brain.
A content delivery network or content distribution network (CDN) is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
In machine learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN, or ConvNet) is a class of deep, feed-forward artificial neural networks, most commonly applied to analyzing visual imagery.
Cooperation (sometimes written as co-operation) is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for common, mutual, or some underlying benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit.
Counterfactual thinking is a concept in psychology that involves the human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened.
Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
A cyborg (short for "'''cyb'''ernetic '''org'''anism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts.
Cyc is the world's longest-lived artificial intelligence project, attempting to assemble a comprehensive ontology and knowledge base that spans the basic concepts and "rules of thumb" about how the world works (think common sense knowledge but focusing more on things that rarely get written down or said, in contrast with facts one might find somewhere on the internet or retrieve via Google or Wikipedia), with the goal of enabling AI applications to perform human-like reasoning and be less "brittle" when confronted with novel situations that were not preconceived.
In graph theory, a cycle is a path of edges and vertices wherein a vertex is reachable from itself.
The Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence Research (italic, IDSIA) is a research institution in Manno, in the district of Lugano, in Ticino in southern Switzerland.
Daniel Gureasko Bobrow (29 November 1935 – 20 March 2017) was an American computer scientist who was a Research Fellow in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory of the Palo Alto Research Center and created an oft-cited artificial intelligence program STUDENT, with which he earned his PhD.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence was the name of a 1956 summer workshop now considered by many (though not all) to be the seminal event for artificial intelligence as a field.
"Darwin among the Machines" is the name of an article published in The Press newspaper on 13 June 1863 in Christchurch, New Zealand, which references the work of Charles Darwin in the title.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
David Everett Rumelhart (June 12, 1942 – March 13, 2011) was an American psychologist who made many contributions to the formal analysis of human cognition, working primarily within the frameworks of mathematical psychology, symbolic artificial intelligence, and parallel distributed processing.
Decision analysis (DA) is the discipline comprising the philosophy, theory, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
Decision tree learning uses a decision tree (as a predictive model) to go from observations about an item (represented in the branches) to conclusions about the item's target value (represented in the leaves).
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.
Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms.
DeepMind Technologies Limited is a British artificial intelligence company founded in September 2010.
Default logic is a non-monotonic logic proposed by Raymond Reiter to formalize reasoning with default assumptions.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Depth-first search (DFS) is an algorithm for traversing or searching tree or graph data structures.
Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
Developmental robotics (DevRob), sometimes called epigenetic robotics, is a scientific field which aims at studying the developmental mechanisms, architectures and constraints that allow lifelong and open-ended learning of new skills and new knowledge in embodied machines.
In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values).
The United States Spacecraft Discovery One was a nuclear-powered interplanetary fictional spaceship controlled by the AI onboard computer HAL 9000 from the first two novels of the Space Odyssey series and the movies 2001: A Space Odyssey and 2010: The Year We Make Contact.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (retitled Blade Runner: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? in some later printings) is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, first published in 1968.
Donald Olding Hebb FRS (July 22, 1904 – August 20, 1985) was a Canadian psychologist who was influential in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning.
Douglas Bruce Lenat (born 1950) is the CEO of Cycorp, Inc. of Austin, Texas, and has been a prominent researcher in artificial intelligence; he was awarded the biannual IJCAI Computers and Thought Award in 1976 for creating the landmark machine learning program, AM.
Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.
Dune is a 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert, originally published as two separate serials in Analog magazine.
A Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) is a Bayesian network which relates variables to each other over adjacent time steps.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Eduardo Renato Caianiello was an Italian physicist.
Edward Albert "Ed" Feigenbaum (born January 20, 1936) is a computer scientist working in the field of artificial intelligence, and joint winner of the 1994 ACM Turing Award.
Edward Fredkin (born 1934) is a distinguished career professor at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), Pennsylvania, and an early pioneer of Digital physics.
ELIZA is an early natural language processing computer program created from 1964 to 1966 at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory by Joseph Weizenbaum.
Elon Reeve Musk (born June 28, 1971) is an American business magnate, investor and engineer.
In artificial intelligence, an embodied agent, also sometimes referred to as an interface agent, is an intelligent agent that interacts with the environment through a physical body within that environment.
Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
An emergent algorithm is an algorithm that exhibits emergent behavior.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
eSports (also known as electronic sports, esports, e-sports, competitive (video) gaming, professional (video) gaming, or pro gaming) are a form of competition using video games.
The ethics of artificial intelligence is the part of the ethics of technology specific to robots and other artificially intelligent beings.
The event calculus is a logical language for representing and reasoning about events and their effects first presented by Robert Kowalski and Marek Sergot in 1986.
In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.
In computer science, evolutionary computation is a family of algorithms for global optimization inspired by biological evolution, and the subfield of artificial intelligence and soft computing studying these algorithms.
In statistics, an expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm is an iterative method to find maximum likelihood or maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of parameters in statistical models, where the model depends on unobserved latent variables.
In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.
An Explainable AI (XAI) or Transparent AI is an artificial intelligence (AI) whose actions can be easily understood by humans.
Explanation-based learning (EBL) is a form of machine learning that exploits a very strong, or even perfect, domain theory in order to make generalizations or form concepts from training examples.
A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network wherein connections between the nodes do not form a cycle.
The Fifth Generation Computer Systems (FGCS) was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begun in 1982, to create a computer using massively parallel computing/processing.
Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
A fitness function is a particular type of objective function that is used to summarise, as a single figure of merit, how close a given design solution is to achieving the set aims.
Flocking behavior is the behavior exhibited when a group of birds, called a flock, are foraging or in flight.
The fluent calculus is a formalism for expressing dynamical domains in first-order logic.
In philosophy of mind and cognitive science, folk psychology, or commonsense psychology, is a human capacity to explain and predict the behavior and mental state of other people.
Forward chaining (or forward reasoning) is one of the two main methods of reasoning when using an inference engine and can be described logically as repeated application of modus ponens.
Frames were proposed by Marvin Minsky in his 1974 article "A Framework for Representing Knowledge." A frame is an artificial intelligence data structure used to divide knowledge into substructures by representing "stereotyped situations." Frames are the primary data structure used in artificial intelligence frame language.
In artificial intelligence, the frame problem describes an issue with using first-order logic (FOL) to express facts about a robot in the world.
Frank Rosenblatt (July 11, 1928July 11, 1971) was an American psychologist notable in the field of artificial intelligence.
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
A friendly artificial intelligence (also friendly AI or FAI) is a hypothetical artificial general intelligence (AGI) that would have a positive effect on humanity.
In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.
The Future of Go Summit was held in May 2017 by the Chinese Go Association, Sport Bureau of Zhejiang Province and Google in Wuzhen, Zhejiang, the permanent host of the World Internet Conference.
The Future of Life Institute (FLI) is a volunteer-run research and outreach organization in the Boston area that works to mitigate existential risks facing humanity, particularly existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence (AI).
A fuzzy control system is a control system based on fuzzy logic—a mathematical system that analyzes analog input values in terms of logical variables that take on continuous values between 0 and 1, in contrast to classical or digital logic, which operates on discrete values of either 1 or 0 (true or false, respectively).
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.
In mathematics, fuzzy sets (aka uncertain sets) are somewhat like sets whose elements have degrees of membership.
A game show is a type of radio, television, or stage show in which contestants, individually or as teams, play a game which involves answering questions or solving puzzles, usually for money or prizes.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Gary F. Marcus (born February 8, 1970) is a scientist, author, and entrepreneur.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, also known as GEB, is a 1979 book by Douglas Hofstadter.
In computer programming, gene expression programming (GEP) is an evolutionary algorithm that creates computer programs or models.
In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).
In artificial intelligence, genetic programming (GP) is a technique whereby computer programs are encoded as a set of genes that are then modified (evolved) using an evolutionary algorithm (often a genetic algorithm, "GA") – it is an application of (for example) genetic algorithms where the space of solutions consists of computer programs.
Geoffrey Everest Hinton One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 6 December 1947) is a British cognitive psychologist and computer scientist, most noted for his work on artificial neural networks.
George Dyson (born 26 March 1953) is an American non-fiction author and historian of technology whose publications broadly cover the evolution of technology in relation to the physical environment and the direction of society.
George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur.
Gerald Maurice Edelman (July 1, 1929 – May 17, 2014) was an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system.
is a Japanese media franchise originally published as a seinen manga series of the same name written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow.
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale, even crippling or destroying modern civilization.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Search, commonly referred to as Google Web Search or simply Google, is a web search engine developed by Google.
Google Voice is a telephony service that provides call forwarding and voicemail services, voice and text messaging, as well as U.S. and international call termination for Google Account customers in the U.S. and Canada.
Gradient descent is a first-order iterative optimization algorithm for finding the minimum of a function.
Graham Robert Oppy (born 6 October 1960) is an Australian philosopher whose main area of research is the philosophy of religion.
Group method of data handling (GMDH) is a family of inductive algorithms for computer-based mathematical modeling of multi-parametric datasets that features fully automatic structural and parametric optimization of models.
is a Japanese illustrator known for his precisely detailed, erotic portrayals of feminized, biomechanoid robots, and his design work on the original Sony AIBO robotic "pet".
HAL 9000 is a fictional character and the main antagonist in Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey series.
Within most systems and at most levels in the game of Go, a handicap is given to offset the strength difference between players of different ranks.
Hans Peter Moravec (born November 30, 1948, Kautzen, Austria) is an adjunct faculty member at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University.
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences—how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colors and tastes.
In neuroscience, Hebbian theory is a theory that proposes an explanation for the adaptation of neurons in the brain during the learning process.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic (from Greek εὑρίσκω "I find, discover") is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.
Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved (i.e. hidden) states.
A hierarchical control system is a form of control system in which a set of devices and governing software is arranged in a hierarchical tree.
Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) is a technology based on a realistic biologically-constrained model of the pyramidal neuron that reflects today’s most recent neocortical research originally described in the 2004 book On Intelligence by Jeff Hawkins with Sandra Blakeslee.
Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.
In numerical analysis, hill climbing is a mathematical optimization technique which belongs to the family of local search.
The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols.
A Hopfield network is a form of recurrent artificial neural network popularized by John Hopfield in 1982, but described earlier by Little in 1974.
In mathematical logic and logic programming, a Horn clause is a logical formula of a particular rule-like form which gives it useful properties for use in logic programming, formal specification, and model theory.
Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (October 15, 1929 – April 22, 2017) was an American philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.
Hubert Dreyfus has been a critic of artificial intelligence research since the 1960s.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
Human intelligence is the intellectual prowess of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
Hybrid intelligent system denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination of methods and techniques from artificial intelligence subfields as.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.
Igor Aleksander FREng (born 26 January 1937) is an emeritus professor of Neural Systems Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Imperial College London.
Inductive logic programming (ILP) is a subfield of machine learning which uses logic programming as a uniform representation for examples, background knowledge and hypotheses.
An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing.
An influence diagram (ID) (also called a relevance diagram, decision diagram or a decision network) is a compact graphical and mathematical representation of a decision situation.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object (prototypal inheritance) or class (class-based inheritance), retaining the same implementation.
The Institute for the Future (IFTF) is a Palo Alto, California, US–based not-for-profit think tank.
Instrumental convergence is the hypothetical tendency for most sufficiently intelligent agents to pursue certain instrumental goals such as self-preservation and resource acquisition.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The intelligence explosion is a possible outcome of humanity building artificial general intelligence (AGI).
In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is "rational", as defined in economics).
Intelligent control is a class of control techniques that use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, machine learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms.
Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.
Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small.
An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
Sir Michael James Lighthill, (23 January 1924 – 17 July 1998) was a British applied mathematician, known for his pioneering work in the field of aeroacoustics.
Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.
Jeopardy! is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin.
Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
John Haugeland (March 13, 1945 – June 23, 2010) was a professor of philosophy, focused on the philosophy of mind, cognitive science, phenomenology, and Heidegger.
John Joseph Hopfield (born July 15, 1933) is an American scientist most widely known for his invention of an associative neural network in 1982.
John Randolph Lucas FBA (born 18 June 1929) is a British philosopher.
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The Johns Hopkins Beast was a mobile automaton, an early pre-robot, built in the 1960s at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.
Joseph Weizenbaum (8 January 1923 – 5 March 2008) was a German-American computer scientist and a professor at MIT.
In pattern recognition, the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN) is a non-parametric method used for classification and regression.
Kalman filtering, also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing statistical noise and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more accurate than those based on a single measurement alone, by estimating a joint probability distribution over the variables for each timeframe.
Karel Čapek (9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer of the early 20th century.
Ke Jie (born 2 August 1997) is a Chinese professional Go player of 9 dan rank.
Kenneth Wayne Jennings III (born May 23, 1974) is an American game show contestant and author.
Kenneth Mark Colby (1920 – April 20, 2001) was an American psychiatrist dedicated to the theory and application of computer science and artificial intelligence to psychiatry.
In machine learning, kernel methods are a class of algorithms for pattern analysis, whose best known member is the support vector machine (SVM).
Kevin Warwick FIET, FCGI, (born 9 February 1954) is a British engineer and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University in the United Kingdom.
Kinect (codenamed Project Natal during development) is a line of motion sensing input devices that was produced by Microsoft for Xbox 360 and Xbox One video game consoles and Microsoft Windows PCs.
Knowledge engineering (KE) refers to all technical, scientific and social aspects involved in building, maintaining and using knowledge-based systems.
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
In algorithmic information theory (a subfield of computer science and mathematics), the Kolmogorov complexity of an object, such as a piece of text, is the length of the shortest computer program (in a predetermined programming language) that produces the object as output.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
Large numbers are numbers that are significantly larger than those ordinarily used in everyday life, for instance in simple counting or in monetary transactions.
In statistics, latent variables (from Latin: present participle of lateo (“lie hidden”), as opposed to observable variables), are variables that are not directly observed but are rather inferred (through a mathematical model) from other variables that are observed (directly measured).
Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.
Lee Sedol (이세돌; born 2 March 1983), or Lee Se-dol, is a South Korean professional Go player of 9 dan rank.
Left 4 Dead is a cooperative first-person shooter video game, developed by Valve South and published by Valve Corporation.
The Lewis turning point is a situation in economic development where surplus rural labor reaches a financial zero.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
The Lighthill report is the name commonly used for the paper "Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey" by James Lighthill, published in Artificial Intelligence: a paper symposium in 1973.
In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach to modelling the relationship between a scalar response (or dependent variable) and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables).
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language, usually via hardware support.
Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.
A narrative technique (also known more narrowly for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fictional device) is any of several specific methods the creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want—in other words, a strategy used in the making of a narrative to relay information to the audience and, particularly, to "develop" the narrative, usually in order to make it more complete, complicated, or interesting.
In computer science, local search is a heuristic method for solving computationally hard optimization problems.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.
Logic Theorist is a computer program written in 1955 and 1956 by Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Cliff Shaw.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Long short-term memory (LSTM) units (or blocks) are a building unit for layers of a recurrent neural network (RNN).
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
Machine Learning is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1986.
Machine perception is the capability of a computer system to interpret data in a manner that is similar to the way humans use their senses to relate to the world around them.
Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with computer-aided translation, machine-aided human translation (MAHT) or interactive translation) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one language to another.
Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.
are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
Margaret Ann Boden, OBE, ScD, FBA (born 26 November 1936) is research professor of cognitive science at the department of informatics at the University of Sussex, where her work embraces the fields of artificial intelligence, psychology, philosophy, cognitive and computer science.
In statistics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods comprise a class of algorithms for sampling from a probability distribution.
Markov decision processes (MDPs) provide a mathematical framework for modeling decision making in situations where outcomes are partly random and partly under the control of a decision maker.
Martin Ford is a futurist and author focusing on the impact of artificial intelligence and robotics on society and the economy.
Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Means-ends analysis (MEA) is a problem solving technique used commonly in artificial intelligence (AI) for limiting search in AI programs.
Mechanism design is a field in economics and game theory that takes an engineering approach to designing economic mechanisms or incentives, toward desired objectives, in strategic settings, where players act rationally.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (Microelectronics and Computer Consortium - MCC) was the first, and - at one time - one of the largest, computer industry research and development consortia in the United States.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Michael Joseph Mansfield (March 16, 1903 – October 5, 2001) was an American politician and diplomat.
Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.
In statistics, a mixture model is a probabilistic model for representing the presence of subpopulations within an overall population, without requiring that an observed data set should identify the sub-population to which an individual observation belongs.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
Moral agency is an individual's ability to make moral judgments based on some notion of right and wrong and to be held accountable for these actions.
Moravec's paradox is the discovery by artificial intelligence and robotics researchers that, contrary to traditional assumptions, high-level reasoning requires very little computation, but low-level sensorimotor skills require enormous computational resources.
Motion planning (also known as the navigation problem or the piano mover's problem) is a term used in robotics for the process of breaking down a desired movement task into discrete motions that satisfy movement constraints and possibly optimize some aspect of the movement.
In computer science multi-agent planning involves coordinating the resources and activities of multiple "agents".
A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents.
A multilayer perceptron (MLP) is a class of feedforward artificial neural network.
Multimodal sentiment analysis is a new dimension of the traditional text-based sentiment analysis, which goes beyond the analysis of texts, and includes other modalities such as audio and visual data.
Naïve physics or folk physics is the untrained human perception of basic physical phenomena.
In machine learning, naive Bayes classifiers are a family of simple "probabilistic classifiers" based on applying Bayes' theorem with strong (naive) independence assumptions between the features.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
Natural language understanding (NLU) or natural language interpretation (NLI) is a subtopic of natural language processing in artificial intelligence that deals with machine reading comprehension.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Natural-language user interfaces (LUI or NLUI) are a type of computer human interface where linguistic phenomena such as verbs, phrases and clauses act as UI controls for creating, selecting and modifying data in software applications.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neat and scruffy are labels for two different types of artificial intelligence (AI) research.
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
The neocognitron is a hierarchical, multilayered artificial neural network proposed by Kunihiko Fukushima in the 1980s.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
Neuroevolution, or neuro-evolution, is a form of artificial intelligence that uses evolutionary algorithms to generate artificial neural networks (ANN), parameters, topology and rules.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nick Bostrom (Niklas Boström,; born 10 March 1973) is a Swedish philosopher at the University of Oxford known for his work on existential risk, the anthropic principle, human enhancement ethics, superintelligence risks, and the reversal test.
Nils John Nilsson (born 1933) is an American computer scientist.
In signal processing, noise is a general term for unwanted (and, in general, unknown) modifications that a signal may suffer during capture, storage, transmission, processing, or conversion.
A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic.
A non-player character (NPC) in a game is any character that is not controlled by a player.
Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.
Nouvelle artificial intelligence (AI) is an approach to artificial intelligence pioneered in the 1980s by Rodney Brooks, who was then part of MIT artificial intelligence laboratory.
On Intelligence: How a New Understanding of the Brain will Lead to the Creation of Truly Intelligent Machines is a 2004 book by Palm Pilot-inventor Jeff Hawkins with New York Times science writer Sandra Blakeslee.
In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations of the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains.
Ontology engineering in computer science, information science and systems engineering is a field which studies the methods and methodologies for building ontologies: formal representations of a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.
OpenAI is a non-profit artificial intelligence (AI) research company that aims to promote and develop friendly AI in such a way as to benefit humanity as a whole.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
Optical character recognition (also optical character reader, OCR) is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example from a television broadcast).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to object recognition: Object recognition – technology in the field of computer vision for finding and identifying objects in an image or video sequence.
In statistics, overfitting is "the production of an analysis that corresponds too closely or exactly to a particular set of data, and may therefore fail to fit additional data or predict future observations reliably".
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pamela McCorduck (born 1940) is an American author of a number of books concerning the history and philosophical significance of artificial intelligence, the future of engineering and the role of women and technology.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
In computer science, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality.
Pathfinding or pathing is the plotting, by a computer application, of the shortest route between two points.
In computer science, pattern matching is the act of checking a given sequence of tokens for the presence of the constituents of some pattern.
Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.
Paul J. Werbos (born 1947) is a scientist best known for his 1974 Harvard University Ph.D. thesis, which first described the process of training artificial neural networks through backpropagation of errors.
In machine learning, the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers (functions that can decide whether an input, represented by a vector of numbers, belongs to some specific class or not).
Peter Norvig (born December 14, 1956) is an American computer scientist.
Peter Andreas Thiel (born October 11, 1967) is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, philanthropist, political activist, and author.
Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of artificial intelligence attempts to answer such questions as follows.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
A physical symbol system (also called a formal system) takes physical patterns (symbols), combining them into structures (expressions) and manipulating them (using processes) to produce new expressions.
Plug & Pray is a 2010 documentary film about the promise, problems and ethics of artificial intelligence and robotics.
Portfolio optimization is the process of selecting the best portfolio (asset distribution), out of the set of all portfolios being considered, according to some objective.
In mathematical logic, a predicate is commonly understood to be a Boolean-valued function P: X→, called the predicate on X. However, predicates have many different uses and interpretations in mathematics and logic, and their precise definition, meaning and use will vary from theory to theory.
A premise or premiss is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.
Pruning is a technique in machine learning that reduces the size of decision trees by removing sections of the tree that provide little power to classify instances.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
In philosophy and AI (especially, knowledge based systems), the qualification problem is concerned with the impossibility of listing all the preconditions required for a real-world action to have its intended effectReiter, Raymond.
In logic, quantification specifies the quantity of specimens in the domain of discourse that satisfy an open formula.
Question answering (QA) is a computer science discipline within the fields of information retrieval and natural language processing (NLP), which is concerned with building systems that automatically answer questions posed by humans in a natural language.
R.U.R. is a 1920 science fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek.
In the field of mathematical modeling, a radial basis function network is an artificial neural network that uses radial basis functions as activation functions.
Random optimization (RO) is a family of numerical optimization methods that do not require the gradient of the problem to be optimized and RO can hence be used on functions that are not continuous or differentiable.
A random walk is a mathematical object, known as a stochastic or random process, that describes a path that consists of a succession of random steps on some mathematical space such as the integers.
The Ratio Club was a small informal dining club of young psychiatrists, psychologists, physiologists, mathematicians and engineers who met to discuss issues in cybernetics.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
In economics, "rational expectations" are model-consistent expectations, in that agents inside the model are assumed to "know the model" and on average take the model's predictions as valid.
Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is an American author, computer scientist, inventor and futurist.
Ray Solomonoff (July 25, 1926 – December 7, 2009) was the inventor of algorithmic probability, his General Theory of Inductive Inference (also known as Universal Inductive Inference),Samuel Rathmanner and Marcus Hutter.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
A recurrent neural network (RNN) is a class of artificial neural network where connections between nodes form a directed graph along a sequence.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning inspired by behaviourist psychology, concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward.
A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a generative stochastic artificial neural network that can learn a probability distribution over its set of inputs.
Rina Dechter is a Professor of Computer Science in the Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences at University of California, Irvine.
Robert Chester Wilson Ettinger (December 4, 1918 – July 23, 2011) was an American academic, known as "the father of cryonics" because of the impact of his 1962 book The Prospect of Immortality.
A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar functions to a human arm; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part of a more complex robot.
Robotic mapping is a discipline related to cartography.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
Rodney Allen Brooks (born 30 December 1954) is an Australian roboticist, Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science, author, and robotics entrepreneur, most known for popularizing the actionist approach to robotics.
Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.
Roger Carl Schank (born 1946) is an American artificial intelligence theorist, cognitive psychologist, learning scientist, educational reformer, and entrepreneur.
In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule or transformation rule is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion (or conclusions).
The sample complexity of a machine learning algorithm represents the number of training-samples that it needs in order to successfully learn a target function.
Samuel Butler (4 December 1835 – 18 June 1902) was the iconoclastic English author of the Utopian satirical novel Erewhon (1872) and the semi-autobiographical Bildungsroman The Way of All Flesh, published posthumously in 1903.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Satplan (better known as Planning as Satisfiability) is a method for automated planning.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science and Civilisation in China (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995).
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Script theory is a psychological theory which posits that human behaviour largely falls into patterns called "scripts" because they function analogously to the way a written script does, by providing a program for action.
In computer science, a search algorithm is any algorithm which solves the search problem, namely, to retrieve information stored within some data structure, or calculated in the search space of a problem domain.
In computer science, a search tree is a tree data structure used for locating specific keys from within a set.
Security Pacific National Bank (SPNB) was a large U.S. bank headquartered in Los Angeles, California.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
A semantic network, or frame network is a knowledge base that represents semantic relations between concepts in a network.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Opinion mining (sometimes known as sentiment analysis or emotion AI) refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis, computational linguistics, and biometrics to systematically identify, extract, quantify, and study affective states and subjective information.
Sepp Hochreiter (born Josef Hochreiter in 1967) is a German computer scientist.
Seppo Linnainmaa (born 1945 in Pori, Finland) is a Finnish mathematician and computer scientist.
Seymour Aubrey Papert (February 29, 1928 – July 31, 2016) was a South African-born American mathematician, computer scientist, and educator, who spent most of his career teaching and researching at MIT.
SHRDLU was an early natural language understanding computer program, developed by Terry Winograd at MIT in 1968–1970.
, is a Japanese scholar born in 1936 in Tokyo, Japan.
Simulated annealing (SA) is a probabilistic technique for approximating the global optimum of a given function.
Siri (pronounced) is a virtual assistant part of Apple Inc.'s iOS, watchOS, macOS, and tvOS operating systems.
In artificial intelligence and cognitive science, the term situated refers to an agent which is embedded in an environment.
The situation calculus is a logic formalism designed for representing and reasoning about dynamical domains.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
Soar is a cognitive architecture, originally created by John Laird, Allen Newell, and at Carnegie Mellon University.
Social intelligence, the capacity to know oneself and to know others, is as inalienable a part of the human condition as is the capacity to know objects or sounds, and it deserves to be investigated no less than these other "less charged" forms.
In computer science, soft computing (sometimes referred to as computational intelligence, though CI does not have an agreed definition) is the use of inexact solutions to computationally hard tasks such as the solution of NP-complete problems, for which there is no known algorithm that can compute an exact solution in polynomial time.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stanford University has many centers and institutes dedicated to the study of various specific topics.
StarCraft is a military science fiction media franchise, created by Chris Metzen and James Phinney and owned by Blizzard Entertainment.
State space search is a process used in the field of computer science, including artificial intelligence (AI), in which successive configurations or states of an instance are considered, with the intention of finding a goal state with a desired property.
In machine learning and statistics, classification is the problem of identifying to which of a set of categories (sub-populations) a new observation belongs, on the basis of a training set of data containing observations (or instances) whose category membership is known.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Stephen Grossberg (born December 31, 1939) is a cognitive scientist, theoretical and computational psychologist, neuroscientist, mathematician, biomedical engineer, and neuromorphic technologist.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
A stock trader or equity trader or share trader is a person or company involved in trading equity securities.
The United States government's Strategic Computing Initiative funded research into advanced computer hardware and artificial intelligence from 1983 to 1993.
A strategy game or strategic game is a game (e.g. video or board game) in which the players' uncoerced, and often autonomous decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome.
Stuart Jonathan Russell (born 1962) is a computer scientist known for his contributions to artificial intelligence.
STUDENT is an early artificial intelligence program that solves algebra word problems.
Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies is a 2014 book by the Swedish philosopher Nick Bostrom from the University of Oxford.
Supervised learning is the machine learning task of learning a function that maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
In machine learning, support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data used for classification and regression analysis.
Supreme Commander 2 is a real-time strategy (RTS) video game developed by Gas Powered Games and published by Square Enix.
Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial.
Symbolic artificial intelligence is the term for the collection of all methods in artificial intelligence research that are based on high-level "symbolic" (human-readable) representations of problems, logic and search.
A tactile sensor is a device that measures information arising from physical interaction with its environment.
The technological singularity (also, simply, the singularity) is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI) will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization.
A technology company (often tech company) is a type of business entity that focuses primarily on the development and manufacturing of technology.
Terry Allen Winograd (born February 24, 1946) is an American professor of computer science at Stanford University, and co-director of the Stanford Human-Computer Interaction Group.
Tesla, Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors) was founded in 2003, and is an American multinational corporation based in Palo Alto, California, that specializes in electric vehicles, lithium-ion battery energy storage and solar panel manufacturing (through the subsidiary company SolarCity).
Teuvo Kalevi Kohonen (born July 11, 1934) is a prominent Finnish academic (Dr. Eng.) and researcher.
Text mining, also referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information from text.
The Age of Spiritual Machines is a non-fiction book by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil about artificial intelligence and the future course of humanity.
The Day the Earth Stood Still (a.k.a. Farewell to the Master and Journey to the World) is a 1951 American black-and-white science fiction film released by 20th Century Fox and produced by Julian Blaustein.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind is a 2006 book by cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky that elaborates and expands on Minsky's ideas as presented in his earlier book Society of Mind.
The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World is a book by Pedro Domingos released in 2015.
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology is a 2005 non-fiction book about artificial intelligence and the future of humanity by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil.
The Terminator is a 1984 American science-fiction action film directed by James Cameron.
In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.
The Three Laws of Robotics (often shortened to The Three Laws or known as Asimov's Laws) are a set of rules devised by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov.
Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid.
In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of time it takes to run an algorithm.
Tom Michael Mitchell (born August 9, 1951) is an American computer scientist and E. Fredkin University Professor at the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).
Transfer learning or inductive transfer is a research problem in machine learning that focuses on storing knowledge gained while solving one problem and applying it to a different but related problem.
Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology.
In logic, a truth function is a function that accepts truth values as input and produces a truth value as output, i.e., the input and output are all truth values.
In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.
The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.
Turtles are a class of educational robots designed originally in the late 1940s (largely under the auspices of researcher William Grey Walter) and used in computer science and mechanical engineering training.
Uber Technologies Inc. (doing business as Uber) is a peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi cab, food delivery, and transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California, with operations in 633 cities worldwide.
Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Unsupervised machine learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function that describes the structure of "unlabeled" data (i.e. data that has not been classified or categorized).
In information science, an upper ontology (also known as a top-level ontology or foundation ontology) is an ontology (in the sense used in information science) which consists of very general terms (such as "object", "property", "relation") that are common across all domains.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
In machine learning, the vanishing gradient problem is a difficulty found in training artificial neural networks with gradient-based learning methods and backpropagation.
Vernor Steffen Vinge (born October 2, 1944) is an American science fiction author and retired professor.
Vicarious is an artificial intelligence company based in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.
A virtual assistant is a software agent that can perform tasks or services for an individual.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Walter Harry Pitts, Jr. (23 April 1923 – 14 May 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of computational neuroscience.
Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.
The Wason selection task (or four-card problem) is a logic puzzle devised by Peter Cathcart Wason in 1966.
Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language, developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.
Weak artificial intelligence (weak AI), also known as narrow AI, is artificial intelligence that is focused on one narrow task.
The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies.
Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being (hereinafter WMCF) is a book by George Lakoff, a cognitive linguist, and Rafael E. Núñez, a psychologist.
William Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 – May 6, 1977) was an American-born British neurophysiologist, cybernetician and robotician.
In computational linguistics, word-sense disambiguation (WSD) is an open problem of natural language processing and ontology.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft.
Xbox Live is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by Microsoft.
Yann LeCun (born 1960) is a computer scientist working primarily in the fields of machine learning, computer vision, mobile robotics and computational neuroscience.
Zenon Walter Pylyshyn (born 1937) is a Canadian cognitive scientist and philosopher.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a science-fiction narrative, produced in 1968 as both a novel, written by Arthur C. Clarke, and a film, directed by Stanley Kubrick.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke.
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