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Index Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes. [1]

208 relations: Abrasion (mechanical), Absorption (acoustics), Acronym, Actinolite, Adelaide Anderson, Al-Tabari, Alps, American Medical Association, Ammonium sulfate, Ancient Greece, Ancient literature, Andrew Stuart Johnson, Anthophyllite, Aramid, Art & Creative Materials Institute, Artex, Asbestiform, Asbestine, Asbestos abatement, Asbestos and the law, Asbestos cement, Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization, Asbestos insulating board, Asbestos, Quebec, Asbestos-ceramic, Asbestosis, Aspect ratio, ASTM International, Bal Dixit, Brake, Brake pad, Brazil, British Medical Association, Building insulation, Building insulation materials, Bulletproof vest, Calcium, Callimachus (sculptor), Carcinogen, CAS Registry Number, Caulking, Cement-bonded wood fiber, Charing Cross Hospital, Charlemagne, Chemical formula, Chloralkali process, Chrysotile, Cigarette filter, Clutch, Clydebank, ..., Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006, Crayola, Crayon, Crystal, Crystal habit, Cummingtonite, De Beers, Dehkhoda Dictionary, Demolition, Developing country, Drilling fluid, Drywall, England, Eponym, Erechtheion, Eternit, European Environment Agency, Fiber, Fiberglass, Fibrosis, Finland, Fire department, Fireproofing, Flame retardant, Friability, Gasket, Geological Society of America, Geological Survey of Canada, Glasgow, Glass, Glass wool, Gouverneur, New York, Government Accountability Office, Greek language, Grunerite, Hampton Roads, Hazardous waste, Health and Safety Executive, Henry Thomas Riley, Hindu Kush, Holy Roman Emperor, Hydroxide, Hydroxy group, India, Inhalation, Insulator (electricity), Insurance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Internet Archive, Iron, JAMA (journal), John Bostock (physician), Joint compound, Juojärvi, Kent (cigarette), Kevlar, Khosrow II, Landfill, Legal liability, Libby, Montana, Lignite, Lime (material), List of government space agencies, List of minerals, London, Lorillard Tobacco Company, Lower Manhattan, Lung cancer, Magnesium, Manchester, Marco Polo, Medical geology, Melting point, Mesothelioma, Mica, Micrometre, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Mineral wool, Mineralogical Society of America, Modern Greek, Monokote, Muscovite, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Natural History (Pliny), Nellie Kershaw, New York City, Northern Italy, Nutec, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Office of Public Sector Information, Oxalic acid, Oxygen, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Pathology, Persian people, Plaster, Pliny the Elder, Pliny the Younger, Pneumoconiosis, Polybenzimidazole fiber, Popcorn ceiling, Portland cement, Product (business), Pulmonary fibrosis, Quebec, Quebec Central Railway, Red List building materials, Red Road Flats, Richterite, Riebeckite, Russian Empire, Rutgers University Press, Salamander, Salamanders in folklore, Sasanian Empire, Scientific American, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 11 attacks, Serpentine subgroup, Serpentinite, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Soapstone, Sodium, Solid solution, South Africa, Superfund, Synthetic fiber, Talc, The BMJ, The Wizard of Oz (1939 film), Theophrastus, Thetford Mines, Time (magazine), Tomb, Tonne, Tort, Trade association, Trade name, Transite, Tremolite, Turin, Turner & Newall, Twaron, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultrasound, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate Environment Subcommittee on Superfund, Waste Management, and Regulatory Oversight, Ural Mountains, Vermiculite, W. R. Grace and Company, William Edmond Logan, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World War II, Zetex (fabric). Expand index (158 more) »

Abrasion (mechanical)

Abrasion is the process of scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, or rubbing away.

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Absorption (acoustics)

Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed to reflecting the energy.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Actinolite is an amphibole silicate mineral with the chemical formula.

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Adelaide Anderson

Dame Adelaide Mary Anderson, DBE (8 April 1863 – 28 August 1936) was a British civil servant and labour activist, particularly interested in child labour and conditions in China.

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Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Ammonium sulfate

Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient literature

This article presents a list of the historical events and publications of literature during ancient times.

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Andrew Stuart Johnson

Andrew Stuart Johnson (December 14, 1848 – June 11, 1926) was a farmer, lumber merchant, mining company owner and political figure in Quebec.

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Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: ☐Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 (☐ is for a vacancy, a point defect in the crystal structure), magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide.

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Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.

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Art & Creative Materials Institute

The Art and Creative Materials Institute, Inc.

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Artex is a surface coating used for interior decorating, most often found on ceilings, which allows the decorator to add a texture to it.

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Asbestiform is a crystal habit.

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Asbestine is a mineral compound composed of nearly pure fibrous magnesium silicate, with physical characteristics between those of asbestos and talc.

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Asbestos abatement

Many buildings contain asbestos, which was used in spray-applied flame retardant, thermal system insulation, and in a variety of other materials.

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Asbestos and the law

Litigation related to asbestos injuries and property damages has been claimed to be the longest-running mass tort in U.S. history.

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Asbestos cement

The name fibro is short for "fibrous (or fibre) cement sheet", more commonly called "asbestos cement sheet" or "AC sheet".

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Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization

The Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization (ADAO) is the largest independent nonprofit in the U.S. dedicated to preventing asbestos exposure, eliminating asbestos-related diseases such as mesothelioma, and protecting asbestos victims' civil rights through education, advocacy and community initiatives.

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Asbestos insulating board

Asbestos insulating board, also known as "AIB" or by the trade name "Asbestolux", was an asbestos containing board used in the building trade because of its excellent fire resistance and heat insulating properties.

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Asbestos, Quebec

Asbestos is a town in the Estrie (Eastern Townships) region of southeastern Quebec, Canada on the Nicolet River.

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Asbestos-ceramic is a type of pottery manufactured with asbestos and clay in Finland, Karelia and more widely in Fennoscandia from around 5000 BC.

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Asbestosis is long term inflammation and scarring of the lungs due to asbestos.

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Aspect ratio

The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.

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ASTM International

ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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Bal Dixit

Bal Dixit is the chairman of Newtex Industries.

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A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.

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Brake pad

Brake pads are a component of disc brakes used in automotive and other applications.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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British Medical Association

The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.

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Building insulation

Building insulation is any object in a building used as insulation for any purpose.

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Building insulation materials

Building insulation materials are the building materials which form the thermal envelope of a building or otherwise reduce heat transfer.

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Bulletproof vest

A ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest, often called a bulletproof vest, is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or stop penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles- and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Callimachus (sculptor)

Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος Kallímachos) was an architect and sculptor working in the second half of the 5th century BC in the manner established by Polyclitus.

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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CAS Registry Number

A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).

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Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.

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Cement-bonded wood fiber

Cement-bonded wood fiber is a composite material manufactured throughout the world.

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Charing Cross Hospital

Charing Cross Hospital is an acute general teaching hospital located in Hammersmith, London, United Kingdom.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chloralkali process

The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.

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Chrysotile or white asbestos is the most commonly encountered form of asbestos, accounting for approximately 95% of the asbestos in the United StatesOccupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor (2007).

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Cigarette filter

A cigarette filter is a component of a cigarette, along with cigarette paper, capsules and adhesives.

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A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft.

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Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland.

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Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006

The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006 came into force in the United Kingdom on 13 November 2006 and brought together a number of other asbestos related pieces of legislation.

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Crayola LLC, formerly Binney & Smith, is an American handicraft company, specializing in artists' supplies.

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A crayon (or wax pastel) is a stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk or other material used for writing or drawing.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal habit

In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.

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Cummingtonite is a metamorphic amphibole with the chemical composition (Mg,Fe2+)2(Mg,Fe2+)5Si8O22(OH)2, magnesium iron silicate hydroxide.

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De Beers

The De Beers Group of Companies is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors.

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Dehkhoda Dictionary

The Dehkhoda Dictionary (لغت‌نامهٔ دهخدا) is the largest comprehensive Persian dictionary ever published, comprising 16 volumes (more than 27000 pages).

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Demolition or razing is the tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Drilling fluid

In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth.

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Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.

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The Erechtheion or Erechtheum (Ἐρέχθειον, Ερέχθειο) is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.

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Eternit is a registered trademark for fibre cement.

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European Environment Agency

The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent information on the environment, thereby helping those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, as well as informing the general public.

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Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.

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Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Fire department

A fire department (American English) or fire brigade (British English), also known as a fire protection district, fire authority or fire and rescue service is an organization that primarily provides firefighting services for a specific geographic area.

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Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.

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Flame retardant

The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.

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Friability, the condition of being friable, describes the tendency of a solid substance to break into smaller pieces under duress or contact, especially by rubbing.

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gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.

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Geological Society of America

The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.

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Geological Survey of Canada

The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC; Commission géologique du Canada (CGC)) is a Canadian federal government agency responsible for performing geological surveys of the country, developing Canada's natural resources and protecting the environment.

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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glass wool

Glass wool is an insulating material made from fibres of glass arranged using a binder into a texture similar to wool.

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Gouverneur, New York

Gouverneur is a town in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States.

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Government Accountability Office

The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Grunerite is a mineral of the amphibole group of minerals with formula Fe7Si8O22(OH)2.

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Hampton Roads

Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.

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Hazardous waste

Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.

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Health and Safety Executive

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in Great Britain.

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Henry Thomas Riley

Henry Thomas Riley (1816–1878) was an English translator, lexicographer, and antiquary.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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JAMA (journal)

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.

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John Bostock (physician)

John Bostock, Jr. MD FRS (baptised 29 June 1773, died 6 August 1846) was an English physician, scientist and geologist from Liverpool.

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Joint compound

Joint compound (also known as drywall compound or Mastic) is a white powder of primarily gypsum dust mixed with water to form a mud the consistency of cake frosting, which is used with paper or fiber joint tape to seal joints between sheets of drywall to create a seamless base for paint on interior walls.

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Juojärvi is a lake in Finland.

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Kent (cigarette)

Kent is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and British American Tobacco elsewhere.

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Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.

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Khosrow II

Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.

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A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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Legal liability

In law, liable means "esponsible or answerable in law; legally obligated." Legal liability concerns both civil law and criminal law and can arise from various areas of law, such as contracts, torts, taxes, or fines given by government agencies.

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Libby, Montana

Libby is a city in and the county seat of Lincoln County, Montana.

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Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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Lime (material)

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.

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List of government space agencies

This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.

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List of minerals

This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lorillard Tobacco Company

Lorillard Tobacco Company was an American tobacco company that marketed cigarettes under the brand names Newport, Maverick, Old Gold, Kent, True, Satin, and Max.

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Lower Manhattan

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Medical geology

Medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).

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The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Mine Safety and Health Administration

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents, to reduce the frequency and severity of nonfatal accidents, to minimize health hazards, and to promote improved safety and health conditions in the nation's mines.

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Mineral wool

Mineral wool is a general name for fiber materials that are formed by spinning or drawing molten minerals (or "synthetic minerals" such as slag and ceramics).

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Mineralogical Society of America

The Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) is a scientific membership organization.

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Modern Greek

Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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MonoKote is commercially available light weight plastic shrink wrap film available in various color schemes with an adhesive on one side, used to cover and form the surfaces of a model aircraft.

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Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).

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National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, also using the acronym NESHAP, are emission standards set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency—EPA.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nellie Kershaw

Nellie Kershaw (c. 1891 – 14 March 1924) was an English textile worker from Rochdale, Lancashire.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Nutec AS is a Norwegian company working with security and preparedness for emergency exits, fire on oil rigs.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Pliny the Younger

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.

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Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture.

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Polybenzimidazole fiber

Polybenzimidazole (PBI, short for poly) fiber is a synthetic fiber with a very high melting point.

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Popcorn ceiling

A popcorn ceiling (slang), also known as a cottage cheese ceiling, a stucco ceiling or formally an acoustic ceiling, is a ceiling with a certain spray-on or paint-on treatment.

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Portland cement

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.

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Product (business)

In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.

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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quebec Central Railway

The Quebec Central Railway was a railway in the Canadian province of Quebec, that served the area of Quebec called the Eastern Townships, south of the St. Lawrence River.

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Red List building materials

Red List Building Materials contain chemicals that have been designated as harmful to living creatures, including humans, or the environment.

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Red Road Flats

The Red Road Flats were a mid-twentieth-century high-rise housing complex located between the districts of Balornock and Barmulloch in the northeast of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.

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Richterite is a sodium calcium magnesium silicate mineral belonging to the amphibole group.

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Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals, chemical formula Na2(Fe2+3Fe3+2)Si8O22(OH)2.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Rutgers University Press

Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.

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Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.

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Salamanders in folklore

The salamander is an amphibian of the order Urodela which, as with many real creatures, often has been ascribed fantastic and sometimes occult qualities by pre-modern authors (as in the allegorical descriptions of animals in medieval bestiaries) not possessed by the real organism.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Seattle Post-Intelligencer

The Seattle Post-Intelligencer (popularly known as the Seattle P-I, the Post-Intelligencer, or simply the P-I) is an online newspaper and former print newspaper based in Seattle, Washington, United States.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Serpentine subgroup

The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.

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Serpentinite is a rock composed of one or more serpentine group minerals, the name originating from the similarity of the texture of the rock to that of the skin of a snake.

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Silicate minerals

Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a talc-schist, which is a type of metamorphic rock.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solid solution

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.

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Synthetic fiber

Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.

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Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)

The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Thetford Mines

Thetford Mines (Canada 2011 Census population 25,709) is a city in south-central Quebec, Canada.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.

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Trade association

A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry.

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Trade name

A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym frequently used by companies to operate under a name different from their registered, legal name.

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Transite originated as a brand that Johns-Manville created in 1929 for a line of asbestos-cement products, including boards and pipes.

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Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: ☐Ca2(Mg5.0-4.5Fe2+0.0-0.5)Si8O22(OH)2.

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Turner & Newall

Turner & Newall was a leading manufacturing business based in Manchester, United Kingdom.

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Twaron (a brand name of Teijin Aramid) is a para-aramid.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

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Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works

The United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works is responsible for dealing with matters related to the environment and infrastructure.

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United States Senate Environment Subcommittee on Superfund, Waste Management, and Regulatory Oversight

The U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Superfund, Waste Management, and Regulatory Oversight is one of four subcommittees of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

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Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral.

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W. R. Grace and Company

W.R. Grace and Company is an American chemical conglomerate based in Columbia, Maryland.

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William Edmond Logan

Sir William Edmond Logan, FRSE FRS FGS (20 April 1798 – 22 June 1875), was a Canadian-born geologist and the founder and first director of the Geological Survey of Canada.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zetex (fabric)

Zetex fabrics were invented by Bal Dixit in 1978.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos

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