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Asceticism

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. [1]

180 relations: Abstinence, Advaita Vedanta, Advent of Divine Justice, Aestheticism, Ahimsa, Ahimsa in Jainism, Akrodha, Al-Qushayri, Ali Hujwiri, Alms, Altruism, Amish, Anatta, Anthony the Great, Anti-consumerism, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Aparigraha, Apostles, Arihant (Jainism), Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asceticism, Ashkenazi Hasidim, Asteya, Athletics (physical culture), Augustine of Hippo, Ājīvika, Śramaṇa, Śvētāmbara, Babylonia, Baudhayana sutras, Bhaisajyaguru, Bhikkhu, Bible, Bodhisattva, Book of Numbers, Brahman, Buddhism, Celibacy, Cenobitic monasticism, Christianity, Clement of Alexandria, Compassion, Ctistae, Cuthbert Butler, Cynicism (philosophy), David McClelland, Dead Sea Scrolls, Decadence, Delhi, ..., Desert Mothers, Digambara, Discipline, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ebionites, Egoism, Encratites, Epicureanism, Essenes, Evagrius Ponticus, Fakir, Fasting, Five Pillars of Islam, Flagellant, Francis of Assisi, Free will, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gautama Buddha, Gustave Flaubert, Hadith, Hayyim ben Joseph Vital, Hedonism, Helena of Adiabene, Hermit, Hermitage (religious retreat), Hesychasm, Hinduism, Ignatius of Antioch, Impermanence, Islam, Jain monasticism, Jainism, Jerome, Jesus, Jews, John Chrysostom, John the Baptist, Judaism, Junayd of Baghdad, Kalpa Sūtra, Karma, Keśin, Lent, Lifestyle (sociology), London, Lotus Sutra, Mahavira, Mary of Egypt, Max Müller, Max Weber, Merriam-Webster, Middle East, Middle Way, Minimalism, Moksha, Monasticism, Monk, Motilal Banarsidass, Mount Athos, Mourning of Muharram, Myanmar, Nazirite, New York City, Nichiren Buddhism, Nirvana Upanishad, Nonviolence, Nun, On the Genealogy of Morality, Origen, Oxford University Press, Paradox of hedonism, Patrick Olivelle, Paul the Apostle, Philokalia, Plato, Pleasure, Prayer, Quakers, Ramadan, Rechabite, Redemption (theology), Reformation, Religion, Ressentiment, Rhineland, Rigveda, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Saṃsāra, Sacred Books of the East, Sadhu, Safed, Saint David, Sallekhana, Salvation, Sannyasa, Self-denial, Sense, Sensory deprivation, Shatyayaniya Upanishad, Shaucha, Siddha, Simeon Stylites, Simple living, Society of Jesus, Sokushinbutsu, Spirituality, Sri Lanka, Stoicism, Sufism, Sunnah, Talcott Parsons, Taoism, Tapas (Indian religions), Tatbir, Tattvartha Sutra, Temperance (virtue), Thailand, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Tirthankara, Umaswati, Uttarakhand, Vaishnavism, Vedas, Vegetarianism, Vishishtadvaita, Will to power, Yogi, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (130 more) »

Abstinence

Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure.

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Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

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Advent of Divine Justice

The is a letter written December 25, 1938, to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada, by Shoghi Effendi, describing the role of America in establishing the Most Great Peace.

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Aestheticism

Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.

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Ahimsa

Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.

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Ahimsa in Jainism

Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.

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Akrodha

Akrodha (Sanskrit: अक्रोध) literally means "free from anger".

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Al-Qushayri

'Abd al-Karīm ibn Hūzān Abū al-Qāsim al-Qushayrī al-Naysābūrī, (عبدالکریم قُشَیری, عبد الكريم بن هوازن بن عبد الملك بن طلحة أبو القاسم القشيري) (also Kushayri) was born in 986 CE (376 AH) in Nishapur which is in Khorasan Province in Iran.

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Ali Hujwiri

Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAlī al-Ghaznawī al-Jullābī al-Hujwīrī (c. 1009-1072/77), known as ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, or Hajvery) for short, or reverentially as Shaykh Syed ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or as Dātā Ganj Bakhsh by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was an 11th-century Ghaznian-Persian Sunni Muslim mystic, theologian, and preacher from what is now Afghanistan who became famous for composing the Kashf al-maḥjūb (Unveiling of the Hidden), which is considered the "earliest formal treatise" on Sufism in Persian.

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Alms

Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.

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Altruism

Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.

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Amish

The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.

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Anatta

In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.

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Anthony the Great

Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.

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Anti-consumerism

Anti-consumerism is a sociopolitical ideology that is opposed to consumerism, the continual buying and consuming of material possessions.

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Antiochus IV Epiphanes

Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.

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Aparigraha

In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha (अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.

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Apostles

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Arihant (Jainism)

Arihant (italic, italic "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Asceticism

Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Ashkenazi Hasidim

The Hasidim of Ashkenaz (חסידי אשכנז, trans. Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists") were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries.

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Asteya

Asteya is the Sanskrit term for "non-stealing".

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Athletics (physical culture)

Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Ājīvika

Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.

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Śramaṇa

Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".

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Śvētāmbara

The Śvētāmbara (श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara.

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Babylonia

Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Baudhayana sutras

The Baudhayana sūtras are a group of Vedic Sanskrit texts which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc.

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Bhaisajyaguru

Bhaiṣajyaguru, formally Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja ("King of Medicine Master and Lapis Lazuli Light"), is the Buddha of healing and medicine in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

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Bhikkhu

A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bodhisattva

In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.

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Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

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Brahman

In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Celibacy

Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.

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Cenobitic monasticism

Cenobitic (or coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Clement of Alexandria

Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.

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Compassion

Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.

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Ctistae

The Ctistae or Ktistai (κτίσται) were a group/class among the Mysians of ancient Thracian culture.

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Cuthbert Butler

Cuthbert Butler (born Edward Joseph Aloysius Butler, 6 May 1858 – 1 April 1934) was a Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey in England, who gained notice as an ecclesiastical historian.

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Cynicism (philosophy)

Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).

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David McClelland

David Clarence McClelland (May 20, 1917 – March 27, 1998) was an American psychologist, noted for his work on motivation Need Theory.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.

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Decadence

The word decadence, which at first meant simply "decline" in an abstract sense, is now most often used to refer to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state.

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Delhi

Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Desert Mothers

The Desert Mothers were female Christian ascetics living in the desert of Egypt, Palestine, and Syria in the 4th and 5th centuries AD.

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Digambara

Digambara ("sky-clad") is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad).

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Discipline

Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Ebionites

Ebionites (Ἐβιωναῖοι Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew אביונים ebyonim, ebionim, meaning "the poor" or "poor ones") is a patristic term referring to a Jewish Christian movement that existed during the early centuries of the Christian Era.

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Egoism

Egoism is an ethical theory that treats self-interest as the foundation of morality.

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Encratites

The Encratites ("self-controlled") were an ascetic 2nd century sect of Christians who forbade marriage and counselled abstinence from meat.

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Epicureanism

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

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Essenes

The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.

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Evagrius Ponticus

Evagrius Ponticus (Εὐάγριος ὁ Ποντικός, "Evagrius of Pontus"), also called Evagrius the Solitary (345–399 AD), was a Christian monk and ascetic.

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Fakir

A fakir, or faqir (فقیر (noun of faqr)), derived from faqr (فقر, "poverty") is a person who is self-sufficient and only possesses the spiritual need for God.

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Fasting

Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.

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Five Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.

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Flagellant

Flagellants are practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by whipping it with various instruments.

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Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Hayyim ben Joseph Vital

Hayyim ben Joseph Vital (רבי חיים בן יוסף ויטאל; Safed,https://books.google.com/books?id.

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Hedonism

Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.

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Helena of Adiabene

Helena of Adiabene (הלני המלכה) (d. ca. 50-56 CE) was an Assyrian queen of Adiabene and Edessa, and the wife of Monobaz I, her brother, and Abgarus V. With her husband, Monobaz I, she was the mother of Izates II and Monobaz II.

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Hermit

A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.

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Hermitage (religious retreat)

Although today's meaning is usually a place where a hermit lives in seclusion from the world, hermitage was more commonly used to mean a settlement where a person or a group of people lived religiously, in seclusion.

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Hesychasm

Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch (Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch.

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Impermanence

Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jain monasticism

Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community.

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Jainism

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jerome

Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John Chrysostom

John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.

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John the Baptist

John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Junayd of Baghdad

Junayd of Baghdad (835-910) was a Persian mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam.

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Kalpa Sūtra

The Kalpa Sūtra (कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira.

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Karma

Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Keśin

The Keśin were long-haired ascetic wanderers with mystical powers described in the Keśin Hymn (RV 10, 136) of the Rigveda (an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns).

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Lent

Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.

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Lifestyle (sociology)

Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lotus Sutra

The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma") is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.

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Mahavira

Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.

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Mary of Egypt

Mary of Egypt (Ϯⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ Ⲛⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ; c. 344 – c. 421) is revered as the patron saint of penitents, most particularly in the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Churches, and Oriental Orthodox Churches.

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Max Müller

Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Merriam-Webster

Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Way

The Middle Way or Middle Path (Majjhimāpaṭipadā; Madhyamāpratipad;;; มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา) is the term that Gautama Buddha used to describe the character of the Noble Eightfold Path he discovered that leads to liberation.

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Minimalism

In visual arts, music, and other mediums, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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Moksha

Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.

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Monasticism

Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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Monk

A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.

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Motilal Banarsidass

Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.

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Mount Athos

Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.

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Mourning of Muharram

The Mourning of Muharram (or Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with both Shia and Sunni Islam.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Nazirite

In the Hebrew Bible, a nazirite or nazarite is one who voluntarily took a vow described in.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nichiren Buddhism

Nichiren Buddhism is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren (1222–1282) and is one of the "Kamakura Buddhism" schools.

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Nirvana Upanishad

The Nirvana Upanishad (निर्वाण उपनिषत्., IAST: Nirvana Upaniṣad) is an ancient sutra-style Sanskrit text and a minor Upanishad of Hinduism.

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Nonviolence

Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.

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Nun

A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.

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On the Genealogy of Morality

On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic (Zur Genealogie der Moral: Eine Streitschrift) is an 1887 book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Origen

Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paradox of hedonism

The paradox of hedonism, also called the pleasure paradox, refers to the practical difficulties encountered in the pursuit of pleasure.

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Patrick Olivelle

Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Philokalia

The Philokalia (φιλοκαλία "love of the beautiful, the good", from φιλία philia "love" and κάλλος kallos "beauty") is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters" of the Eastern Orthodox Church mystical hesychast tradition.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pleasure

Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.

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Prayer

Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.

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Quakers

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Ramadan

Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Rechabite

Rechabites are a biblical clan, the descendants of Rechab through Jehonadab.

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Redemption (theology)

Redemption is an essential concept in many religions, including Judaism and Christianity.

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Ressentiment

Ressentiment is the French translation of the English word resentment (from Latin intensive prefix re-, and sentir "to feel").

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Rhineland

The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Rigveda

The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Saṃsāra

Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.

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Sacred Books of the East

The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.

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Sadhu

A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.

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Safed

Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Saint David

Saint David (Dewi Sant; Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.

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Sallekhana

Sallekhana (IAST), also known as Samlehna, Santhara, Samadhi-marana or Sanyasana-marana; is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism.

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Salvation

Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Sannyasa

Sannyasa is the life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya (bachelor student), Grihastha (householder) and Vanaprastha (forest dweller, retired).

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Self-denial

Self-denial (related but different from self-abnegation or self-sacrifice) is an act of letting go of the self as with altruistic abstinence – the willingness to forgo personal pleasures or undergo personal trials in the pursuit of the increased good of another.

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Sense

A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Sensory deprivation

Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.

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Shatyayaniya Upanishad

The Shatyayaniya Upanishad (शाट्यायनीय उपनिषत्., IAST: Śāṭyāyanīya Upaniṣad) is a Sanskrit text, composed about the start of 13th-century, and is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.

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Shaucha

Shaucha (Sanskrit: शौच, also spelled Saucha, Śauca) literally means purity, cleanliness and clearness.

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Siddha

Siddha (Tamil "great thinker/wise man"; Sanskrit, "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture.

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Simeon Stylites

Saint Simeon Stylites or Symeon the Stylite (ܫܡܥܘܢ ܕܐܣܛܘܢܐ, Koine Greek Συμεών ὁ στυλίτης, سمعان العمودي) (c. 390? – 2 September 459) was a Syriac ascetic saint who achieved notability for living 37 years on a small platform on top of a pillar near Aleppo (in modern Syria).

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Simple living

Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Sokushinbutsu

are a kind of Buddhist mummy.

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Spirituality

Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stoicism

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sunnah

Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.

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Talcott Parsons

Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Tapas (Indian religions)

Tapas is a Sanskrit word that means "to heat".

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Tatbir

Tatbir (تطبير), also known as Talwar zani and Qama Zani in Iran and South Asia, is an act of mourning by some of Shia Muslims for the younger grandson of Muhammad, Husayn ibn Ali, who was killed along with his children, companions and near relatives at the Battle of Karbala by the Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. Tatbir is a contested issue among Shia.

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Tattvartha Sutra

Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.

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Temperance (virtue)

Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.

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Thailand

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus) is a book written by Max Weber, a German sociologist, economist, and politician.

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Tirthankara

In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).

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Umaswati

Umaswami, also known as Umaswati, was an early 1st-millennium Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.

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Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.

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Vaishnavism

Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

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Vedas

The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Vishishtadvaita

Vishishtadvaita (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.

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Will to power

The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Yogi

A yogi (sometimes spelled jogi) is a practitioner of yoga.

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Zoroaster

Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Aesceticism, Ascesi, Ascetes, Ascetic, Ascetic practices, Ascetical, Ascetics, Ascetiscism, Ascetism, Askesis, Christian asceticism, Hindu asceticism, Zuhd, Zuhd in Islam.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asceticism

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