121 relations: Acceptable daily intake, Acesulfame potassium, Acetal, Acid, Ajinomoto, Aldehyde, Amine, Amino acid, Angewandte Chemie, Aroma compound, Asda, Aspartame controversy, Aspartame-acesulfame salt, Aspartic acid, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Baking, Base (chemistry), Brain tumor, British Pharmacopoeia, Caffeine, Canderel, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical decomposition, Chemical synthesis, Citrus, Condiment, Conflict of interest, Cyclic compound, Descriptive statistics, Diabetes mellitus, Dipeptide, Dotdash, Drink mix, DSM (company), E number, Ecological fallacy, Epidemiology, Epileptic seizure, Equal (sweetener), Essential amino acid, Ester, Ethanol, European Commission, European Food Safety Authority, Excitotoxicity, Fermentation in food processing, Food and Drug Administration, ..., Food Standards Agency, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, G.D. Searle, LLC, Gastrin, Genotoxicity, Glutamic acid, Government Accountability Office, Gut flora, Half-life, Hallucination, Headache, Health Canada, Hot dog, Human brain, Hydrolysis, Ice cream, Instant coffee, J.W. Childs Associates, John Olney, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Juice, Maillard reaction, Maltodextrin, Merisant, Methanol, Methyl group, Metronidazole, Migraine, Monosodium glutamate, Monsanto, Mood swing, National Cancer Institute, Neurotransmitter, NutraSweet, Panic attack, Peptic ulcer disease, Peptide, Peptide bond, PH, Phenylalanine, Phenylketonuria, Protecting group, Red wine, Saccharin, Scientific Committee on Food, Small intestine, Snopes.com, Soda fountain, Soft drink, Spironolactone, Stevia, Sucralose, Sucrose, Sugar substitute, Syrup, Talc, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, The Coca-Cola Company, The New York Times, Thermolysin, Torunn Atteraas Garin, Tosoh, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, United States congressional hearing, United States Pharmacopeia, Walmart, Weight loss, 2,5-Diketopiperazine. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Acceptable daily intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk.
Acesulfame potassium, also known as acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium) or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) often marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One.
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
is a Japanese food and chemical corporation which produces seasonings, cooking oils, TV dinners, sweeteners, amino acids, and pharmaceuticals.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
Asda Stores Ltd. trading as Asda, is a British supermarket retailer, headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire.
The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of several controversies since its initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974.
Aspartame-acesulfame salt is an artificial sweetener marketed under the name Twinsweet.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is the national pharmacopoeia of the United Kingdom.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Canderel is a brand of artificial sweetener made mainly from aspartame.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN, pronounced sif'-san) is the branch of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
A descriptive statistic (in the count noun sense) is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information, while descriptive statistics in the mass noun sense is the process of using and analyzing those statistics.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dipeptide is a sometimes ambiguous designation of two classes of organic compounds: Its molecules contain either two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond or one amino acid with two peptide bonds.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
A drink mix, or powdered drink mix is a processed-food product, a powder designed to mix usually with water to produce a beverage resembling fruit juice or soda in flavor.
Koninklijke DSM N.V. (Royal DSM, commonly known as DSM), is a Dutch multinational active in the fields of health, nutrition and materials.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
An ecological fallacy (or ecological inference fallacy) is a formal fallacy in the interpretation of statistical data where inferences about the nature of individuals are deduced from inference for the group to which those individuals belong.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Equal is a brand of artificial sweetener containing aspartame, acesulfame potassium, dextrose and maltodextrin.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (Māori: Te Mana Kounga Kai - Ahitereiria me Aotearoa), formerly Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA), is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
G.D. Searle, LLC is a wholly owned trademark of Pfizer.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
A hot dog (also spelled hotdog), also known as a frankfurter (sometimes shortened to frank), dog, or wiener, is a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a partially sliced bun.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
Instant coffee, also called soluble coffee, coffee crystals, and coffee powder, is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans that enables people to quickly prepare hot coffee by adding hot water to the powder or crystals and stirring.
J.W. Childs Associates (JWC) is an American private equity firm focused on leveraged buyout and recapitalization transactions for middle-market growth companies.
John Olney (1932April 14, 2015) was a medical doctor and a professor of psychiatry, pathology, and immunology at the Washington University School of Medicine.
The Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee Report on Food Additives was an international report of the World Health Organization.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Merisant Company is a United States manufacturer of artificial sweeteners, including Equal and Canderel.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Metronidazole, marketed under the brand name Flagyl among others, is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The NutraSweet Company is an American nutrient company that produces and markets NutraSweet, their trademarked brand name for the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF), established in 1974, was the main committee providing the European Commission with scientific advice on food safety.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Snopes.com, formally known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is one of the first online fact-checking websites.
A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana.
Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine and sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Taste receptor type 1 member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAS1R2 gene.
Taste receptor type 1 member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAS1R3 gene.
The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermolysin (Bacillus thermoproteolyticus neutral proteinase, thermoase, thermoase Y10, TLN) is a thermostable neutral metalloproteinase enzyme produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus thermoproteolyticus.
Torunn Atteraas Garin could have been a Norwegian chemical engineer who might have worked on notable food projects.
is a global chemical and specialty materials company.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
A United States congressional hearing is the principal formal method by which United States congressional committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
2,5-Diketopiperazine, also known as piperazine-2,5-dione and as the cyclodipeptide cyclo(Gly-Gly), is an organic compound and the smallest cyclic dipeptide that consists of a six-membered ring containing two amide linkages where the two nitrogen atoms and the two carbonyls are at opposite positions in the ring.
Amino sweet, AminoSweet, Apastarme, Aspartam, Aspartamene, Aspartane, Aspartmene, Aspatame, Aspatarme, Aspertame, Aspertine, C14H18N2O5, C₁₄H₁₈N₂O₅, E 951, E-951, E951, James M. Schlatter, James Schlatter, Natrataste, Tri-sweet.