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Asperger syndrome

Index Asperger syndrome

Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. [1]

186 relations: Aggression, Alcohol abuse, Alexithymia, Allele, American Psychiatric Association, Aminoaciduria, Anxiety disorder, Applied behavior analysis, Aripiprazole, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical antipsychotic, Auditory processing disorder, Autism, Autism Diagnostic Interview, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism rights movement, Autism spectrum, Autism-spectrum quotient, Behavioural genetics, Bipolar disorder, Birth defect, Case report, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Childhood-autism spectrum test, Circumstantial speech, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive development, Coherence (linguistics), Communication, Comorbidity, Context (language use), Developmental coordination disorder, Developmental disorder, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Differential diagnosis, Disease, DSM-5, Dystonia, Echolalia, Efficacy, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Elsevier, Empathizing–systemizing theory, Empathy, Empirical evidence, Environmental factor, Epidemiology, Epilepsy, Expressivity (genetics), ..., External validity, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Eye contact, Facial expression, Fight-or-flight response, Fine motor skill, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Frustration, General practitioner, Genetics, Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale, Grunya Sukhareva, Habituation, Hans Asperger, Hearing, Heredity, Heritability of autism, High-functioning autism, Homosexuality, Human evolution, Human fertilization, Humour, Hypothesis, ICD-10, Imitation, Incidence (epidemiology), Inflection, Intellectual disability, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Internet, Interpersonal relationship, Intonation (linguistics), Jonathan Mitchell (writer), Language acquisition, Language development, Life expectancy, Ligamentous laxity, Literal and figurative language, Lorna Wing, Major depressive disorder, Medical diagnosis, Medical history, Medication, Mental disorder, Metabolism, Middle-of-the-night insomnia, Mirror neuron, Mood disorder, Motor coordination, Motor planning, Neuroanatomy, Neurodiversity, Neuroimaging, Neurotypical, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nonverbal communication, Nonverbal learning disorder, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Occupational therapy, Olanzapine, Overdiagnosis, Pathology, Pediatrics, Perception, Personality disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Physical examination, Physical therapy, Positive behavior support, Pragmatic language impairment, Pragmatics, Prenatal development, Prevalence, Prognosis, Prolactin, Proprioception, Prosody (linguistics), Psychiatry, Psychological stress, Reciprocity (social psychology), Register (sociolinguistics), Rett syndrome, Risperidone, Sampling bias, Schizoaffective disorder, Screening (medicine), Selective mutism, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-care, Self-diagnosis, Self-harm, Sensory processing, Sertraline, Side effect, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sleep disorder, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, Social cognition, Social isolation, Social norm, Social relation, Social skills, Societal and cultural aspects of autism, Special education, Spectrum disorder, Speech-language pathology, Stereotypic movement disorder, Stereotypy, Stilted speech, Stress management, Syndrome, Tandem gait, Tangential speech, Tautology (rhetoric), Taylor & Francis, Theory of mind, Tic, Tone (linguistics), Tourette syndrome, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Uta Frith, Verbosity, Vernon L. Smith, Visual memory, Visual perception, Weak central coherence theory, Weight gain, World Health Organization, World War II, Wrong Planet. Expand index (136 more) »


Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.

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Alexithymia is a personality construct characterized by the subclinical inability to identify and describe emotions in the self.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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Aminoaciduria occurs when the urine contains abnormally high amounts of amino acids.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Applied behavior analysis

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.

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Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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Auditory processing disorder

Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.

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Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.

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Autism Diagnostic Interview

The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a structured interview conducted with the parents of individuals who have been referred for the evaluation of possible autism or autism spectrum disorders.

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Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule

The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is an instrument for diagnosing and assessing autism.

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Autism rights movement

The autism rights movement (ARM), also known as the autistic culture movement, is a social movement within the neurodiversity and disability rights movements that encourages autistic people, their caregivers and society to adopt a position of neurodiversity, accepting autism as a variation in functioning rather than a disorder to be cured.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Autism-spectrum quotient

The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) is a questionnaire published in 2001 by Simon Baron-Cohen and his colleagues at the Autism Research Centre in Cambridge, UK.

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Behavioural genetics

Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Case report

In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.

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Childhood disintegrative disorder

The childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Heller's syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset of developmental delays—or severe and sudden reversals—in language, social function, and motor skills.

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Childhood-autism spectrum test

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test, abbreviated as CAST and formerly titled the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, is a tool to screen for Asperger syndrome and related social and communication conditions falling on the Autism Spectrum in children aged 4–11 years, in a non-clinical setting.

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Circumstantial speech

Circumstantial speech (also referred to as circumstantiality) is the result of a so-called "non-linear thought pattern" and occurs when the focus of a conversation drifts, but often comes back to the point.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive development

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.

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Coherence (linguistics)

Coherence in linguistics is what makes a text semantically meaningful.

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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Context (language use)

In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.

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Developmental coordination disorder

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.

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Developmental disorder

Developmental disorders comprise a group of psychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Differential diagnosis

In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.

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Echolalia (also known as echologia or echophrasia) is defined as the unsolicited repetition of vocalizations made by another person (by the same person is called palilalia).

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Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.

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Electrical conduction system of the heart

The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Empathizing–systemizing theory

The empathizing–systemizing (E–S) theory suggests that people may be classified on the basis of their scores along two dimensions: empathizing (E) and systemizing (S).

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Environmental factor

Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Expressivity (genetics)

In genetics, expressivity quantifies variation in a non-binary phenotype across individuals carrying a particular genotype.

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External validity

External validity is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity.

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Extrapyramidal symptoms

Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.

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Eye contact

Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time.

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Facial expression

A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Fine motor skill

Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.

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Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

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In psychology, frustration is a common emotional response to opposition, related to anger, annoyance and disappointment, frustration arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal and is likely to increase when a will or goal is denied or blocked.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale

The Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale (GADS) is a tool for assisting the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome.

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Grunya Sukhareva

Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva (Груня Ефимовна Сухарева, alternative transliteration Suchareva) (November 11, 1891 – April 26, 1981) was a Soviet child psychiatrist.

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Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.

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Hans Asperger

Johann "Hans" Friedrich Karl Asperger (18 February 1906 – 21 October 1980) was an Austrian pediatrician, medical theorist, and medical professor.

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Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Heritability of autism

The heritability of autism is the proportion of differences in expression of autism that can be explained by genetic variation; if the heritability of a condition is high, then the condition is considered to be primarily genetic.

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High-functioning autism

High-functioning autism (HFA) is a term applied to people with autism who are deemed to be cognitively "higher functioning" (with an IQ of 70 or greater) than other people with autism.

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Human fertilization

Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.

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Humour (British English) or humor (American English; see spelling differences) is the tendency of experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Imitation (from Latin imitatio, "a copying, imitation") is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's behavior.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Jonathan Mitchell (writer)

Jonathan Mitchell is an American autistic author and blogger who advocates for a cure for autism.

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Language acquisition

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

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Language development

Language development is a process starting early in human life.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Ligamentous laxity

Ligamentous laxity, or ligament laxity, means loose ligaments.

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Literal and figurative language

Literal and figurative language is a distinction within some fields of language analysis, in particular stylistics, rhetoric, and semantics.

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Lorna Wing

Lorna Gladys Wing, OBE, FRCPsych (7 October 1928 – 6 June 2014) was an English psychiatrist.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Middle-of-the-night insomnia

Middle-of-the-night insomnia (MOTN) is characterized by having difficulty returning to sleep after waking up during the night or very early in the morning.

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Mirror neuron

A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.

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Mood disorder

Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.

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Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.

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Motor planning

In psychology and neuroscience, motor planning is a set of processes related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time (the time between the presentation of a stimulus to a person and that person's initiation of a motor response).

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Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.

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Neurodiversity is an approach to learning and disability that argues diverse neurological conditions are the result of normal variations in the human genome.

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Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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Neurotypical or NT, an abbreviation of neurologically typical, is a neologism widely used in the autistic community as a label for people who are not high on the autism spectrum.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.

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Nonverbal learning disorder

Nonverbal learning disorder (also known as nonverbal learning disability, NLD, or NVLD) is a learning disorder characterized by verbal strengths as well as visual-spatial, motor, and social skills difficulties.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a general pattern of concern with orderliness, perfectionism, excessive attention to details, mental and interpersonal control, and a need for control over one's environment, at the expense of flexibility, openness to experience, and efficiency.

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's ordinarily expected lifetime.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Pervasive developmental disorder

The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.

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Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

A pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is one of the four autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and also one of the five disorders classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD).

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic trait

A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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Positive behavior support

Positive behavior support (PBS) is a behavior management system used to understand what maintains an individual's challenging behavior.

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Pragmatic language impairment

Pragmatic language impairment (PLI), or social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SCD), is an impairment in understanding pragmatic aspects of language.

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Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).

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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Reciprocity (social psychology)

In social psychology, reciprocity is a social norm of responding to a positive action with another positive action, rewarding kind actions.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Rett syndrome

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.

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Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.

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Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.

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Schizoaffective disorder

Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.

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Screening (medicine)

Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Selective mutism

Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech cannot speak in specific situations or to specific people.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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In health care, self-care is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual control, deliberate and self-initiated.

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Self-diagnosis is the process of diagnosing, or identifying, medical conditions in oneself.

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Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.

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Sensory processing

Sensory processing is the process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.

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Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Side effect

In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.

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Simon Baron-Cohen

Simon Baron-Cohen (born 15 August 1958) is an English clinical psychologist, professor of developmental psychopathology at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Social anxiety

Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Social cognition

Social cognition is "a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations.

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Social isolation

Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social relation

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.

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Social skills

A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.

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Societal and cultural aspects of autism

Societal and cultural aspects of autism come into play with recognition of autism, approaches to its support services and therapies, and how autism affects the definition of personhood.

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Special education

Special education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special Ed) is the practice of educating students with an IEP or Section 504 in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.

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Spectrum disorder

A spectrum disorder is a mental disorder that includes a range of linked conditions, sometimes also extending to include singular symptoms and traits.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

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Stereotypic movement disorder

Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is a motor disorder with onset in childhood involving repetitive, nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand waving or head banging), that markedly interferes with normal activities or results in bodily injury.

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A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.

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Stilted speech

In psychiatry, stilted speech or pedantic speech is communication characterized by situationally inappropriate formality.

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Stress management

Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.

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A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.

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Tandem gait

Tandem gait is a gait (method of walking or running) where the toes of the back foot touch the heel of the front foot at each step.

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Tangential speech

Tangential speech is a communication disorder in which the train of thought of the speaker wanders and shows a lack of focus, never returning to the initial topic of the conversation.

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Tautology (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, a tautology (from Greek ταὐτός, "the same" and λόγος, "word/idea") is an argument which repeats an assertion using different phrasing.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Theory of mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

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A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Uta Frith

Uta Frith, DBE (Hon), FRS, FBA, FMedSci (née Aurnhammer; born 25 May 1941) is a German developmental psychologist working at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London.

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Verbosity or verboseness is speech or writing that uses more words than necessary (for example, using "Despite the fact that" instead of "Although").

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Vernon L. Smith

Vernon Lomax Smith (born January 1, 1927) is an American professor of economics and law at Chapman University's Argyros School of Business and Economics and School of Law in Orange, California, a former professor of economics and law at George Mason University, and a board member of the Mercatus Center in Arlington, Virginia.

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Visual memory

Visual memory describes the relationship between perceptual processing and the encoding, storage and retrieval of the resulting neural representations.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Weak central coherence theory

The weak central coherence theory (WCC), also called the central coherence theory (CC), suggests that a specific perceptual-cognitive style, loosely described as a limited ability to understand context or to "see the big picture", underlies the central disturbance in autism and related autism spectrum disorders.

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Weight gain

Weight gain is an increase in body weight.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wrong Planet

Wrong Planet (sometimes referred to by its URL, wrongplanet.net) is an online community for individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asperger_syndrome

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