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Index Asphalt

Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. [1]

254 relations: Adhesive, Ain, Albania, Alberta, Alberta Research Council, Alexander Mackenzie (explorer), Algae, Alkane, American English, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxons, Asphalt, Asphalt concrete, Asphalt plant, Asphalt shingle, Asphaltene, Athabasca oil sands, Athabasca River, Australian English, Babylon, Bas-Rhin, Beckenham, Binder (material), Bioasphalt, Birmingham, Bitumen-based fuel, Bituminous coal, Bituminous waterproofing, Bitumount, Boiling point, Brick, British English, Butane, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Canadian English, Canadian Natural Resources, Canoe, Carbon disulfide, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Cariphalte, Caulking, China, Chipseal, Chumash people, Coal, Coal gas, Coal tar, ..., Cold Lake oil sands, Colloid, Construction aggregate, Cooper Research Technology, Coventry, Cree, Cretaceous, Croatia, De-asphalter, Dead Sea, Deep geological repository, Deity, Destructive distillation, Diagenesis, Diatom, Diesel fuel, Dilbit, Distillation, Dubai Crude, Dubrovnik, Dump truck, Duxit, Edmonton, Embalming, Emulsion, England, Enhanced oil recovery, Eugène Delacroix, Euphrates, Euphrates Tunnel, Federal Highway Administration, Figurine, First Nations, Fort McMurray, Fraction (chemistry), Fractional distillation, Frederick Walter Simms, Gilsonite, Gravel, Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro, Greek language, Green parking lot, Green River Formation, Gulf Coast of the United States, Hasbaya, Heavy crude oil, Henri Coquand, Henry Kelsey, Herodotus, Heterocyclic compound, Hudson's Bay Company, Hydrogen, Hydrophobe, Hygroscopy, Indus Valley Civilisation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Grooving & Grinding Association, Ion, Ionic strength, Ionizing radiation, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Japan, Japan black, July Revolution, Karl Clark (chemist), Kerogen, Kerosene, La Brea Tar Pits, Lacquer, Lake Bermudez, Late Latin, Latinisation of names, Leiden, Lens (geology), Leo Wiener, Life-cycle assessment, Light crude oil, List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens, Luiseño, Macadam, Marc Isambard Brunel, Mastic (plant resin), McMurray Formation, Mehrgarh, Meteorite, Midwestern United States, Millennium, Molasses, Molecular mass, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mortar (masonry), Mosquito, Motor oil, Mummy, Nabataeans, Naphtha, Naphthalene, National Energy Board, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural rubber, Natural-gas condensate, Neptunium, New York (state), Nexen, Nicéphore Niépce, Nickel, North America, Nuclear power, Observations (Pierre Belon), Oil refinery, Oil reserves, Oil sands, Organic-rich sedimentary rocks, Organosulfur compounds, Osmosis, Oxygen, Pavement milling, Peace River oil sands, Pedanius Dioscorides, Penge, Persian language, Petroleum, Petroleum industry in Mexico, Petroleum seep, Pewter, Phenols, Photoresist, Pierre Belon, Pinophyta, Pipeline transport, Pitch (resin), Pitch Lake, Place de la Concorde, Plutonium, Power shovel, Pressure, Projectile point, Propane, Provincial historic sites of Alberta, Puy-de-Dôme, R. T. Claridge, Radiolysis, Rattle (percussion instrument), Raw material, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Redwater, Alberta, Release agent, Republic of Ragusa, Ritchie County, West Virginia, Rocky Mountains, Runway, Sand, Sandstone, Sanskrit, Scabbard, Scotford Upgrader, Sealcoat, Selenicë, Selenium, Seleucid Empire, Semipermeable membrane, Semiramis, Sludge, Sodium nitrate, Sodium sulfate, Spent nuclear fuel, Stamped asphalt, Starch, Steam-assisted gravity drainage, Sumer, Suncor Energy, Supercritical fluid, Surface mining, Syncrude, Synthetic crude, Tar, Tarmacadam, Technetium, Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, The Wall Street Journal, Thermoplastic, Tire, Tongva, Transuranium element, Uintah Basin, University of Alberta, Upgrader, Uranium, Urban heat island, Utah, Vanadium, Vauxhall, Vein (geology), Venezuela, View from the Window at Le Gras, Viscosity, Waterproofing, Westcliff-on-Sea, Western Canadian Select, Wired (magazine), World oil market chronology from 2003, World War I. Expand index (204 more) »


An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Ain (Arpitan: En) is a department named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France.

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Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Alberta is a western province of Canada.

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Alberta Research Council

Alberta Research Council (ARC) is an Alberta government funded applied research and development (R&D) corporation.

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Alexander Mackenzie (explorer)

Sir Alexander Mackenzie (or MacKenzie, Alasdair MacCoinnich; 1764 – 12 March 1820) was a Scottish explorer known for accomplishing the first east to west crossing of North America north of Mexico, which preceded the more famous Lewis and Clark Expedition by 12 years.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Asphalt concrete

Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.

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Asphalt plant

An asphalt plant is a plant used for the manufacture of asphalt, macadam and other forms of coated roadstone, sometimes collectively known as blacktop or asphalt concrete.

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Asphalt shingle

An asphalt shingle is a type of wall or roof shingle that uses asphalt for waterproofing.

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Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons such as alkanes).

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Athabasca oil sands

The Athabasca oil sands (or tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.

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Athabasca River

The Athabasca River (French: rivière Athabasca) originates from the Columbia Glacier of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada.

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Australian English

Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Bas-Rhin (Alsatian: Unterelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France.

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Beckenham is a post town and district of London in the London Borough of Bromley, England.

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Binder (material)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.

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Bioasphalt is an asphalt alternative made from non-petroleum based renewable resources.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Bitumen-based fuel

Bitumen-based fuel is fuel specifically developed for industrial use.

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Bituminous coal

Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt.

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Bituminous waterproofing

Bituminous waterproofing systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings.

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Bitumount is an abandoned industrial site on the east bank of the Athabasca River about north of Fort McMurray in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.

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Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), with its head office in Calgary, Alberta, is a lobby group that represents the upstream Canadian oil and natural gas industry.

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Canadian English

Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.

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Canadian Natural Resources

Canadian Natural Resources Limited, or CNRL or Canadian Natural, is a Canadian oil and gas exploration, development and production company, with its corporate head office in Calgary, Alberta.

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A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Cariphalte is a brand of hot-pour rubberised bitumen sealant (bitumen technology) manufactured by Shell Bitumen, used for race track and expansion joints.

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Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chipseal (also chip seal) is a pavement surface treatment that combines one or more layer(s) of asphalt with one or more layer(s) of fine aggregate.

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Chumash people

The Chumash are a Native American people who historically inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coal gas

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.

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Coal tar

Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.

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Cold Lake oil sands

The Cold Lake oil sands are a large deposit of oil sands (also known as tar sands) located near Cold Lake, Alberta.

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In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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Construction aggregate

Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.

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Cooper Research Technology

Cooper Research Technology Limited (also known as Cooper Technology) is a British manufacturer of high-performance civil engineering materials testing equipment, based in Ripley, Derbyshire, England.

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Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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A de-asphalter is a unit in a crude oil refinery or bitumen upgrader that separates asphalt from crude oil or bitumen.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Deep geological repository

A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).

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A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.

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Destructive distillation

Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.

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Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dilbit (diluted bitumen) is a bitumen diluted with one or more lighter petroleum products, typically natural-gas condensates such as naphtha.

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Dubai Crude

Dubai Crude is a medium sour crude oil extracted from Dubai.

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Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.

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Dump truck

A dump truck (known in the UK as a dumper/tipper truck) is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or demolition waste) for construction.

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Duxit is a mostly black brown fossil resin from Miocenes lignite layers in the northern Bohemia.

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Edmonton (Cree: Amiskwaciy Waskahikan; Blackfoot: Omahkoyis) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta.

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Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.

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An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Enhanced oil recovery

Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.

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Eugène Delacroix

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Euphrates Tunnel

The Euphrates Tunnel was allegedly a tunnel which was built under the Euphrates river to connect the two halves of the city of Babylon, in the old Mesopotamia.

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Federal Highway Administration

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.

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A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Fort McMurray

Fort McMurray is a population centre, technically classified as an urban service area, in the Regional Municipality (RM) of Wood Buffalo in Alberta, Canada.

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Fraction (chemistry)

A fraction in chemistry is a quantity collected from a sample or batch of a substance in a fractionating separation process.

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Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.

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Frederick Walter Simms

Frederick Walter Simms (24 December 1803 – 27 February 1865) was a British civil engineer.

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Gilsonite, also known as "uintahite", "asphaltum" or asphaltite, is a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon, a form of asphalt (or bitumen) with a relatively high melting temperature.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro

The Great Bath is one of the best-known structures among the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Pakistan.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Green parking lot

Green parking lots are a form of parking lot designed to be environmentally more sustainable.

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Green River Formation

The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.

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Gulf Coast of the United States

The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.

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Hasbeya or Hasbeiya (حاصبيا) is a town in Lebanon, situated at the foot of Mount Hermon, overlooking a deep amphitheatre from which a brook flows to the Hasbani.

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Heavy crude oil

Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.

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Henri Coquand

Henri Coquand (1813, in Aix-en-Provence – 1881, in Marseille) was a French geologist and paleontologist.

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Henry Kelsey

Henry Kelsey (c. 1667 – 1 November 1724), was an English fur trader, explorer, and sailor who played an important role in establishing the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

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International Grooving & Grinding Association

The International Grooving & Grinding Association (IGGA) is a non-profit trade association founded in 1972 that represents the industry that performs grooving and grinding of both concrete and asphalt surfaces in addition to Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) and Concrete Pavement Preservation (CPP) methods.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic strength

The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Isambard Kingdom Brunel

Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th-century engineering giants", and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japan black

Japan black (also called black japan) is a lacquer or varnish suitable for many substrates but known especially for its use on iron and steel.

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July Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.

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Karl Clark (chemist)

Karl Adolf Clark (20 October 1888, Georgetown, Ontario – 7 December 1966, Victoria, British Columbia) was a chemist and oil sand researcher.

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Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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La Brea Tar Pits

The La Brea Tar Pits are a group of tar pits around which Hancock Park was formed in urban Los Angeles.

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The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.

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Lake Bermudez

Lake Guanoco (Spanish: Lago Guanoco or Lago de Asfalto de Guanoco, also Lake Bermudez) is the world's second largest natural tar pit and lies in Venezuela in northern South America.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Lens (geology)

In geology, a lens or lentil is a body of ore or rock that is thick in the middle and thin at the edges, resembling a convex lens in cross-section.

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Leo Wiener

Leo Wiener (1862–1939) was an American historian, linguist, author and translator.

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Life-cycle assessment

Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.

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Light crude oil

Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature.

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List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B: The agent (mixture) is "possibly carcinogenic to humans".

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The Luiseño, or Payómkawichum, are a Native American people who at the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the 16th century inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging 50 miles from the present-day southern part of Los Angeles County to the northern part of San Diego County, and inland 30 miles.

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Macadam is a type of road construction, pioneered by Scottish engineer John Loudon McAdam around 1820, in which single-sized crushed stone layers of small angular stones are placed in shallow lifts and compacted thoroughly.

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Marc Isambard Brunel

Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (25 April 1769 – 12 December 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in England.

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Mastic (plant resin)

Mastic (Μαστίχα) is a resin obtained from the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus).

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McMurray Formation

The McMurray Formation is a stratigraphic unit of Early Cretaceous age (late Barremian to Aptian stage) of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin in northeastern Alberta.

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Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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Midwestern United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").

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A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.

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Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Mortar (masonry)

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Motor oil

Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers.

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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.

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Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

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Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.

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National Energy Board

The National Energy Board (Office national de l'énergie) is an independent economic regulatory agency created in 1959 by the Government of Canada to oversee "international and inter-provincial aspects of the oil, gas and electric utility industries".

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.

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Natural-gas condensate

Natural-gas condensate is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields.

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Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Nexen is a Canadian oil and gas company based in Calgary, Alberta.

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Nicéphore Niépce

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Observations (Pierre Belon)

Les observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memorables trouvées en Grèce, Asie, Judée, Egypte, Arabie et autres pays estranges is a work of ethnographical, botanical and zoological exploration by Pierre Belon (1517–1564), a French naturalist from Le Mans.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Oil reserves

Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.

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Oil sands

Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.

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Organic-rich sedimentary rocks

Organic-rich sedimentary rocks are a specific type of sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts (>3%) of organic carbon.

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Organosulfur compounds

Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur.

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Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pavement milling

Pavement milling (cold planing, asphalt milling, or profiling) is the process of removing at least part of the surface of a paved area such as a road, bridge, or parking lot.

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Peace River oil sands

Located in northwest-central Alberta, the Peace River oil sands deposit is the smallest of four large deposits of oil sands of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin formation.

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Pedanius Dioscorides

Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.

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Penge is a district of south-east London, in the London Borough of Bromley.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Petroleum industry in Mexico

The petroleum industry in Mexico makes Mexico the eleventh largest producer of oil in the world and the thirteenth largest in terms of net exports.

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Petroleum seep

A petroleum seep is a place where natural liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons escape to the earth's atmosphere and surface, normally under low pressure or flow.

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Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.

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In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.

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A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several processes, such as photolithography and photoengraving, to form a patterned coating on a surface.

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Pierre Belon

Pierre Belon (1517–1564) was a French traveler, naturalist, writer and diplomat.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Pitch (resin)

Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.

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Pitch Lake

The Pitch Lake is one of the largest natural deposit of asphalt in the world, estimated to contain 10 million tons.

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Place de la Concorde

The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.

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Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Power shovel

A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel or Electric Rope Shovel) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Projectile point

In archaeological terms, a projectile point is an object that was hafted to weapon that was capable of being thrown or projected, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Provincial historic sites of Alberta

Provincial historic sites of Alberta are museums and historic sites run by the Government of Alberta.

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Puy-de-Dôme ((Auvergnat: lo Puèi de Doma or lo Puèi Domat) is a department in the centre of France named after the famous dormant volcano, the Puy de Dôme. Inhabitants were called Puydedomois until December 2005. With effect from Spring 2006, in response to a letter writing campaign, the name used for the inhabitants was changed by the Puy-de-Dôme General Council to Puydômois, and this is the name that has since then been used in all official documents and publications.

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R. T. Claridge

Captain Richard Tappin Claridge, FSA (c. 1797/1799–1857), was a prominent asphalt contractor and captain in the Middlesex Militia, who became best known for his prominent promotion of hydropathy, now known as hydrotherapy, in the 1840s.

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Radiolysis is the dissociation of molecules by ionizing radiation.

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Rattle (percussion instrument)

A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken.

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Raw material

A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Redwater, Alberta

Redwater is a town in the Edmonton Capital Region of Alberta, Canada within Sturgeon County.

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Release agent

A release agent (also mold release agent, release coating, or mold release coating) is a chemical used to prevent other materials from bonding to surfaces.

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Republic of Ragusa

The Republic of Ragusa was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808.

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Ritchie County, West Virginia

Ritchie County is a county in the U.S. state of West Virginia.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft".

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword, knife, or other large blade.

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Scotford Upgrader

The Shell Scotford Upgrader is an oilsand upgrader, a facility which processes crude bitumen (extra-heavy crude oil) from oil sands into a wide range of synthetic crude oils.

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Sealcoating, or pavement sealing, is the process of applying a protective coating to asphalt-based pavements to provide a layer of protection from the elements: water, oils, and U.V. damage.

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Selenicë (Selenica) is a municipality in Vlorë County, southwestern Albania.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Semipermeable membrane

A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.

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Semiramis (Assyrian;ܫܲܡܝܼܪܵܡ Shamiram,; Σεμίραμις, Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary Lydian-Babylonian wife of Onnes and Ninus, succeeding the latter to the throne of Assyria.

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Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.

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Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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Sodium sulfate

Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.

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Spent nuclear fuel

Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).

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Stamped asphalt

Stamped asphalt is a decorative product which is made by transforming regular asphalt into imitation brick, stone, or slate.

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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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Steam-assisted gravity drainage

Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD; "Sag-D") is an enhanced oil recovery technology for producing heavy crude oil and bitumen.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Suncor Energy

Suncor Energy is a Canadian integrated energy company based in Calgary, Alberta.

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Supercritical fluid

A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.

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Surface mining

Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.

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Syncrude Canada Ltd. is one of the world's largest producers of synthetic crude oil from oil sands and the largest single source producer in Canada.

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Synthetic crude

Synthetic crude is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production.

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Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.

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Tarmacadam is a road surfacing material made by combining macadam surfaces, tar, and sand, patented by English inventor Edgar Purnell Hooley in 1902.

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Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Théodore Géricault

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings.

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The Raft of the Medusa

The Raft of the Medusa (Le Radeau de la Méduse) is an oil painting of 1818–1819 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault (1791–1824).

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering approximately.

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Transuranium element

The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).

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Uintah Basin

The Uintah Basin, is a physiographic section of the larger Colorado Plateaus province, which in turn is part of the larger Intermontane Plateaus physiographic division.

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University of Alberta

The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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An upgrader is a facility that upgrades bitumen (extra heavy oil) into synthetic crude oil.

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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Urban heat island

An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth.

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Vein (geology)

In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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View from the Window at Le Gras

View from the Window at Le Gras is a heliographic image and the oldest surviving camera photograph.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.

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Westcliff-on-Sea is a suburb of Southend-on-Sea, a seaside resort and unitary authority in Essex in south-east England.

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Western Canadian Select

Western Canadian Select is one of North America’s largest heavy crude oil streams.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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World oil market chronology from 2003

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Alternatives to asphalt, Ashfelt, Ashphalt, Asphalt emulsion, Asphalts, Asphaltum oil wells, Asphelt, Bitumen, Bitumen feedstock, Bituminous, Bituminous surfaced, Mastic roller hybrid, Natural bitumen, Oil (road), Oiled (road), Oiled dirt, Oiled road, Rock asphalt, Slurry seal.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphalt

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