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Assembly language

Index Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions. [1]

201 relations: Abstraction (computer science), Addressing mode, ALGOL, Amiga, APEXC, Assembly language, Atari ST, Autocoder, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, Bijection, Binary file, Binary number, BIOS, Birkbeck, University of London, Bit, Bit field, Booting, Burroughs MCP, C (programming language), C++, Calculator, Central processing unit, Character encoding, CICS, Circular shift, Class (computer programming), COBOL, Code generation (compiler), Commodore 64, Comparison of assemblers, Compiler, Computer architecture, Computer reservation system, Computer science, Computer virus, Conditional (computer programming), Constant (computer programming), Control flow, CP/M, Cross compiler, Data segment, Data structure, Data structure alignment, Debugging, Decimal, Device driver, Disassembler, Discrete cosine transform, DOS, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, ..., Electronic engineering, Embedded system, EPROM, Erratum, Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language, Expression (computer science), FASM, First-generation programming language, Fly-by-wire, Fortran, Garbage collection (computer science), GNU Assembler, Goto, Graphing calculator, Harlan Mills, Herman Goldstine, Hexadecimal, High Level Assembly, High-level assembler, High-level programming language, IA-32, IBM, IBM 650, IBM 700/7000 series, IBM Airline Control Program, IBM mainframe, IBM mainframe utility programs, IBM System/360, IBM System/370, Identifier, Idris (operating system), Imperative programming, Inheritance (object-oriented programming), Inline expansion, Input/output, Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Instruction scheduling, Instruction set architecture, Instruction set simulator, Integrated development environment, Intel HEX, Interactive Disassembler, Interface (computing), Interpreted language, Interpreter (computing), Interrupt, Interrupt handler, Intrinsic function, Job Control Language, Job stream, John von Neumann, Kathleen Booth, Label (computer science), Library (computing), Linear algebra, Linker (computing), Lisp (programming language), Little man computer, Loader (computing), Lotus 1-2-3, Low-level programming language, Machine code, Macro (computer science), Magnetic tape data storage, Memory management, Microassembler, Microcode, Microcomputer, Mnemonic, Mobile game, MSX, Namespace, NBA Jam (1993 video game), Nibble, Non-structured programming, NOP, Object (computer science), Object code, Object-oriented programming, Offset (computer science), Opcode, Operand, Operating system, Optimizing compiler, OS/360 and successors, Paging, Parameter (computer programming), Pascal (programming language), Peephole optimization, Personal computer, Pipeline (computing), PL/I, Polymorphism (computer science), Porting, Preemption (computing), Processor register, Programming productivity, Punched card, Punched tape, RadioShack, Randall Hyde, Read-only memory, Real-time computing, Reduced instruction set computer, Reverse engineering, ROM hacking, Runtime system, Sega Saturn, Self-documenting code, Self-modifying code, SIMD, Sinclair Research, SNOBOL, Software, Software portability, Source code, Spaghetti code, Speedcoding, Spreadsheet, SREC (file format), Stack (abstract data type), Stored-program computer, Structured programming, Subroutine, Syntax, Syntax (programming languages), System generation, Timing attack, TIOBE index, Transaction Processing Facility, TRS-80, Turbo Assembler, Turbo Pascal, Turing completeness, Typed assembly language, Unix, Utility software, Video game, Video game programmer, Virtual machine, Visual Basic, VM (operating system), WebAssembly, Whitesmiths, X264, X86, X86 assembly language, X86 instruction listings, Zilog Z80, ZX Spectrum. Expand index (151 more) »

Abstraction (computer science)

In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is.

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Addressing mode

Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.

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ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.

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The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.

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The APE(X)C, or All Purpose Electronic (X) Computer series was designed by Andrew Donald Booth at Birkbeck College, London in the early 1950s.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Atari ST

The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family.

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Autocoder was the name given to certain assemblers for a number of IBM computers of the 1950s and 1960s.

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Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms

Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) is a specification that prescribes a set of low-level routines for performing common linear algebra operations such as vector addition, scalar multiplication, dot products, linear combinations, and matrix multiplication.

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In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.

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Binary file

A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file.

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Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.

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Birkbeck, University of London

Birkbeck, University of London (formally, Birkbeck College; informally, Birkbeck), is a public research university located in Bloomsbury, London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Bit field

A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.

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In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Burroughs MCP

The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

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An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Customer Information Control System (CICS) is a family of mixed language application servers that provide online transaction management and connectivity for applications on IBM Mainframe systems under z/OS and z/VSE.

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Circular shift

In combinatorial mathematics, a circular shift is the operation of rearranging the entries in a tuple, either by moving the final entry to the first position, while shifting all other entries to the next position, or by performing the inverse operation.

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Class (computer programming)

In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).

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COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

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Code generation (compiler)

In computing, code generation is the process by which a compiler's code generator converts some intermediate representation of source code into a form (e.g., machine code) that can be readily executed by a machine.

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Commodore 64

The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).

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Comparison of assemblers

This is a list of assemblers: computer programs that translate assembly language source code into binary programs.

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A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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Computer reservation system

A computer reservation system or central reservation system (CRS) is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to air travel, hotels, car rental, or other activities.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.

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Conditional (computer programming)

In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.

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Constant (computer programming)

In computer programming, a constant is a value that cannot be altered by the program during normal execution, i.e., the value is constant.

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Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

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CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

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Cross compiler

A cross compiler is a compiler capable of creating executable code for a platform other than the one on which the compiler is running.

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Data segment

In computing, a data segment (often denoted.data) is a portion of an object file or the corresponding virtual address space of a program that contains initialized static variables, that is, global variables and static local variables.

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Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

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Data structure alignment

Data structure alignment refers to the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory.

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Debugging is the process of finding and resolving defects or problems within a computer program that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system.

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The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

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Device driver

In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

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A disassembler is a computer program that translates machine language into assembly language—the inverse operation to that of an assembler.

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Discrete cosine transform

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.

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DOS is a family of disk operating systems.

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Electronic delay storage automatic calculator

The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.

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Electronic engineering

Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.

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Embedded system

An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

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An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.

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An erratum or corrigendum (plurals: errata, corrigenda) (comes from errata corrige) is a correction of a published text.

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Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language

ESPOL (short for Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language) was a superset of ALGOL 60 that provided capabilities of what would later be known as Mohols, machine oriented high order languages, such as interrupting a processor on a multiprocessor system (the Burroughs large systems were multiprocessor processor systems).

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Expression (computer science)

An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.

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FASM (flat assembler) is an assembler for x86 processors.

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First-generation programming language

A first generation (programming) language (1GL) is a grouping of programming languages that are machine level languages used to program first-generation computers.

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Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.

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Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Garbage collection (computer science)

In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management.

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GNU Assembler

The GNU Assembler, commonly known as gas or simply as, its executable name, is the assembler used by the GNU Project.

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GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.

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Graphing calculator

A graphing calculator (also graphics / graphic display calculator) is a handheld computer that is capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing other tasks with variables.

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Harlan Mills

Harlan D. Mills (May 14, 1919 – January 8, 1996) was Professor of Computer Science at the Florida Institute of Technology and founder of Software Engineering Technology, Inc.

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Herman Goldstine

Herman Heine Goldstine (September 13, 1913 – June 16, 2004) was a mathematician and computer scientist, who was one of the original developers of ENIAC, the first of the modern electronic digital computers.

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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

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High Level Assembly

High Level Assembly (HLA) is a high-level assembly language developed by Randall Hyde.

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High-level assembler

High-level assemblers in computing are assemblers for assembly language that incorporate features found in high-level programming languages.

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High-level programming language

In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

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IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 650

The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.

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IBM 700/7000 series

The IBM 700/7000 series is a series of large-scale (mainframe) computer systems that were made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s.

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IBM Airline Control Program

IBM Airline Control Program, or ACP, is a discontinued operating system developed by IBM beginning about 1965.

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IBM mainframe

IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952.

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IBM mainframe utility programs

IBM mainframe utility programs are utility software supplied with IBM mainframe operating systems such as MVS and zOS to carry out various tasks associated with maintenance of the computer system or datasets.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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IBM System/370

The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.

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An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof).

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Idris (operating system)

Idris is a discontinued multi-tasking, Unix-like, multi-user, real-time operating system released by Whitesmiths, of Westford, Massachusetts.

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Imperative programming

In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.

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Inheritance (object-oriented programming)

In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object (prototypal inheritance) or class (class-based inheritance), retaining the same implementation.

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Inline expansion

In computing, inline expansion, or inlining, is a manual or compiler optimization that replaces a function call site with the body of the called function.

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In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Institute for Advanced Study

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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Instruction scheduling

In computer science, instruction scheduling is a compiler optimization used to improve instruction-level parallelism, which improves performance on machines with instruction pipelines.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Instruction set simulator

An instruction set simulator (ISS) is a simulation model, usually coded in a high-level programming language, which mimics the behavior of a mainframe or microprocessor by "reading" instructions and maintaining internal variables which represent the processor's registers.

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Integrated development environment

An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.

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Intel HEX

Intel HEX is a file format that conveys binary information in ASCII text form.

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Interactive Disassembler

The Interactive Disassembler (IDA) is a disassembler for computer software which generates assembly language source code from machine-executable code.

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Interface (computing)

In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information.

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Interpreted language

An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.

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Interpreter (computing)

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.

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In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.

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Interrupt handler

In computer systems programming, an interrupt handler, also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a special block of code associated with a specific interrupt condition.

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Intrinsic function

In computer software, in compiler theory, an intrinsic function (or builtin function) is a function (subroutine) available for use in a given programming language which implementation is handled specially by the compiler.

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Job Control Language

Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.

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Job stream

In a non-interactive computer system, particularly IBM mainframes, a job stream, jobstream, or simply job is the sequence of job control language statements (JCL) and data (called instream data) that comprise a single "unit of work for an operating system".

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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Kathleen Booth

Kathleen Booth née BrittenJohnson, Roger.

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Label (computer science)

A label in a programming language is a sequence of characters that identifies a location within source code.

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Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

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Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

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Linker (computing)

In computing, a linker or link editor is a computer utility program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable file, library file, or another 'object' file.

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Lisp (programming language)

Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.

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Little man computer

The Little Man Computer (LMC) is an instructional model of a computer, created by Dr.

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Loader (computing)

In computer systems a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries.

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Lotus 1-2-3

Lotus 1-2-3 is a discontinued spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (later part of IBM).

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Low-level programming language

A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Macro (computer science)

A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.

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Magnetic tape data storage

Magnetic tape data storage is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording.

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Memory management

Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.

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A microassembler is a computer program that helps prepare a microprogram, called firmware, to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor.

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Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.

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A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).

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A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.

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Mobile game

A mobile game is a video game played on a feature phone, smartphone/tablet, smartwatch, PDA, portable media player or graphing calculator.

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MSX is a standardized home computer architecture, first announced by Microsoft on June 16, 1983, and marketed by Kazuhiko Nishi, then Vice-president at Microsoft Japan and Director at ASCII Corporation.

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In computing, a namespace is a set of symbols that are used to organize objects of various kinds, so that these objects may be referred to by name.

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NBA Jam (1993 video game)

NBA Jam is a basketball arcade game published and developed by Midway in 1993.

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In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.

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Non-structured programming

Non-structured programming is the historically earliest programming paradigm capable of creating Turing-complete algorithms.

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In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.

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Object (computer science)

In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.

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Object code

In computing, object code or object module is the product of a compiler.

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Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").

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Offset (computer science)

In computer science, an offset within an array or other data structure object is an integer indicating the distance (displacement) between the beginning of the object and a given element or point, presumably within the same object.

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In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.

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In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optimizing compiler

In computing, an optimizing compiler is a compiler that tries to minimize or maximize some attributes of an executable computer program.

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OS/360 and successors

OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.

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In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.

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Parameter (computer programming)

In computer programming, a parameter (often called formal parameter or formal argument) is a special kind of variable, used in a subroutine to refer to one of the pieces of data provided as input to the subroutine.

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Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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Peephole optimization

In compiler theory, peephole optimization is a kind of optimization performed over a very small set of instructions in a segment of generated code.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Pipeline (computing)

In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.

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PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.

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Polymorphism (computer science)

In programming languages and type theory, polymorphism (from Greek πολύς, polys, "many, much" and μορφή, morphē, "form, shape") is the provision of a single interface to entities of different types.

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In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).

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Preemption (computing)

In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Programming productivity

Programming productivity (also called software productivity or development productivity) describes the degree of the ability of individual programmers or development teams to build and evolve software systems.

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Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

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Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.

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RadioShack, formally RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921, which operates a chain of electronics stores.

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Randall Hyde

Randall Hyde (born 1956)NNDB entry for Randall Hyde http://www.nndb.com/people/249/000125871/ is best known as the author of The Art of Assembly Language, a popular book on assembly language programming.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Real-time computing

In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.

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Reduced instruction set computer

A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).

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Reverse engineering

Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.

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ROM hacking

ROM hacking is the process of modifying a ROM image of a video game to alter the game's graphics, dialogue, levels, gameplay, and/or other elements.

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Runtime system

A runtime system, also called run-time system, primarily implements portions of an execution model.

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Sega Saturn

The is a 32-bit fifth-generation home video game console developed by Sega and released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America, and July 8, 1995 in Europe.

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Self-documenting code

In computer programming, self-documenting (or self-describing) source code and user interfaces follow naming conventions and structured programming conventions that enable use of the system without prior specific knowledge.

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Self-modifying code

In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.

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Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.

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Sinclair Research

Sinclair Research Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair in Cambridge.

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SNOBOL (StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language) is a series of computer programming languages developed between 1962 and 1967 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold and Ivan P. Polonsky, culminating in SNOBOL4.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software portability

Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.

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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

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Spaghetti code

Spaghetti code is a pejorative phrase for unstructured and difficult to maintain source code, broadly construed.

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Speedcoding or Speedcode was the first high-level programming language created for an IBM computer.

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A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

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SREC (file format)

Motorola S-record is a file format, created by Motorola, that conveys binary information in ASCII hex text form.

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Stack (abstract data type)

In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.

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Stored-program computer

A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.

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Structured programming

Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.

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In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Syntax (programming languages)

In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.

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System generation

In computing System generation or sysgen is the process of creating a particular unique instance of an operating system by combining user-specified options and parameters with manufacturer-supplied general-purpose program code to produce an operating system tailored for a particular hardware and software environment.

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Timing attack

In cryptography, a timing attack is a side channel attack in which the attacker attempts to compromise a cryptosystem by analyzing the time taken to execute cryptographic algorithms.

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TIOBE index

TIOBE programming community index is a measure of popularity of programming languages, created and maintained by the TIOBE Company based in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

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Transaction Processing Facility

Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) is an IBM real-time operating system for mainframe computers descended from the IBM System/360 family, including zSeries and System z9.

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The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.

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Turbo Assembler

Turbo Assembler (TASM) is a computer assembler (software for program development) developed by Borland which runs on and produces code for 16- or 32-bit x86 MS-DOS or Microsoft Windows.

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Turbo Pascal

Turbo Pascal is a software development system that includes a compiler and an integrated development environment (IDE) for the Pascal programming language running on CP/M, CP/M-86, and MS-DOS.

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Turing completeness

In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.

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Typed assembly language

In computer science, a typed assembly language (TAL) is an assembly language that is extended to include a method of annotating the datatype of each value that is manipulated by the code.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Utility software

Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Video game programmer

A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who primarily develops codebases for video games or related software, such as game development tools.

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Virtual machine

In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.

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Visual Basic

Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.

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VM (operating system)

VM (often: VM/CMS) is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.

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WebAssembly (Wasm, WA) is a web standard that defines a binary format and a corresponding assembly-like text format for executable code in Web pages.

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Whitesmiths Ltd.

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x264 is a free and open-source software library and a command-line utility developed by VideoLAN for encoding video streams into the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC format.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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X86 assembly language

x86 assembly language is a family of backward-compatible assembly languages, which provide some level of compatibility all the way back to the Intel 8008 introduced in April 1972.

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X86 instruction listings

The x86 instruction set refers to the set of instructions that x86-compatible microprocessors support.

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Zilog Z80

The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.

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ZX Spectrum

The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_language

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