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Index Asteroid

Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System. [1]

330 relations: A-type asteroid, Accretion (astrophysics), Adenine, Albedo, Alphonse Borrelly, Alvarez hypothesis, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Amino acid, Amor asteroid, Amphitrite, Annibale de Gasparis, Apollo asteroid, Armagh Observatory, Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey, Associated Press, Asteroid belt, Asteroid Day, Asteroid family, Asteroid impact avoidance, Asteroid mining, Asteroid spectral types, Astraea, Astrograph, Astronomical unit, Astrophotography, Aten asteroid, Athena, Atira asteroid, Auguste Charlois, Axial tilt, B-type asteroid, B612 Foundation, Bellona (goddess), Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch, Binary asteroid, BOOTES, C-type asteroid, Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Object Survey, Carbon, Carbonaceous chondrite, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Catalina Sky Survey, Centaur (minor planet), Ceres (dwarf planet), Ceres (mythology), Chang'e 2, Charge-coupled device, Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters, Colonization of the asteroids, Color, ..., Comet, Comet nucleus, Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, Constellation program, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crucifix, D-type asteroid, Daily Star, David J. Tholen, David Morrison (astrophysicist), Dawn (spacecraft), Deep Space 1, Deimos (moon), Delta-v, Discovery Program, Disrupted planet, Distant minor planet, DNA, Dwarf planet, E-type asteroid, Earth, Earth trojan, Ecliptic, Edmund Weiss, Eduard Suess, Egeria (mythology), Emission spectrum, Epimetheus (moon), European Space Agency, F-type asteroid, Far-infrared astronomy, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Franz Xaver von Zach, Frost line (astrophysics), G-type asteroid, Galileo (spacecraft), Gas giant, GD 61, Giuseppe Piazzi, Gizmodo, Guanine, Half-month, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, Hebe (mythology), HED meteorite, Hermann Goldschmidt, Herschel Space Observatory, Hirayama family, Horseshoe orbit, Hubble Space Telescope, Hygiea family, Hygieia, Icarus (journal), Ice, Impact event, Inquisitr, International Astronomical Union, Iron–nickel alloy, James Craig Watson, James Ferguson (American astronomer), Janus (moon), Japan Spaceguard Association, Jean Chacornac, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johann Franz Encke, Johann Palisa, John Russell Hind, Juno (mythology), Jupiter, Jupiter trojan, K-type asteroid, Karl Ludwig Hencke, Kiyotsugu Hirayama, Kuiper belt, L-type asteroid, Lagrangian point, Laurel wreath, Leucothea, Light curve, Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research, List of asteroid close approaches to Earth, List of Earth-crossing minor planets, List of exceptional asteroids, List of impact craters on Earth, List of minor planets, List of minor planets named after people, List of minor planets named after places, List of unconfirmed impact craters on Earth, Logarithmic distribution, Lost minor planet, Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search, Lucy (spacecraft), M-type asteroid, Marco Polo (spacecraft), Mariner 9, Mars, Mars trojan, Max Wolf, Meanings of minor planet names, Melpomene, Mercury (planet), Mesoplanet, Metal, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Metis (mythology), Micrometer, Military satellite, Minor planet, Minor Planet Center, Minor-planet moon, Moon, N. R. Pogson, NASA, NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, National Science and Technology Council, Nature (journal), Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite, NEAR Shoemaker, Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking, Near-Earth object, Neptune trojan, New Scientist, Nice model, Nuclear explosion, O-type asteroid, Olivine, Oort cloud, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Organic compound, OSIRIS-REx, Outer space, Outgassing, P-type asteroid, Palermo, Pallas family, Pan-STARRS, Panspermia, Paul Henry and Prosper Henry, PDF, Phobos (moon), Photographic plate, Pioneer 10, Planet, Planetary differentiation, Planetesimal, Pluto, Pomona, Power law, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proserpina, Protoplanet, Protoplanetary disk, Provisional designation in astronomy, Psyche (spacecraft), Q-type asteroid, Quasi-satellite, R-type asteroid, Radar, Regolith, Rheasilvia, RNA, Robert Luther, Rod of Asclepius, Rose of England, Rosetta (spacecraft), Rota Fortunae, Rubble pile, S-type asteroid, Sacred fire of Vesta, Sample-return mission, Saturn, Scattered disc, Science Daily, Scientific American, Sicily, Silicate, Siren (mythology), Small Solar System body, Space habitat, Space manufacturing, Space weathering, Spaceflight, Spacewatch, Spectral line, Spheroid, Stardust (spacecraft), Stereoscope, Sublimation (phase transition), Sun, T-type asteroid, Taurus (constellation), Taxonomy (general), Telescope, The New York Times, The Queenslander, Thetis, Titius–Bode law, Trans-Neptunian object, Trojan (astronomy), Tunguska event, United Nations, Uranus, Uranus trojan, V-type asteroid, Venus, Vesta family, Visible spectrum, Volatiles, Voyager program, Water vapor, White dwarf, White House, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Wilhelm Tempel, William Conybeare (geologist), William Herschel, X-type asteroid, Yarkovsky effect, Zodiac, 10 Hygiea, 101955 Bennu, 11 Parthenope, 110 Lydia, 12 Victoria, 121 Hermione, 1221 Amor, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 15 Eunomia, 15760 Albion, 16 Psyche, 162173 Ryugu, 17 Thetis, 18 Melpomene, 1862 Apollo, 19 Fortuna, 2 Pallas, 20 Massalia, 2011 MD, 2013 ND15, 2060 Chiron, 21 Lutetia, 2101 Adonis, 24 Themis, 243 Ida, 25143 Itokawa, 253 Mathilde, 26 Proserpina, 28 Bellona, 2867 Šteins, 29 Amphitrite, 3 Juno, 32 Pomona, 323 Brucia, 35 Leukothea, 37 Fides, 3753 Cruithne, 4 Vesta, 4179 Toutatis, 433 Eros, 5 Astraea, 511 Davida, 52 Europa, 5535 Annefrank, 6 Hebe, 69230 Hermes, 7 Iris, 704 Interamnia, 8 Flora, 87 Sylvia, 9 Metis, 944 Hidalgo, 951 Gaspra, 9969 Braille, 99942 Apophis. Expand index (280 more) »

A-type asteroid

A-type asteroids are relatively uncommon inner-belt asteroids that have a strong, broad 1 µm olivine feature and a very reddish spectrum shortwards of 0.7 µm.

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Accretion (astrophysics)

In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).

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Alphonse Borrelly

Alphonse Louis Nicolas Borrelly (December 8, 1842 – February 28, 1926) was a French astronomer.

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Alvarez hypothesis

The Alvarez hypothesis posits that the mass extinction of the dinosaurs and many other living things during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event was caused by the impact of a large asteroid on the Earth.

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amor asteroid

The Amor asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after the asteroid 1221 Amor.

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In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (Ἀμφιτρίτη) was a sea goddess and wife of Poseidon and the queen of the sea.

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Annibale de Gasparis

Annibale de Gasparis (November 9, 1819, Bugnara – March 21, 1892, Naples) was an Italian astronomer, born in Bugnara to parents originally from Tocco da Casauria.

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Apollo asteroid

The Apollo asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after 1862 Apollo, discovered by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth in the 1930s.

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Armagh Observatory

Armagh Observatory is an astronomical research institute in Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey

The Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey (ADAS; obs. code: 209) is an astronomical survey to search for comets and asteroids, with special emphasis on near-Earth objects.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Asteroid Day

Asteroid Day (also known as International Asteroid Day) is an annual global event which is held on the anniversary of the Siberian Tunguska event that took place on June 30th, 1908, the most harmful known asteroid-related event on Earth in recent history.

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Asteroid family

An asteroid family is a population of asteroids that share similar proper orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.

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Asteroid impact avoidance

Asteroid impact avoidance comprises a number of methods by which near-Earth objects (NEO) could be diverted, preventing destructive impact events.

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Asteroid mining

Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.

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Asteroid spectral types

An asteroid spectral type is assigned to asteroids based on their emission spectrum, color, and sometimes albedo (reflectivity).

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Astraea, Astrea or Astria (Ἀστραῖα; "star-maiden" or "starry night"), in ancient Greek religion, was a daughter of Astraeus and Eos.

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An astrograph (astrographic camera) is a telescope designed for the sole purpose of astrophotography.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording photos of astronomical objects, celestial events, and areas of the night sky.

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Aten asteroid

The Aten asteroids are a dynamical group of asteroids whose orbits bring them into proximity with Earth.

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Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Atira asteroid

Atira asteroids or Apohele asteroids, also known as Interior-Earth Objects (IEOs), are asteroids, whose orbits are entirely confined within Earth's orbit, that is, their orbit has an aphelion (farthest point from the Sun) smaller than Earth's perihelion (nearest point to the Sun), which is 0.983 astronomical units (AU).

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Auguste Charlois

Auguste Honoré Charlois (November 26, 1864 – March 26, 1910) was a French astronomer who discovered 99 asteroids while working at the Nice Observatory in southeastern France.

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Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.

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B-type asteroid

B-type asteroids are a relatively uncommon type of carbonaceous asteroid, falling into the wider C-group.

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B612 Foundation

The B612 Foundation is a private nonprofit foundation headquartered in Mill Valley, California, United States, dedicated to planetary defense against asteroids and other near-Earth object (NEO) impacts.

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Bellona (goddess)

Bellona was an ancient Roman goddess of war.

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Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch

The Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch (abbrev. B.A.J.) is an astronomical ephemeris almanac and the longest publication series in astronomy.

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Binary asteroid

A binary asteroid is a system of two asteroids orbiting their common barycenter.

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BOOTES, the Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System, is a network of astronomical observatories with sites in Southern Spain, New Zealand, China and Mexico (mostly 0.6m diameter telescope with EMCCD camera at the Cassegrain focus and a g'r'i'ZY filterset. The main goal of the network is to quickly observe transient events within few seconds/minutes of being detected by scientific satellites. BOOTES provides an automated real time observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray Bursts GRBs. Error box size depending, it uses wide field cameras (WFC), ultra wide field cameras (UWFC) and narrow field cameras (NFC) attached to small robotic telescopes or the telescopes themselves. To study GRBs it is of the utmost importance to perform prompt optical follow up observations, to detect longer wavelength transient emission associated to them. BOOTES can perform such follow ups. Its scientific objectives include: • Simultaneous and quasi simultaneous observations of GRB error boxes. • Detection of optical flashes of cosmic origin. • All-Sky monitoring with the CASANDRA cameras down to 10th mag every 60 s. • Monitoring of different types of variable objects (galactic or extragalactic) down to 20th mag in order to search for optical variabilitity. • Discovery of comets,, asteroids, variable stars, novae and supernovae. BOOTES is part, within the framework of an international collaboration led by Spain, which started in order to support the ESA’s satellite INTEGRAL with ground-based observations. The project also was focused to perform rapid follow up observations of events detected by several spacecraft (BATSE, BeppoSAX, RossiXTE, IPN, Hete-2, Swift and Fermi). Results in the GRB field are multifold: • Predetection images: they set up upper limits for any possible precursors. • Simultaneous images: the first was achieved last 20 February 2001, although no counterpart was detected. • Follow-up images: with several gamma-ray bursts being discovered or monitored starting several dozen of seconds after the onset of the event.

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C-type asteroid

C-type (carbonaceous) asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids.

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Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Object Survey

The CINEOS program (Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Object Survey), started in 2001, is dedicated to the discovery and follow-up of near-Earth objects (NEOs), namely asteroids and comets which periodically approach or intersect the Earth's orbit.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbonaceous chondrite

Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Catalina Sky Survey

Catalina Sky Survey (CSS; obs. code: 703) is an astronomical survey to discover comets and asteroids.

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Centaur (minor planet)

Centaurs are small solar system bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.

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Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

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Ceres (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.

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Chang'e 2

Chang'e 2 is a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launched on 1 October 2010.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters

Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters (September 19, 1813 – July 18, 1890) was a German–American astronomer, and a pioneer in the study of asteroids.

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Colonization of the asteroids

The asteroids have long been suggested as possible sites for human colonization.

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Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Comet nucleus

The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, popularly termed a dirty snowball or an icy dirtball.

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Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.

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Constellation program

The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.

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D-type asteroid

D-type asteroids have a very low albedo and a featureless reddish spectrum.

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Daily Star

The Daily Star may refer to the following newspapers.

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David J. Tholen

David James Tholen (born 1955) is an American astronomer at the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii.

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David Morrison (astrophysicist)

David Morrison (born 26 June 1940) is an American astronomer, a senior scientist at the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California.

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Dawn (spacecraft)

Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.

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Deep Space 1

Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet.

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Deimos (moon)

Deimos (systematic designation: Mars II) is the smaller and outer of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, the other being Phobos.

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Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.

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Discovery Program

NASA's Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost (as compared to New Frontiers or Flagship Programs), highly focused American scientific space missions that are exploring the Solar System.

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Disrupted planet

A disrupted planet is an official astronomical term for a planet, or exoplanet, that has been disrupted, or destroyed, by a nearby, or passing, astronomical body or object, such as a star.

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Distant minor planet

The term distant minor planet is used by the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center to refer collectively to those minor planets found in the outer Solar System that are not commonly thought of as "asteroids".

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dwarf planet

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.

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E-type asteroid

E-type asteroids are asteroids thought to have enstatite (MgSiO3) achondrite surfaces.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth trojan

An Earth trojan is an asteroid that orbits the Sun in the vicinity of the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points (leading 60°) or (trailing 60°), thus having an orbit similar to Earth's.

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The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.

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Edmund Weiss

Edmund Weiss (August 26, 1837 – June 21, 1917) was an Austrian astronomer.

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Eduard Suess

Eduard Suess (20 August 1831 – 26 April 1914) was an Austrian geologist and an expert on the geography of the Alps.

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Egeria (mythology)

Egeria (Ēgeria) was a nymph attributed a legendary role in the early history of Rome as a divine consort and counselor of Numa Pompilius, the second Sabine king of Rome, to whom she imparted laws and rituals pertaining to ancient Roman religion.

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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Epimetheus (moon)

Epimetheus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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F-type asteroid

F-type asteroids are a relatively uncommon type of carbonaceous asteroid, falling into the wider C-group.

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Far-infrared astronomy

Far-infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that deals with objects visible in far-infrared radiation (extending from 30 µm towards submillimeter wavelengths around 450 µm).

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Formation and evolution of the Solar System

The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.

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Franz Xaver von Zach

Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (4 June 1754 – 2 September 1832) was a Hungarian astronomer born at Pest, Hungary (now Budapest in Hungary).

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Frost line (astrophysics)

In astronomy or planetary science, the frost line, also known as the snow line or ice line, is the particular distance in the solar nebula from the central protostar where it is cold enough for volatile compounds such as water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide to condense into solid ice grains.

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G-type asteroid

G-type asteroids are a relatively uncommon type of carbonaceous asteroid that makes up approximately 5% of asteroids.

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Galileo (spacecraft)

Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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GD 61

GD 61 is a white dwarf with a planetary system located 150 light-years from Earth in the constellation Perseus.

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Giuseppe Piazzi

Giuseppe Piazzi (16 July 1746 – 22 July 1826) was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer.

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Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.

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Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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A half-month is a unit of time typically used in astronomy.

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No description.

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Hayabusa2 is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA.

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Hebe (mythology)

Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).

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HED meteorite

HED meteorites are a clan (subgroup) of achondrite meteorites.

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Hermann Goldschmidt

Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt (June 17, 1802 – April 26, 1866) was a German-French astronomer and painter who spent much of his life in France.

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Herschel Space Observatory

The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).

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Hirayama family

A Hirayama family of asteroids is a group of minor planets that share similar orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.

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Horseshoe orbit

A horseshoe orbit is a type of co-orbital motion of a small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth).

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.

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Hygiea family

The Hygiea or Hygiean '''family''' of asteroids is a grouping of dark, carbonaceous C-type and B-type asteroids in outer asteroid belt, the largest member of which is 10 Hygiea.

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In Greek as well as Roman mythology, Hygieia (also Hygiea or Hygeia; Ὑγιεία or Ὑγεία, Hygēa or Hygīa), was one of the Aeclepiadae; the sons and daughters of the god of medicine, Asclepius, and the goddess of healing, Epione.

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Icarus (journal)

Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.

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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Impact event

An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.

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Inquisitr is a news and media website privately owned and relaunched after a change of ownership in May 2011.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Iron–nickel alloy

An iron–nickel alloy or nickel–iron alloy, abbreviated FeNi or NiFe, is a group of alloys consisting primarily of the elements nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe).

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James Craig Watson

James Craig Watson (January 28, 1838 – November 22, 1880) was a Canadian-American astronomer, discoverer of comets and minor planets, director of the Ann Arbor Observatory, and awarded with the Lalande Prize in 1869.

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James Ferguson (American astronomer)

James Ferguson (August 31, 1797 – September 26, 1867) was a Scottish-born American astronomer and engineer, who made the first discovery of an asteroid from North America (31 Euphrosyne).

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Janus (moon)

Janus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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Japan Spaceguard Association

The is a not-for-profit organization based in Tokyo, Japan.

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Jean Chacornac

Jean Chacornac (June 21, 1823 – September 23, 1873) was a French astronomer and discoverer of a comet and several asteroids.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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Johann Franz Encke

Johann Franz Encke (23 September 1791 – 26 August 1865) was a German astronomer.

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Johann Palisa

Johann Palisa (December 6, 1848 – May 2, 1925) was an Austrian astronomer, born in Troppau in Austrian Silesia (now in the Czech Republic).

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John Russell Hind

John Russell Hind FRS FRSE LLD (12 May 1823 – 23 December 1895) was an English astronomer.

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Juno (mythology)

Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Jupiter trojan

The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or just Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun.

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K-type asteroid

K-type asteroids are relatively uncommon asteroids with a moderately reddish spectrum shortwards of 0.75 μm, and a slight bluish trend longwards of this.

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Karl Ludwig Hencke

Karl Ludwig Hencke (8 April 1793 – 21 September 1866) was a German amateur astronomer and discoverer of minor planets.

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Kiyotsugu Hirayama

was a Japanese astronomer, best known for his discovery that many asteroid orbits were more similar to one another than chance would allow, leading to the concept of asteroid families, now called "Hirayama families" in his honour.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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L-type asteroid

L-type asteroids are relatively uncommon asteroids with a strongly reddish spectrum shortwards of 0.75 μm, and a featureless flat spectrum longwards of this.

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Lagrangian point

In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.

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Laurel wreath

A laurel wreath is a symbol of victory and honor.

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In Greek mythology, Leucothea (Λευκοθέα Leukothéa), "white goddess") was one of the aspects under which an ancient sea goddess was recognized, in this case as a transformed nymph. In the more familiar variant, Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, sister of Semele, and queen of Athamas, became a goddess after Hera drove her insane as a punishment for caring for the newborn Dionysus. She leapt into the sea with her son Melicertes in her arms, and out of pity, the Hellenes asserted, the Olympian gods turned them both into sea-gods, transforming Melicertes into Palaemon, the patron of the Isthmian games, and Ino into Leucothea. In the version sited at Rhodes, a much earlier mythic level is reflected in the genealogy: there, the woman who plunged into the sea and became Leucothea was Halia ("of the sea", a personification of the saltiness of the sea) whose parents were from the ancient generation, Thalassa and Pontus or Uranus. She was a local nymph and one of the aboriginal Telchines of the island. Halia became Poseidon's wife and bore him Rhodos and six sons; the sons were maddened by Aphrodite in retaliation for an impious affront, assaulted their sister and were confined beneath the Earth by Poseidon. Thus the Rhodians traced their mythic descent from Rhodos and the Sun god Helios. In the Odyssey (5.333 ff.), Leucothea makes a dramatic appearance as a gannet who tells the shipwrecked Odysseus to discard his cloak and raft and offers him a veil (κρήδεμνον, kredemnon) to wind round himself to save his life and reach land. Homer makes her the transfiguration of Ino. In Laconia, she has a sanctuary, where she answers people's questions about dreams. This is her form of the oracle.

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Light curve

In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a celestial object or region, as a function of time.

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Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research

The Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project is a collaboration of the United States Air Force, NASA, and the MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the systematic detection and tracking of near-Earth objects.

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List of asteroid close approaches to Earth

This is a list of examples where an asteroid or meteoroid travels close to the Earth.

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List of Earth-crossing minor planets

An Earth-crosser is a near-Earth asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Earth as observed from the ecliptic pole of Earth's orbit.

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List of exceptional asteroids

The following is a collection of lists of exceptional asteroids in the Solar System.

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List of impact craters on Earth

This list of impact craters on Earth contains a selection of the 190 confirmed craters given in the Earth Impact Database.

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List of minor planets

This is a list of numbered minor planets in numerical order.

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List of minor planets named after people

This is a list of minor planets named after people, both real and fictional.

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List of minor planets named after places

This is a list of minor planets named after places, organized by continent.

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List of unconfirmed impact craters on Earth

This list of more than 130 possible impact craters on Earth includes theoretical impact sites that have appeared several times in the literature, or may have been endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG) or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS), but not yet confirmed by the Earth Impact Database (EID).

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Logarithmic distribution

In probability and statistics, the logarithmic distribution (also known as the logarithmic series distribution or the log-series distribution) is a discrete probability distribution derived from the Maclaurin series expansion From this we obtain the identity This leads directly to the probability mass function of a Log(p)-distributed random variable: for k ≥ 1, and where 0 F(k).

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Lost minor planet

Lost minor planets are minor planets that observers lose track of due to too short an observation arc to accurately predict the future location of the minor planet.

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Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search

Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS) was a project designed to discover asteroids and comets that orbit near the Earth.

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Lucy (spacecraft)

Lucy is a planned NASA space probe that will tour five Jupiter trojans, asteroids which share Jupiter's orbit around the Sun, orbiting either ahead of or behind the planet.

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M-type asteroid

M-type asteroids are asteroids of partially known composition; they are moderately bright (albedo 0.1–0.2).

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Marco Polo (spacecraft)

Marco Polo was a proposed space mission concept studied between 2005 and 2015 that would return a sample of material to Earth from the surface of a Near Earth asteroid (NEA) for detailed study in laboratories.

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Mariner 9

Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars trojan

The Mars trojans are a group of objects that share the orbit of the planet Mars around the Sun.

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Max Wolf

Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography.

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Meanings of minor planet names

This is a list of minor planets which have been officially named by the Minor Planet Center (MPC).

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Melpomene (Μελπομένη; "to sing" or "the one that is melodious"), initially the Muse of Chorus, she then became the Muse of Tragedy, for which she is best known now.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Mesoplanets are planetary bodies with sizes smaller than Mercury but larger than Ceres.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.

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Metis (mythology)

Metis (Greek: Μῆτις - "wisdom," "skill," or "craft"), in ancient Greek religion, was a mythical Titaness belonging to the second generation of Titans.

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A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.

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Military satellite

A military satellite is an artificial satellite used for a military purpose.

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Minor planet

A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.

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Minor Planet Center

The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.

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Minor-planet moon

A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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N. R. Pogson

Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (NASA IRTF) is a telescope optimized for use in infrared astronomy and located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii.

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National Science and Technology Council

The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in the US by Executive Order 12881 on November 23, 1993.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite

The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a Canadian microsatellite using a 15-cm aperture f/5.88 Maksutov telescope (similar to that on the MOST spacecraft), with 3-axis stabilisation giving a pointing stability of ~2 arcseconds in a ~100 second exposure.

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NEAR Shoemaker

The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

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Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking

Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) was a program run by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, surveying the sky for near-Earth objects.

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Near-Earth object

A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.

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Neptune trojan

Neptune trojans are bodies that orbit the Sun near one of the stable Lagrangian points of Neptune, similar to the trojans of other planets.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nice model

The Nice model is a scenario for the dynamical evolution of the Solar System.

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Nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.

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O-type asteroid

The rare O-type asteroids have spectra similar to the unusual asteroid 3628 Boznemcová, which is the best asteroid match to the spectra of L6 and LL6 ordinary chondrite meteorites.

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The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

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Oort cloud

The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orbital inclination

Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.

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Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer) is a NASA asteroid study and sample-return mission.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.

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P-type asteroid

P-type asteroids have low albedo and a featureless reddish spectrum.

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Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Pallas family

The Pallas or Palladian '''family''' of asteroids is a grouping of B-type asteroids at very high inclinations in the intermediate asteroid belt (Cellino et al. (2002)).

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The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS 1; obs. code: F51 and Pan-STARRS 2 obs. code: F52) located at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, USA, consists of astronomical cameras, telescopes and a computing facility that is surveying the sky for moving or variable objects on a continual basis, and also producing accurate astrometry and photometry of already detected objects.

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Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.

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Paul Henry and Prosper Henry

Paul-Pierre Henry (Paul Henry) (21 August 1848 – 4 January 1905) and his brother Prosper-Mathieu Henry (Prosper Henry) (10 December 1849 – 25 July 1903) were French opticians and astronomers.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Phobos (moon)

Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.

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Photographic plate

Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.

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Pioneer 10

Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary differentiation

In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.

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Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.

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Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Pomona may refer to.

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Power law

In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proserpina or Proserpine is an ancient Roman goddess whose cult, myths and mysteries were based on those of Greek Persephone and her mother Demeter, the Greek goddess of grain and agriculture.

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A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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Provisional designation in astronomy

Provisional designation in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery.

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Psyche (spacecraft)

Psyche is a planned orbiter mission that will explore the origin of planetary cores by studying the metallic asteroid.

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Q-type asteroid

Q-type asteroids are relatively uncommon inner-belt asteroids with a strong, broad 1 micrometre olivine and pyroxene feature, and a spectral slope that indicates the presence of metal.

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A quasi-satellite is an object in a specific type of co-orbital configuration (1:1 orbital resonance) with a planet where the object stays close to that planet over many orbital periods.

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R-type asteroid

R-type asteroids are moderately bright, relatively uncommon inner-belt asteroids that are spectrally intermediate between the V and A-type asteroids.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.

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Rheasilvia is the most prominent surface feature on the asteroid Vesta and is thought to be an impact crater.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Robert Luther

Karl Theodor Robert Luther (April 16, 1822 – February 15, 1900), normally published as Robert Luther, was a German astronomer.

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Rod of Asclepius

In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine.

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Rose of England

"Rose of England" is a patriotic song written by Welsh composer Ivor Novello in 1937 for his musical Crest of the Wave.

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Rosetta (spacecraft)

Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.

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Rota Fortunae

In medieval and ancient philosophy the Wheel of Fortune, or Rota Fortunae, is a symbol of the capricious nature of Fate.

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Rubble pile

In astronomy, a rubble pile is a celestial body that is not a monolith, consisting instead of numerous pieces of rock that have coalesced under the influence of gravity.

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S-type asteroid

S-type asteroids are asteroids with a spectral type that is indicative of a silicaceous (i.e. stony) mineralogical composition, hence the name.

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Sacred fire of Vesta

The sacred fire of Vesta was a sacred eternal flame in Ancient Rome.

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Sample-return mission

A sample-return mission is a spacecraft mission with the goal of collecting and returning with tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scattered disc

The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.

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Siren (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Sirens (Greek singular: Σειρήν Seirēn; Greek plural: Σειρῆνες Seirēnes) were dangerous creatures, who lured nearby sailors with their enchanting music and singing voices to shipwreck on the rocky coast of their island.

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Small Solar System body

A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.

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Space habitat

A space habitat (also called a space colony, space settlement, orbital habitat, orbital settlement or orbital colony) is a type of space station, intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple way-station or other specialized facility.

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Space manufacturing

Space manufacturing is the production of manufactured goods in an environment outside a planetary atmosphere.

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Space weathering

Space weathering is the type of weathering that occurs to any object exposed to the harsh environment of outer space.

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Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.

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The Spacewatch project is an astronomical survey that specializes in the study of minor planets, including various types of asteroids and comets at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, in the United States.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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Stardust (spacecraft)

Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.

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A stereoscope is a device for viewing a stereoscopic pair of separate images, depicting left-eye and right-eye views of the same scene, as a single three-dimensional image.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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T-type asteroid

T-type asteroids are rare inner-belt asteroids of unknown composition with dark, featureless and moderately red spectra, and a moderate absorption feature shortwards of 0.85 µm.

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Taurus (constellation)

Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.

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Taxonomy (general)

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Queenslander

The Queenslander was the weekly summary and literary edition of the 'Brisbane Courier' (now The Courier-Mail), since the 1850s the leading journal in the colony and later federal state of Queensland, Australia.

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Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.

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Titius–Bode law

The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in a function of planetary sequence.

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Trans-Neptunian object

A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).

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Trojan (astronomy)

In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.

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Tunguska event

The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Stony Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (NS).

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Uranus trojan

There are two known Uranus trojans, or minor planets orbiting in the Lagrangian points of Uranus.

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V-type asteroid

A V-type asteroid or Vestoid is an asteroid whose spectral type is that of 4 Vesta.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vesta family

The Vesta or Vestian family of asteroids is a large and prominent grouping of mostly V-type asteroids ("vestoids") in the inner asteroid belt in the vicinity of 4 Vesta.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.

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Voyager program

The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.

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Water vapor

No description.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.

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Wilhelm Tempel

Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel (December 4, 1821 – March 16, 1889), normally known as Wilhelm Tempel, was a German astronomer who worked in Marseille until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, then later moved to Italy.

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William Conybeare (geologist)

William Daniel Conybeare FRS (7 June 1787 – 12 August 1857), dean of Llandaff, was an English geologist, palaeontologist and clergyman.

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William Herschel

Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.

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X-type asteroid

The X-group of asteroids collects together several types with similar spectra, but probably quite different compositions.

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Yarkovsky effect

The Yarkovsky effect is a force acting on a rotating body in space caused by the anisotropic emission of thermal photons, which carry momentum.

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The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.

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10 Hygiea

10 Hygiea is the fourth-largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.

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101955 Bennu

101955 Bennu (provisional designation) is a carbonaceous asteroid in the Apollo group discovered by the LINEAR Project on September 11, 1999.

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11 Parthenope

11 Parthenope is a large, bright main-belt asteroid.

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110 Lydia

110 Lydia is a large belt asteroid with an M-type spectrum, and thus may be metallic in composition, consisting primarily of nickel-iron.

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12 Victoria

12 Victoria is a large main-belt asteroid.

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121 Hermione

121 Hermione is a very large asteroid discovered in 1872.

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1221 Amor

1221 Amor is the namesake of the Amor asteroids, a group of near-Earth asteroids whose orbits range between those of Earth and Mars.

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13 Egeria

13 Egeria is a large main-belt G-type asteroid.

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14 Irene

14 Irene is a large main-belt asteroid, discovered by John Russell Hind on May 19, 1851.

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15 Eunomia

15 Eunomia is a very large asteroid in the inner asteroid belt.

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15760 Albion

15760 Albion, provisional designation, was the first trans-Neptunian object to be discovered after Pluto and Charon.

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16 Psyche

16 Psyche is one of the ten most massive asteroids in the asteroid belt.

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162173 Ryugu

162173 Ryugu, provisional designation, is a near-Earth object and a potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group.

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17 Thetis

17 Thetis, provisional designation, is a stony asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 90 kilometers in diameter.

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18 Melpomene

18 Melpomene is a large, bright main-belt asteroid that was discovered by J. R. Hind on June 24, 1852, and named after Melpomenē, the Muse of tragedy in Greek mythology.

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1862 Apollo

1862 Apollo is a stony asteroid, approximately 1.5 kilometers in diameter, classified as a near-Earth object (NEO).

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19 Fortuna

19 Fortuna is one of the largest main-belt asteroids.

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2 Pallas

Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.

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20 Massalia

20 Massalia is a stony asteroid and the parent body of the Massalia family located in the inner region of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.

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2011 MD

2011 MD is a bright micro-asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo and Amor group, respectively.

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2013 ND15

(also written 2013 ND15) is an asteroid that is a temporary trojan of Venus, the first known Venus trojan.

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2060 Chiron

2060 Chiron, provisional designation, and also known as 95P/Chiron, is a minor planet in the outer Solar System, orbiting the Sun between Saturn and Uranus.

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21 Lutetia

Lutetia is a large asteroid in the asteroid belt of an unusual spectral type.

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2101 Adonis

2101 Adonis, provisional designation, is an extremely eccentric asteroid, classified as potentially hazardous asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group, approximately 1 kilometer in diameter.

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24 Themis

24 Themis is one of the largest asteroids in the asteroid belt.

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243 Ida

243 Ida is an asteroid in the Koronis family of the asteroid belt.

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25143 Itokawa

25143 Itokawa (イトカワ,いとかわ,糸川) is a stony sub-kilometer asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo group and potentially hazardous asteroid, that measures approximately 350 meters in diameter.

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253 Mathilde

253 Mathilde is an asteroid in the intermediate asteroid belt, approximately 50 kilometers in diameter, that was discovered by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at Vienna Observatory on 12 November 1885.

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26 Proserpina

26 Proserpina is a main-belt asteroid discovered by R. Luther on May 5, 1853.

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28 Bellona

28 Bellona is a large main-belt asteroid.

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2867 Šteins

2867 Šteins is a small main-belt asteroid that was discovered in 1969 by Nikolai Chernykh.

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29 Amphitrite

29 Amphitrite is one of the largest S-type asteroids, approximately in diameter, and probably third largest after Eunomia and Juno, although Iris and Herculina are similar in size.

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3 Juno

Juno, minor-planet designation 3 Juno in the Minor Planet Center catalogue system, is an asteroid in the asteroid belt.

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32 Pomona

32 Pomona is a stony main-belt asteroid that is 81 km across.

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323 Brucia

323 Brucia is a stony Phocaea asteroid and former Mars-crosser from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.

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35 Leukothea

35 Leukothea (Greek: Λευκοθέα) is a large, dark asteroid from the asteroid belt It was discovered by German astronomer Karl Theodor Robert Luther on April 19, 1855, and named after Leukothea, a sea goddess in Greek mythology.

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37 Fides

37 Fides is a large main-belt asteroid.

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3753 Cruithne

3753 Cruithne (For instance, on the British television show Q.I. (Season 1; aired 11 Sept 2003).) is a Q-type, Aten asteroid in orbit around the Sun in 1:1 orbital resonance with Earth, making it a co-orbital object.

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4 Vesta

Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.

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4179 Toutatis

4179 Toutatis, provisional designation, is an elongated, stony asteroid and slow rotator, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo and Alinda group, approximately 2.5 kilometers in diameter.

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433 Eros

433 Eros, provisional designation, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers.

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5 Astraea

5 Astraea is a large asteroid from the asteroid belt.

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511 Davida

511 Davida is a large C-type asteroid in the asteroid belt.

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52 Europa

52 Europa is the 6th-largest asteroid in the asteroid belt, having an average diameter of around 315 km.

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5535 Annefrank

5535 Annefrank, provisional designation, is a stony Florian asteroid and suspected contact binary from the inner asteroid belt, approximately 4.5 kilometers in diameter.

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6 Hebe

6 Hebe is a large main-belt asteroid, containing around half a percent of the mass of the belt.

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69230 Hermes

69230 Hermes, provisional designation, is a sub-kilometer sized asteroid and binary system on an eccentric orbit, classified as a potentially hazardous asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group, that passed Earth at approximately twice the distance of the Moon on 30 October 1937.

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7 Iris

7 Iris is a large main-belt asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.

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704 Interamnia

704 Interamnia is a very large asteroid, with an estimated diameter of 350 kilometres.

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8 Flora

8 Flora is a large, bright main-belt asteroid.

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87 Sylvia

87 Sylvia is the 8th-largest asteroid in the asteroid belt.

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9 Metis

9 Metis is one of the larger main-belt asteroids.

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944 Hidalgo

944 Hidalgo is a dark and eccentric minor planet from the outer Solar System, approximately 50 kilometers in diameter.

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951 Gaspra

951 Gaspra is an S-type asteroid that orbits very close to the inner edge of the asteroid belt.

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9969 Braille

9969 Braille, provisional designation, is an eccentric, rare-type and elongated asteroid from the innermost regions of the asteroid belt, classified as Mars-crosser and slow rotator, approximately 1–2 kilometers in diameter.

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99942 Apophis

99942 Apophis (previously known by its provisional designation) is a near-Earth asteroid that caused a brief period of concern in December 2004 because initial observations indicated a probability of up to 2.7% that it would hit Earth on April 13, 2029.

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Astaroid, Asteriod, Asteroid exploration, Asteroids, Atsaroid, Atseroid, Classification of asteroids, Exploration of the asteroids, Iceteroid, Minor body, Primative body, Primitive bodies, Smallest asteroid, Smallest known asteroid.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroid

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