158 relations: Accretion (astrophysics), Albedo, Alexander von Humboldt, Allende meteorite, Ancient Greek, Apparent magnitude, Asteroid, Asteroid family, Asteroid mining, Asteroids in fiction, Astronomical unit, Astronomy Now, Astrophotography, Basalt, Benjamin Peirce, C-type asteroid, Carbon, Carbonaceous chondrite, Cassini–Huygens, Centaur (minor planet), Ceres (dwarf planet), Ceres (mythology), Charles Bonnet, Charles Messier, Charon (moon), Circumstellar disc, Colonization of the asteroids, Coma (cometary), Comet, Cosmos (Humboldt), Cybele asteroid, Daniel Kirkwood, Dawn (spacecraft), Debris disk, Disrupted planet, Dwarf planet, E-type asteroid, Ecliptic, Elena V. Pitjeva, Elise Otté, Eos family, Eunomia family, European Space Agency, Far-infrared astronomy, Flora family, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Franz Xaver von Zach, Frost line (astrophysics), Galileo (spacecraft), Gefion family, ..., Gravity, Hayabusa, HED meteorite, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, Herschel Space Observatory, Hilda asteroid, Hungaria asteroid, IRAS, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johann Daniel Titius, Johann Elert Bode, Johannes Kepler, JPL Small-Body Database, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Jupiter trojan, Karin family, Kirkwood gap, Kiyotsugu Hirayama, Koronis family, Kuiper belt, Lilienthal, Lower Saxony, List of asteroids in astrology, List of exceptional asteroids, List of minor planets: 4001–5000, M-type asteroid, Magma, Main-belt comet, Mars, Max Wolf, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Micrometeorite, Micrometre, Minor planet, Moon, Mysterium Cosmographicum, Napoleonic Wars, NASA, NEAR Shoemaker, Near-Earth object, Nebular hypothesis, Neptune, Nevil Maskelyne, New Horizons, Nice model, Ohio State University, Olivine, Oort cloud, Orbit, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital elements, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Outgassing, Perihelion and aphelion, Perturbation (astronomy), Phaeton (hypothetical planet), Phocaea family, Planet, Planetary flyby, Planetesimal, Pluto, Poynting–Robertson effect, Protoplanet, Robert James Mann, Rosetta (spacecraft), S-type asteroid, Scattered disc, Science (journal), Sednoid, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Silicate, Small Solar System body, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Space weathering, Spectrum, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Stardust (spacecraft), Sun, Themis family, Titius–Bode law, Trojan (astronomy), Tycho Brahe, Ulysses (spacecraft), University of Palermo, Uranus, V-type asteroid, Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft, Vesta family, Volatiles, Volcanism, Voyager program, Water vapor, William Herschel, Wittenberg, Zircon, Zodiac, Zodiacal light, 10 Hygiea, 1270 Datura, 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 490 Veritas. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
The Allende meteorite is the largest carbonaceous chondrite ever found on Earth.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
An asteroid family is a population of asteroids that share similar proper orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.
Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
Asteroids and asteroid belts are a staple of science fiction stories.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy Now is a monthly British magazine on astronomy and space.
Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording photos of astronomical objects, celestial events, and areas of the night sky.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Benjamin Peirce FRSFor HFRSE April 4, 1809 – October 6, 1880) was an American mathematician who taught at Harvard University for approximately 50 years. He made contributions to celestial mechanics, statistics, number theory, algebra, and the philosophy of mathematics.
C-type (carbonaceous) asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Centaurs are small solar system bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Charles Bonnet (13 March 1720 – 20 May 1793), Genevan naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into the region by the religious persecution in the 16th century.
Charles Messier (26 June 1730 – 12 April 1817) was a French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects".
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.
The asteroids have long been suggested as possible sites for human colonization.
The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublime.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Cosmos (in German Kosmos – Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung) is an influential treatise on science and nature written by the German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt.
Cybele asteroids (also known as the "Cybeles") are a dynamical group of asteroids, named after the asteroid 65 Cybele.
Daniel Kirkwood (September 27, 1814 – June 11, 1895) was an American astronomer.
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
A debris disk is a circumstellar disk of dust and debris in orbit around a star.
A disrupted planet is an official astronomical term for a planet, or exoplanet, that has been disrupted, or destroyed, by a nearby, or passing, astronomical body or object, such as a star.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
E-type asteroids are asteroids thought to have enstatite (MgSiO3) achondrite surfaces.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Elena Vladimirovna Pitjeva is a Russian astronomer working at the Institute of Applied Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.
Elise Otté (30 September 1818 – 20 December 1903) was an Anglo-Danish linguist, scholar and historian.
The Eos family (adj. Eoan; FIN: 606) is a very large asteroid family located in the outer region of the asteroid belt.
The Eunomia or Eunomian family is a large asteroid family of S-type asteroids named after the asteroid 15 Eunomia.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Far-infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that deals with objects visible in far-infrared radiation (extending from 30 µm towards submillimeter wavelengths around 450 µm).
The Flora or Florian '''family''' of asteroids is a large grouping of S-type asteroids in the inner main belt, whose origin and properties are relatively poorly understood at present.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (4 June 1754 – 2 September 1832) was a Hungarian astronomer born at Pest, Hungary (now Budapest in Hungary).
In astronomy or planetary science, the frost line, also known as the snow line or ice line, is the particular distance in the solar nebula from the central protostar where it is cold enough for volatile compounds such as water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide to condense into solid ice grains.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
The Gefion family (FIN: 516; adj. Gefionian; also known as Ceres family and Minerva family) is an asteroid family located the in intermediate asteroid belt between 2.74 and 2.82 AU at inclinations of 7.4° to 10.5°.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
HED meteorites are a clan (subgroup) of achondrite meteorites.
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (October 11, 1758 – March 2, 1840) was a German physician and astronomer.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Hilda asteroids (adj. Hildian) are a dynamical group of asteroids in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter.
The Hungaria group is a dynamical group of asteroids in the asteroid belt.
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space telescope to perform a survey of the entire night sky at infrared wavelengths.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Johann Daniel Titius born Johann Daniel Tietz(e) (2 January 1729 – 16 December 1796) was a German astronomer and a professor at Wittenberg.
Johann Elert Bode (19 January 1747 – 23 November 1826) was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularisation of the Titius–Bode law.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
The JPL Small-Body Database (SBDB) is an astronomy database about small Solar System bodies.
Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or just Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun.
The Karin family or Karin cluster is an asteroid family and sub-group of the Koronis family.
A Kirkwood gap is a gap or dip in the distribution of the semi-major axes (or equivalently of the orbital periods) of the orbits of main-belt asteroids.
was a Japanese astronomer, best known for his discovery that many asteroid orbits were more similar to one another than chance would allow, leading to the concept of asteroid families, now called "Hirayama families" in his honour.
The Koronis or Koronian family is a family of asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
The municipality of Lilienthal belongs to the administrative district of Osterholz, Lower Saxony and borders Bremen (Free Hanseatic City of Bremen).
Asteroids in astrology The asteroids are relatively new to astrology, having only been discovered in the 19th century.
The following is a collection of lists of exceptional asteroids in the Solar System.
#C2FFFF | 4063 Euforbo || || February 1, 1989 || Bologna || San Vittore Obs.
M-type asteroids are asteroids of partially known composition; they are moderately bright (albedo 0.1–0.2).
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Main-belt comets (MBCs) are bodies orbiting within the asteroid belt that have shown comet-like activity during part of their orbit.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
A micrometeorite is essentially a micrometeoroid that has survived entry through Earth's atmosphere.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mysterium Cosmographicum (lit. The Cosmographic Mystery, alternately translated as Cosmic Mystery, The Secret of the World, or some variation) is an astronomy book by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler, published at Tübingen in 1596 and in a second edition in 1621.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.
The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
The Rev Dr Nevil Maskelyne DD FRS FRSE (6 October 1732 – 9 February 1811) was the fifth British Astronomer Royal.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
The Nice model is a scenario for the dynamical evolution of the Solar System.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
Phaeton (or Phaëton, less often Phaethon) is the hypothetical planet posited to have existed between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter whose destruction supposedly led to the formation of the asteroid belt.
The Phocaea family (FIN: 701) is a collisional family of asteroids located between 2.25 and 2.5 AU in the inner region of the asteroid belt.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The Poynting–Robertson effect, also known as Poynting–Robertson drag, named after John Henry Poynting and Howard P. Robertson, is a process by which solar radiation causes a dust grain orbiting a star to lose angular momentum relative to its orbit around the star.
A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior.
Robert James Mann (1817–1886) was an English physician and science writer.
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.
S-type asteroids are asteroids with a spectral type that is indicative of a silicaceous (i.e. stony) mineralogical composition, hence the name.
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A sednoid is a trans-Neptunian object with a perihelion greater than and a semi-major axis greater than.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Space weathering is the type of weathering that occurs to any object exposed to the harsh environment of outer space.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Themis or Themistian asteroid family is a Hirayama family (having similar orbital elements) of asteroids found in the outer portion of the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in a function of planetary sequence.
In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe whose primary mission was to orbit the Sun and study it at all latitudes.
The University of Palermo (Università degli Studi di Palermo) is a university located in Palermo, Italy, and founded in 1806.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
A V-type asteroid or Vestoid is an asteroid whose spectral type is that of 4 Vesta.
Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft (VAG) was an international astronomical society founded in 1800.
The Vesta or Vestian family of asteroids is a large and prominent grouping of mostly V-type asteroids ("vestoids") in the inner asteroid belt in the vicinity of 4 Vesta.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
Zodiacal light (also called false dawn when seen before sunrise) is a faint, diffuse, and roughly triangular white glow that is visible in the night sky and appears to extend from the Sun's direction and along the zodiac, straddling the ecliptic.
10 Hygiea is the fourth-largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.
1270 Datura (1930 YE) is a S-type main-belt asteroid discovered on December 17, 1930, by George Van Biesbroeck at Yerkes Observatory.
Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.
Juno, minor-planet designation 3 Juno in the Minor Planet Center catalogue system, is an asteroid in the asteroid belt.
Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.
490 Veritas is a carbonaceous Veritasian asteroid, which may have been involved in one of the more massive asteroid-asteroid collisions of the past 100 million years.
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