227 relations: ACE inhibitor, Acupuncture, Acute severe asthma, ADAM33, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Air ioniser, Air pollution, Air quality index, Airway obstruction, Aldehyde, Allergen, Allergen immunotherapy, Allergic rhinitis, Altered level of consciousness, Alternative medicine, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Aminophylline, Ancient Egypt, Antibiotic, Anticholinergic, Antileukotriene, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Arterial blood gas test, Arthritis & Rheumatology, Aspirin, Aspirin-induced asthma, Asthma spacer, Atopic dermatitis, Atopy, Basement membrane, Beclometasone, Beta blocker, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Blood pressure, BMJ Open, Bone density, Breastfeeding, British Thoracic Society, Brittle asthma, Bronchial challenge test, Bronchial thermoplasty, Bronchiectasis, Bronchiole, Bronchiolitis, Bronchoconstriction, Bronchodilator, Bronchoscopy, ..., Bronchospasm, Bronchus, Buteyko method, Caesarean section, Caffeine, Cataract, CD14, Chemokine, Chest pain, Chest pain in children, Chiropractic, Choosing Wisely, Chronic condition, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cockroach, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cornell University Press, Corticosteroid, Cough, Cromoglicic acid, CTLA-4, Cyanosis, Cytokine, Dander, Depression (mood), Dermatitis, Developed country, Developing country, Dexamethasone, Diffusing capacity, Dry-powder inhaler, Dust, Environmental factor, Eosinophil, Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Epigenetics, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, Flux (metallurgy), Foreign body aspiration, Formaldehyde, Formoterol, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gene, Genetic association, Genetics, Global Initiative for Asthma, Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1, Goblet cell, H2 antagonist, Health effects of tobacco, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heliox, Heritability, Hippocrates, Histamine, Hives, House dust mite, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Hygiene hypothesis, Hypoxia (medical), Immune system, In utero, Incense, Infection, Inflammation, Influenza vaccine, Interleukin 10, Interleukin-4 receptor, Intravenous therapy, Intubation, Ipratropium bromide, Irritation, Isocyanate, Japanese people, Ketamine, Kyphi, Laryngomalacia, Laryngotracheal stenosis, Latex, LEKTI, Leukotriene, Leukotriene C4 synthase, Liniment, Lipopolysaccharide, Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist, Lower respiratory tract infection, Lymph node, Macrophage, Magnesium sulfate, Maimonides, Mast cell stabilizer, Mechanical ventilation, Medication, Metaplasia, Metered-dose inhaler, Mold, Montelukast, Mood disorder, Muscle, Nasal polyp, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Nebulizer, Neutrophil, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nucleic acid sequence, Obesity, Obstructive lung disease, Obstructive sleep apnea, Occupational disease, Ogg, Omalizumab, Oral candidiasis, Osteopathy, Oxygen, Oxygen saturation, Ozone, Paracetamol, Passive smoking, Pathophysiology, Peak expiratory flow, Perfume, Pesticide, Peter C. Gøtzsche, Phthalate, Physical therapy, Pilocarpine, Polyvinyl chloride, Prednisone, Propranolol, Proton-pump inhibitor, Psychological stress, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonology, Pulsus paradoxus, Pus, Radiocontrast agent, Respiratory therapist, Respiratory tract, Reticular connective tissue, Rhinitis, Rhinovirus, Rosin, Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Scalene muscles, Shortness of breath, Side effect, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sinusitis, Smoking and pregnancy, Smooth muscle tissue, Somatic symptom disorder, Spirometry, Spray painting, Sputum, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Stress (biology), T cell, Talking cure, The BMJ, The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Theophylline, Type I hypersensitivity, United States Adopted Name, Vascular ring, Vasculitis, Virus, Vitamin D, Vocal cord dysfunction, Volatile organic compound, Welder, Wheeze, World Health Organization, Xanthine, Zafirlukast, Zileuton. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Acute severe asthma is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments of bronchodilators (inhalers) and corticosteroids.
Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 33 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAM33 gene.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
An air ioniser (or negative ion generator or Chizhevsky's chandelier) is a device that uses high voltage to ionise (electrically charge) air molecules.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.
Airway obstruction is a blockage of respiration in the airway.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Founded in 1943, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) is a professional medical membership organization of nearly 6,800 allergist/immunologists and related professionals around the world with advanced training and experience in allergy, asthma and other immunologic diseases.
Aminophylline is a compound of the bronchodilator theophylline with ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitor (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Arthritis & Rheumatology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the natural history, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of the rheumatic diseases.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Aspirin-induced asthma, also termed Samter's triad, Samter's syndrome, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and recently, by an appointed task force of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology/World Allergy Organization (EAACI/WAO), Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD).
A spacer is a device used to increase the ease of administering aerosolized medication from a metered-dose inhaler (MDI).
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).
Atopy is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
Beclometasone (brand names Becotide, Beclocort), or beclomethasone, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid which is marketed in Norway and Russia.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
BMJ Open is a peer-reviewed open access medical mega journal that was established in 2011.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The British Thoracic Society (BTS) was formed in 1982 by the amalgamation of the British Thoracic Association and the Thoracic Society.
Brittle asthma is a type of asthma distinguishable from other forms by recurrent, severe attacks.
A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis of asthma.
Bronchial thermoplasty is a treatment for severe asthma approved by the FDA in 2010 involving the delivery of controlled, therapeutic radiofrequency energy to the airway wall, thus heating the tissue and reducing the amount of smooth muscle present in the airway wall.
Bronchiectasis is a disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung.
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.
Bronchiolitis is blockage of the small airway in the lungs due to a viral infection.
Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
The Buteyko method or Buteyko Breathing Technique is a form of complementary or alternative physical therapy that proposes the use of breathing exercises primarily as a treatment for asthma and other respiratory conditions.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14) is a human gene.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
Chest pain in children is the pain felt in the chest by infants, children and adolescents.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cromoglicic acid (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN), cromoglycate (former BAN), or cromoglicate) is traditionally described as a mast cell stabilizer, and is commonly marketed as the sodium salt sodium cromoglicate or cromolyn sodium.
CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dander is material shed from the body of humans and various animals that have fur, hair, or feathers.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diffusing capacity of the lung (DL) measures the transfer of gas from air in the lung, to the red blood cells in lung blood vessels.
A dry-powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS) or allergic granulomatosis, is an extremely rare autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels (vasculitis) in persons with a history of airway allergic hypersensitivity (atopy).
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of pharmacoeconomics.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
Foreign body aspiration occurs when a foreign body enters the airways and causes choking.
Formoterol (INN) or eformoterol (former BAN) is a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) used in the management of asthma and COPD.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic association is when one or more genotypes within a population co-occur with a phenotypic trait more often than would be expected by chance occurrence.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) is a medical guidelines organisation which works with public health officials and health care professionals globally to reduce asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality.
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (gene name GSTM1) is a human Glutathione ''S''-transferase.
Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells that secrete gel-forming mucins, like mucin MUC5AC.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heliox is a breathing gas composed of a mixture of helium (He) and oxygen (O2).
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
House dust mites (HDM, or simply dust mites) are a large number of mites found in association with dust in dwellings.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
The interleukin 4 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.
Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R–N.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Kyphi is a compound incense that was used in Ancient Egypt for religious and medical purposes.
Laryngomalacia (literally, "soft larynx") is the most common cause of chronic stridor in infancy, in which the soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction.
Laryngotracheal stenosis refers to abnormal narrowing of the central air passageways.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) also known as serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPINK5 gene.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Leukotriene C4 synthase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LTC4S gene.
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Long-acting β adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs, more specifically, long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonists) are usually prescribed for moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Mast cell stabilizers are chromone medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Metaplasia ("change in form") is the reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type.
A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Montelukast (trade name Singulair) is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is the third largest Institute of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.
In medicine, a nebulizer or nebuliser (see spelling differences) is a drug delivery device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.
An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Omalizumab, sold under the trade name Xolair, is a medication originally designed to reduce sensitivity to allergens.
Oral candidiasis, also known as oral thrush among other names, is candidiasis that occurs in the mouth.
Osteopathy is a type of alternative medicine that emphasizes manual readjustments, myofascial release and other physical manipulation of muscle tissue and bones.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a person's maximum speed of expiration, as measured with a peak flow meter, a small, hand-held device used to monitor a person's ability to breathe out air.
Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Peter C. Gøtzsche (born 26 November 1949) is a Danish physician, medical researcher, and leader of the Nordic Cochrane Center at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
Pilocarpine is a medication used to treat increased pressure inside the eye and dry mouth.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Pulsus paradoxus, also paradoxic pulse or paradoxical pulse, is an abnormally large decrease in stroke volume, systolic blood pressure and pulse wave amplitude during inspiration.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
A respiratory therapist is a specialized healthcare practitioner trained in pulmonary medicine in order to work therapeutically with people suffering from pulmonary disease.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Reticular connective tissue is a type of connective tissue with a network of reticular fibers, made of type III collagen (reticulum.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
Salmeterol is a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) used in the maintenance and prevention of asthma symptoms and maintenance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms.
The scalene muscles are a group of three pairs of muscles in the lateral neck, namely the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating (paint, ink, varnish, etc.) through the air onto a surface.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
The sternocleidomastoid muscle (also known as sternomastoid, commonly abbreviated as SCM or simply referred to as sterno muscle), is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the side of the neck.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The Talking Cure and chimney sweeping were terms Bertha Pappenheim, known in case studies by the alias Anna O., used for the verbal therapy given to her by Josef Breuer.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on allergy and immunology.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
A vascular ring is a congenital defect in which there is an abnormal formation of the aorta and/or its surrounding blood vessels.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a pathology affecting the vocal folds, commonly referred to as the vocal cords.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
A welder or lit operator is a tradesperson who specializes in fusing materials together.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Zafirlukast is an orally administered leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the chronic treatment of asthma.
Zileuton (trade name ZYFLO) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation, used for the maintenance treatment of asthma.
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