141 relations: Adenosine, Adenosine receptor, Adenosine triphosphate, AMPA, AMPA receptor, Annual Reviews (publisher), Arcuate nucleus, Astrocytoma, Astrogliosis, ATP hydrolysis, Axon, Basal lamina, Bergmann gliosis, Blood–brain barrier, Bone morphogenetic protein, Brain, Brain Research, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, C-Jun N-terminal kinases, Calcitonin gene-related peptide, Calcium, Camillo Golgi, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cannabis (drug), Capillary, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Chemical synapse, Cilium, DAPI, Development of the nervous system, Dynamic range, Ectonucleotidase, EnCor Biotechnology, Endothelium, Ephrin A2, Ephrin A3, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Fibroblast growth factor, Frontal lobe, Galanin, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gap junction, Glial fibrillary acidic protein, Glial scar, Gliotransmitter, Gluconeogenesis, ..., Glutamate aspartate transporter, Glutamate receptor, Glutamate transporter, Glutamic acid, Glycogen, Goldman equation, Golgi cell, Grey matter, György Gömöri, Haemodynamic response, Harvard University, Heat shock protein, Hippocampus, Histology, Hyperalgesia, Hypertrophy, Hypothalamus, Injury, Inositol trisphosphate, Interleukin-1 family, Intermediate filament, Kainic acid, Lactic acid, List of human cell types derived from the germ layers, Long-term potentiation, Matrix metalloproteinase, Metabotropic glutamate receptor, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MMP2, Muller glia, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, Neoplasm, Neuroglia, Neuron, Neuron (journal), Neuroscience, Neuroscience Information Framework, Neurotransmitter, Nitric oxide, NKX6-1, Nociception, Node of Ranvier, Noxious stimulus, Oligodendrocyte, Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell, Organelle, PAX6, Pia mater, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pituicyte, Polydendrocytes, Potassium channel, Potassium spatial buffering, Precursor cell, Prostaglandin, Purkinje cell, Pyroptosis, Radial glial cell, Reelin, Retina, Shanghai, SLC1A2, SLIT1, Society for Neuroscience, Soma (biology), Somatostatin, Sonic hedgehog, Spinal cord, Stem cell, Substance P, Subventricular zone, Supraoptic nucleus, Synapse, Syncytium, TAAR1, Tachykinin receptor 1, Tetrahydrocannabinol, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, The Journal of Neuroscience, Tight junction, Tissue (biology), Toll-like receptor, Transcriptional regulation, University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Rochester, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Vasopressin, Ventricular system, Vimentin, White matter, Wnt signaling pathway. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, where it mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
Astrocytomas are a type of cancer of the brain.
Astrogliosis (also known as astrocytosis or referred to as reactive astrocytosis) is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons from CNS trauma, infection, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, and neurodegenerative disease.
ATP hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by splitting these bonds, for example in muscles, by producing work in the form of mechanical energy.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.
Bergmann gliosis is hyperplasia of Bergmann glia (in the cerebellum) due to Purkinje cell death, as may occur in a hypoxic-ischemic insult or peritumoral compression.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on several aspects of neuroscience.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides, which in humans exists in two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
DAPI, or 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, is a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to adenine–thymine rich regions in DNA.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.
Ectonucleotidases consist of families of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes that are expressed on the plasma membrane and have externally oriented active sites.
EnCor Biotechnology is a United States company that manufactures antibodies to neural and yeast proteins.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Ephrin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA2 gene.
Ephrin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA3 gene.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans.
Glial scar formation (gliosis) is a reactive cellular process involving astrogliosis that occurs after injury to the central nervous system.
Gliotransmitters are chemicals released from glial cells that facilitate neuronal communication between neurons and other glial cells and are usually induced from Ca2+ signaling, although recent research has questioned the role of Ca2+ in gliotransmitters and may require a revision of the relevance of gliotransmitters in neuronal signalling in general.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Solute carrier family 1 (glial high-affinity glutamate transporter), member 3, also known as SLC1A3, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the SLC1A3 gene.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate – the principal excitatory neurotransmitter – across a membrane.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
The Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz voltage equation, more commonly known as the Goldman equation, is used in cell membrane physiology to determine the reversal potential across a cell's membrane, taking into account all of the ions that are permeant through that membrane.
In neuroscience, Golgi cells are inhibitory interneurons found within the granular layer of the cerebellum.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
György Gömöri (also George Gömöri or George Gomori; 1904–1957) was a Hungarian-American physician who became famous as a histochemist.
In haemodynamics, the body must respond to physical activities, external temperature, and other factors by homeostatically adjusting its blood flow to deliver nutrients such as oxygen and glucose to stressed tissues and allow them to function.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Hypertrophy (from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms.
Kainic acid, or kainate, is an acid that naturally occurs in some seaweed.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also known as matrixins, are calcium-dependent zinc-containing endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
72 kDa type IV collagenase also known as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and gelatinase A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP2 gene.
Müller glia, or Müller cells, are a type of retinal glial cells, first recognized and described by Heinrich Müller.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuron is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cell Press, and imprint of Elsevier.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The Neuroscience Information Framework is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental, clinical, and translational neuroscience databases, knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Homeobox protein Nkx-6.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NKX6-1 gene.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
Nodes of Ranvier, also known as myelin-sheath gaps, occur along a myelinated axon where the axolemma is exposed to the extracellular space.
A noxious stimulus is "an actually or potentially tissue damaging event." It is a prerequisite for nociception, which itself is a prerequisite for nociceptive pain.
Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, NG2-glia or polydendrocytes, are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.
Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Pilocytic astrocytoma or juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma or cystic cerebellar astrocytoma (and its variant juvenile pilomyxoid astrocytoma) is a brain tumor that occurs more often in children and young adults (in the first 20 years of life).
Pituicytes are glial cells of the posterior pituitary.
Polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 cells, NG2 glia, or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) are process-bearing glial cells (neuroglia) in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that are identified by the expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG4) and the alpha receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRA).
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
Potassium spatial buffering is a mechanism for the regulation of extracellular potassium concentration by astrocytes.
In cell biology, a precursor cell, also called a blast cell or simply blast, is a partially differentiated cell, usually referred to as a unipotent cell that has lost most of its stem cell properties.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.
Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell-cell interactions.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) also known as solute carrier family 1 member 2 (SLC1A2) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A2 gene.
Slit homolog 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLIT1 gene.
The Society for Neuroscience (SfN) is a professional society, headquartered in Washington, DC, for basic scientists and physicians around the world whose research is focused on the study of the brain and nervous system.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a term used to describe both embryonic and adult neural tissues in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
The tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) also known as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) or substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that focuses on neuroscience and related fields, but specifically does not deal with clinical aspects of them.
The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
The University of Colorado School of Medicine is located at the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora, Colorado and is part of the Anschutz Medical Campus, one of the four University of Colorado campuses.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
Vimentin is a structural protein that in humans is encoded by the VIM gene.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.