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Index Astronaut

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. [1]

239 relations: Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity, Afghanistan, Airman, Alan Shepard, Alexey Leonov, Alzheimer's disease, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Angkasawan program, Anglicisation, Anousheh Ansari, Antibiotic, Apollo 13, Apollo 8, Arizona State University, Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez, Asian people, Associated Press, Astronaut badge, Astronautics, Bachelor's degree, Bacteria, Balloon (aeronautics), Barbara Morgan, Barotrauma, Biology, Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, Boris Yegorov, Brain, Brian Binnie, British Interplanetary Society, Byron K. Lichtenberg, Canadian Space Agency, Charles Simonyi, Chinese space program, Christa McAuliffe, Commercial astronaut, Cosmonautics Day, Cubans, Czechoslovakia, Decompression sickness, Dennis Tito, Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger, Eastern Bloc, Ed White (astronaut), Educator Astronaut Project, Edwards Air Force Base, Effect of spaceflight on the human body, Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, Engineering, ..., Eric Frank Russell, Eugene Cernan, European Astronaut Corps, European Space Agency, Extravehicular activity, Fallen Astronaut, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Fighter aircraft, Finland, Finnish Americans, Finnish language, Foodborne illness, France, Franklin Chang Díaz, Fred Haise, Gennady Padalka, Gherman Titov, Gizmodo, Gregory Olsen, Guion Bluford, Guy Laliberté, Helen Sharman, Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of the Soviet Union, Hispanic, Hong Kong, Hugh Latimer Dryden, Human mission to Mars, Human spaceflight, Ilan Ramon, Indian Space Research Organisation, Interkosmos, International Astronautical Congress, International Astronautical Federation, International Space Station, ISRO Orbital Vehicle, J-Wear, J.-H. Rosny aîné, Jack Swigert, Jerry L. Ross, Jim Lovell, John Glenn, John Young (astronaut), Johnson Space Center, Joseph A. Walker, Joseph M. Acaba, Kármán line, Kennedy Space Center, Konstantin Feoktistov, LASIK, Latin, Leroy Chiao, List of Apollo astronauts, List of astronauts by name, List of astronauts by year of selection, List of cosmonauts, List of human spaceflight programs, List of human spaceflights, List of space travelers by name, List of space travelers by nationality, List of spaceflight records, Lists of fictional astronauts, Lists of spacewalks and moonwalks, Longman, Low Earth orbit, Mae Jemison, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malay language, Malaysia, Man-hour, Marc Garneau, Mark Shuttleworth, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematics, McDonnell Douglas C-9, Mercury 13, Mercury Seven, Mercury-Atlas 6, Micro-g environment, Microorganism, Mike Melvill, Mikhail Tikhonravov, Mir, MTV3, NASA, NASA Astronaut Corps, NASA Office of Inspector General, Neil R. Jones, Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Norman Thagard, North American X-15, Northrop T-38 Talon, Ophthalmology (journal), Orthostatic intolerance, Outer space, Outline of physical science, Oxford English Dictionary, Parabola, Patrick Baudry, PDF, Peggy Whitson, People's Daily, Percy Greg, Phạm Tuân, Photorefractive keratectomy, Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation, PLOS One, Poland, Quartz (publication), Radiology (journal), Reduced-gravity aircraft, Richard Garriott, Richard R. Arnold, Rodolfo Neri Vela, Roscosmos, Sally Ride, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Sanskrit, Saudi Arabia, Scaled Composites, Seeker (media company), Shenzhou 5, Shirley Thomas (USC professor), Shuttle Training Aircraft, Sisu, Socialism, Solar System, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz 37, Soyuz TM-7, Soyuz-U, Space adaptation syndrome, Space flight participant, Space food, Space Mirror Memorial, Space Shuttle Challenger, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space suit, Space Task Group, Space tourism, Space.com, Spacecraft, Spaceplane, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipOne flight 15P, Star system, STS-47, STS-7, STS-9, STS-95, Sultan bin Salman Al Saud, T. Keith Glennan, Taiwan, Taylor Wang, Teacher in Space Project, Test pilot, The New England Journal of Medicine, The New York Times, Timeline of space travel by nationality, Timothy Kopra, Tokyo Broadcasting System, Toyohiro Akiyama, U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps, Ulf Merbold, United States Air Force, United States Astronaut Hall of Fame, United States dollar, Usenet newsgroup, Vacuum, Valentina Tereshkova, Valeri Polyakov, Vietnam, Vladimír Remek, Voskhod 1, Vostok 1, Vostok 2, Vostok 6, Warsaw Pact, Weightlessness, William Anders, Wired (magazine), Women in space, X-15 Flight 90, Xinhua News Agency, Yang Liwei, Yuri Gagarin, Yuri's Night. Expand index (189 more) »

Abdul Ahad Mohmand

Abdul Ahad Mohmand (born January 1, 1959) is a former Afghan Air Force aviator who became the first Afghan citizen and fourth Muslim to journey to outer space.

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Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity

The Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) project is a U.S. government-funded study investigating strategies for applying diagnostic telemedicine to space.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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An Airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces.

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Alan Shepard

Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.

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Alexey Leonov

Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering.

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Angkasawan program

The Angkasawan program was an initiative by the Malaysian government to send a Malaysian to the International Space Station on board Soyuz TMA-11.

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Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

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Anousheh Ansari

Anousheh Ansari (Anuŝe Ansāri; née Raissyan; born September 12, 1966) is an Iranian-American engineer and co-founder and chairwoman of Prodea Systems.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Apollo 13

Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.

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Apollo 8

Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.

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Arizona State University

Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.

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Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez

Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez (born January 29, 1942) is a Cuban military officer, legislator, and former cosmonaut and the first person of African heritage in space.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Astronaut badge

The astronaut badge is a badge of the United States, awarded to military pilots, naval flight officers, navigators/combat systems officers (this badge can also be awarded to USAF officer astronauts who are not navigators/CSOs, but who wear the same insignia while designated as astronaut-qualified Air Force "observers"), flight surgeons, and civilian pilots who have completed training and performed a successful spaceflight.

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Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Balloon (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.

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Barbara Morgan

Barbara Radding Morgan (born November 28, 1951) is an American teacher and a former NASA astronaut.

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Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside, or in contact with the body, and the surrounding gas or fluid.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker

The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft.

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Boris Yegorov

Boris Borisovich Yegorov (Борис Борисович Егоров, Boris Borisovich Egorov; November 26, 1937, Moscow – September 12, 1994, Moscow) was a Soviet physician-cosmonaut who became the first physician to make a space flight.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brian Binnie

William Brian Binnie (born 1953) is a former United States Navy officer and is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.

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British Interplanetary Society

The British Interplanetary Society (BIS), founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Philip E. Cleator, is the oldest space advocacy organisation in the world.

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Byron K. Lichtenberg

Byron Kurt Lichtenberg, Sc.

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Canadian Space Agency

The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.

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Charles Simonyi

Charles Simonyi (Simonyi Károly,; born September 10, 1948), son of Károly Simonyi, is a Hungarian-born American computer businessman.

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Chinese space program

The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).

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Christa McAuliffe

Sharon Christa McAuliffe (born Sharon Christa Corrigan; September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire and one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle ''Challenger'' disaster.

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Commercial astronaut

A commercial astronaut is a person trained to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a privately funded spacecraft.

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Cosmonautics Day

Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.

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Cubans or Cuban people (Cubanos) are the inhabitants or citizens of Cuba.

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Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Decompression sickness

Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.

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Dennis Tito

Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940) is an American engineer and multimillionaire, most widely known as the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space.

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Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger

Dorothy Marie "Dottie" Metcalf-Lindenburger (born May 2, 1975 in Colorado Springs, Colorado) is a former American astronaut.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Ed White (astronaut)

Edward Higgins White II (November 14, 1930 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), was an American aeronautical engineer, U.S. Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.

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Educator Astronaut Project

The Educator Astronaut Project is a NASA program designed to educate students and spur excitement in math,science, and space exploration.

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Edwards Air Force Base

Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.

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Effect of spaceflight on the human body

Humans venturing into the environment of space can have negative effects on the body.

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Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base

Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base is a joint installation shared by various active component and reserve component military units, as well as aircraft flight operations of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under the aegis of the nearby Johnson Space Center.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Eric Frank Russell

Eric Frank Russell (January 6, 1905 – February 28, 1978) was a British author best known for his science fiction novels and short stories.

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Eugene Cernan

Eugene Andrew Cernan (March 14, 1934 – January 16, 2017) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, electrical engineer, aeronautical engineer, and fighter pilot.

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European Astronaut Corps

The European Astronaut Corps is a unit of the European Space Agency (ESA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members on U.S. and Russian space missions.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Extravehicular activity

Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.

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Fallen Astronaut

Fallen Astronaut is an aluminium sculpture created by Paul Van Hoeydonck.

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Fédération Aéronautique Internationale

The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnish Americans

Finnish Americans (Finnish: Amerikansuomalaiset) comprise Americans with ancestral roots from Finland or Finnish people who emigrated to and reside in the United States.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Foodborne illness

Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franklin Chang Díaz

Franklin Ramón Chang Díaz (April 5, 1950) is a Costa Rican-Chinese American mechanical engineer, physicist, former NASA astronaut.

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Fred Haise

Fred Wallace Haise Jr. (born November 14, 1933) is an American former NASA astronaut, fighter pilot with the U.S. Marine Corps and the U.S. Air Force and test pilot.

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Gennady Padalka

Gennady Ivanovich Padalka (Гeннадий Иванович Падалка; born 21 June 1958 in Krasnodar, Russia) is a Russian Air Force officer and an RKA cosmonaut.

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Gherman Titov

Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Герман Степанович Титов; 11 September 1935 – 20 September 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who, on 6 August 1961, became the second human to orbit the Earth, aboard Vostok 2, preceded by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1.

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Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.

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Gregory Olsen

Gregory Hammond "Greg" Olsen (born April 20, 1945) is an American entrepreneur, engineer and scientist who, in October 2005, became the third private citizen to make a self-funded trip to the International Space Station with the company Space Adventures.

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Guion Bluford

Guion Stewart Bluford Jr., Ph.D. (born November 22, 1942), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is an American aerospace engineer, retired U.S. Air Force officer and fighter pilot, and former NASA astronaut, who was the first African American in space.

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Guy Laliberté

Guy Laliberté, (born 2 September 1959) is a Canadian businessman, investor, poker player, and musician.

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Helen Sharman

Helen Patricia Sharman, CMG, OBE, HonFRSC (born 30 May 1963) is a British chemist who became the first British astronaut and the first woman to visit the Mir space station in 1991.

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Hero of the Russian Federation

Hero of the Russian Federation (Герой Российской Федерации) is the highest honorary title of the Russian Federation.

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Hero of the Soviet Union

The title Hero of the Soviet Union (translit) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.

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The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hugh Latimer Dryden

Hugh Latimer Dryden (July 2, 1898 – December 2, 1965) was an American aeronautical scientist and civil servant.

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Human mission to Mars

A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.

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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.

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Ilan Ramon

Ilan Ramon (אילן רמון,, born Ilan Wolferman; June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was an Israeli fighter pilot and later the first Israeli astronaut for NASA.

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Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.

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Interkosmos (Интеркосмос) was a Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.

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International Astronautical Congress

Every year, the International Astronautical Federation together with the International Academy of Astronautics and the International Institute of Space Law (IISL), holds the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) which is hosted by one of the national society members of the IAF.

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International Astronautical Federation

The International Astronautical Federation (IAF) (Fédération internationale d'astronautique) is an international space advocacy organisation based in Paris, and founded in 1951 as a non-governmental organization to establish a dialogue between scientists around the world and to lay the information for international space cooperation.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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ISRO Orbital Vehicle

The Indian manned spacecraft, temporarily named Orbital Vehicle, is intended to be the basis of the Indian human spaceflight program.

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J-Wear is a line of clothing designed for use by astronauts during space missions.

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J.-H. Rosny aîné

J.-H. Rosny aîné was the pseudonym of Joseph Henri Honoré Boex (17 February 1856 – 11 February 1940), a French author of Belgian origin who is considered one of the founding figures of modern science fiction.

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Jack Swigert

John Leonard "Jack" Swigert Jr. (August 30, 1931 – December 27, 1982) was an American test pilot, mechanical and aerospace engineer, United States Air Force pilot, and NASA astronaut.

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Jerry L. Ross

Jerry Lynn Ross (born January 20, 1948, Crown Point, Indiana) is a retired United States Air Force officer and a former NASA astronaut.

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Jim Lovell

James Arthur Lovell Jr. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut, Naval Aviator, and retired Navy captain.

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John Glenn

Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.

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John Young (astronaut)

John Watts Young (September 24, 1930 – January 5, 2018) was an American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer.

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Johnson Space Center

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.

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Joseph A. Walker

Joseph Albert "Joe" Walker (February 20, 1921 – June 8, 1966) flew the world's first two spaceplane flights in 1963, thereby becoming the United States' seventh man in space.

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Joseph M. Acaba

Joseph Michael "Joe" Acaba (born May 17, 1967) is an American educator, hydrogeologist, and NASA astronaut.

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Kármán line

The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.

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Kennedy Space Center

The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.

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Konstantin Feoktistov

Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov (Константин Петрович Феоктистов; 7 February 1926 – 21 November 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut and an eminent space engineer.

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LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leroy Chiao

Leroy Chiao (born August 28, 1960) is an American engineer, former NASA astronaut, entrepreneur, motivational speaker, and engineering consultant.

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List of Apollo astronauts

Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.

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List of astronauts by name

This is an alphabetical list of astronauts, people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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List of astronauts by year of selection

This is a list of astronauts by year of selection: people selected to train for a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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List of cosmonauts

This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

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List of human spaceflight programs

This is a list of human spaceflight programs, including successful programs, programs that were canceled, and programs planned for the future.

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List of human spaceflights

These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight, see Kármán line), or were launched with that intention but failed.

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List of space travelers by name

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary.

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List of space travelers by nationality

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary.

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List of spaceflight records

This is a list of spaceflight records.

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Lists of fictional astronauts

These are a series of incomplete lists of fictional astronauts appearing in various media, including books, film, television shows (live or animated), radio shows, records, and comic books.

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Lists of spacewalks and moonwalks

List of spacewalks and moonwalks may refer to.

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Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Mae Jemison

Mae Carol Jemison (born October 17, 1956) is an American engineer, physician and NASA astronaut.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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A man-hour, or less commonly person-hour, is the amount of work performed by the average worker in one hour.

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Marc Garneau

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician and the Minister of Transport in the Government of Canada.

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Mark Shuttleworth

Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who is the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd., the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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McDonnell Douglas C-9

The McDonnell Douglas C-9 is a military version of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 airliner.

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Mercury 13

Mercury 13 refers to thirteen American women who, as part of a privately funded program, underwent some of the same physiological screening tests as the astronauts selected by NASA on April 9, 1959 for Project Mercury.

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Mercury Seven

The Mercury Seven were the group of seven Mercury astronauts announced by NASA on April 9, 1959.

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Mercury-Atlas 6

Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.

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Micro-g environment

The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mike Melvill

Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 30, 1940 Johannesburg) is a world-record-breaking pilot and one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.

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Mikhail Tikhonravov

Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov (July 29, 1900, Vladimir – March 3, 1974) was a Soviet aerospace engineer and scientist who was a pioneer of spacecraft design and rocketry.

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Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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MTV3 (MTV Kolme; MTV Tre) is a Finnish commercial television station owned by Bonnier.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Astronaut Corps

The NASA Astronaut Corps is a unit of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for U.S. and international space missions.

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NASA Office of Inspector General

The NASA Office of Inspector General (NASA OIG or OIG) is the inspector general office in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the space agency of the United States.

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Neil R. Jones

Neil Ronald Jones (May 29, 1909 – February 15, 1988) was an American author who worked for the state of New York.

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Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility, near the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

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Norman Thagard

Norman Earl Thagard (born July 3, 1943), (Capt, USMC, Ret.), is an American scientist and former U.S. Marine Corps officer and naval aviator and NASA astronaut.

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North American X-15

The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.

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Northrop T-38 Talon

The Northrop T-38 Talon is a two-seat, twinjet supersonic jet trainer.

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Ophthalmology (journal)

Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, published by Elsevier.

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Orthostatic intolerance

Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is the development of symptoms when standing upright which are relieved when reclining.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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Patrick Baudry

Patrick Pierre Roger Baudry (born March 6, 1946 in Cameroon), is a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Peggy Whitson

Peggy Annette Whitson (born February 9, 1960) is an American biochemistry researcher, retired NASA astronaut, and former NASA Chief Astronaut.

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People's Daily

The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.

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Percy Greg

Percy Greg (7 January 1836 Bury - 24 December 1889, Chelsea), son of William Rathbone Greg, was an English writer.

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Phạm Tuân

Phạm Tuân (born February 14, 1947) is a retired Vietnam Air Force aviator.

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Photorefractive keratectomy

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy (or laser epithelial keratomileusis) (LASEK) are laser eye surgery procedures intended to correct a person's vision, reducing dependency on glasses or contact lenses.

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Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation

The Honorary Title Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation (Летчик-космонавт Российской Федерации) is a state award of the Russian Federation presented to all cosmonauts who fly for the Russian Federal Space Agency.

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PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Quartz (publication)

Quartz (qz.com) is a news website owned by Atlantic Media.

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Radiology (journal)

Radiology is a monthly, peer reviewed, medical journal, owned and published by the Radiological Society of North America.

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Reduced-gravity aircraft

A reduced-gravity aircraft is a type of fixed-wing aircraft that provides brief near-weightless environments for training astronauts, conducting research and making gravity-free movie shots.

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Richard Garriott

Richard Garriott de Cayeux (born Richard Allen Garriott; July 4, 1961) is an English-American video game developer and entrepreneur.

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Richard R. Arnold

Richard Robert "Ricky" Arnold II (born November 26, 1963 in Cheverly, Maryland) is an American educator and a NASA astronaut.

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Rodolfo Neri Vela

Rodolfo Neri Vela (born 19 February 1952) is a Mexican scientist and astronaut who flew aboard a NASA Space Shuttle mission in the year 1985.

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The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.

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Sally Ride

Sally Kristen Ride (May 26, 1951 – July 23, 2012) was an American engineer, physicist and astronaut.

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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica

Salmonella enterica subsp.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Scaled Composites

Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.

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Seeker (media company)

Seeker is an American digital media network and content publisher based in San Francisco, California.

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Shenzhou 5

Shenzhou 5 — was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on 15 October 2003.

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Shirley Thomas (USC professor)

Shirley Thomas (1920 – July 21, 2005), also known as Shirley Thomas Perkins, was a radio/television actress/writer/producer, author, and professor in the Master of Professional Writing Program at the University of Southern California.

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Shuttle Training Aircraft

The Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) was a NASA training vehicle that duplicated the Space Shuttle's approach profile and handling qualities, allowing Space Shuttle pilots to simulate Shuttle landings under controlled conditions before attempting the task on board the orbiter.

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Sisu is a Finnish concept and cultural construct that is described through a combination of various English terms including stoic determination, tenacity of purpose, grit, bravery, resilience, and hardiness and is held by Finns themselves to express their national character.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Soviet Air Forces

The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soyuz 37

Soyuz 37 (Союз 37, Union 37) was a 1980 Soviet manned space flight to the Salyut 6 space station. It was the 13th mission to and 11th successful docking at the orbiting facility. The Soyuz 37 crew were the third to visit the long-duration Soyuz 35 resident crew. Soyuz 37 carried Soviet Viktor Gorbatko and Pham Tuân, the first Asian and first Vietnamese cosmonaut, into space. They swapped Soyuz craft with the long-duration crew and returned to earth in Soyuz 36, the resident crew later used their craft to return to earth.

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Soyuz TM-7

Soyuz TM-7 was the seventh manned spacecraft to dock with the Soviet Space Station Mir.

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The Soyuz-U launch vehicle was an improved version of the original Soyuz rocket.

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Space adaptation syndrome

Space adaptation syndrome (SAS) or space sickness is a condition experienced by around half of space travelers during adaptation to weightlessness.

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Space flight participant

Space flight participant (Участник космического полёта, uchastnik kosmicheskogo polyota) is the term used by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for people who travel into space, but who are not professional astronauts.

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Space food

Space food is a type of food product created and processed for consumption by astronauts in outer space.

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Space Mirror Memorial

The Space Mirror Memorial, which forms part of the larger Astronauts Memorial, is a National Memorial on the grounds of the John F. Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex on Merritt Island, Florida.

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Space Shuttle Challenger

Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.

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Space Shuttle Columbia disaster

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.

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Space suit

A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.

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Space Task Group

The Space Task Group was a working group of NASA engineers created in 1958, tasked with managing America's manned spaceflight programs.

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Space tourism

Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

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Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.

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SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.

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SpaceShipOne flight 15P

Flight 15P of SpaceShipOne (X0) was the first privately funded human spaceflight.

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Star system

A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.

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STS-47 was the 50th Space Shuttle mission of the program, as well as the second mission of Space Shuttle Endeavour.

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STS-7 was NASA's seventh Space Shuttle mission, and the second mission for the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.

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STS-9 (also referred to as STS-41A and Spacelab 1) was the ninth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the sixth mission of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.

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STS-95 was a Space Shuttle mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 29 October 1998, using the orbiter ''Discovery''.

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Sultan bin Salman Al Saud

Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (سلطان بن سلمان بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) (born 27 June 1956) is a former Royal Saudi Air Force pilot who flew aboard the American STS-51-G Space Shuttle mission as a payload specialist, and a member of the House of Saud.

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T. Keith Glennan

Thomas Keith Glennan (September 8, 1905 – April 11, 1995) was the first Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, serving from August 19, 1958 to January 20, 1961.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taylor Wang

Taylor Gun-Jin Wang (born June 16, 1940) is a Taiwanese American scientist and in 1985, became the first ethnic Chinese person to go into space.

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Teacher in Space Project

The Teacher in Space Project (TISP) was a NASA program announced by Ronald Reagan in 1984 designed to inspire students, honor teachers, and spur interest in mathematics, science, and space exploration.

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Test pilot

A test pilot is an aviator who flies new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, known as flight test techniques or FTTs, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Timeline of space travel by nationality

Since the first human spaceflight by the Soviet Union, citizens of 40 countries have flown in space.

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Timothy Kopra

Timothy Lennart "Tim" Kopra (born April 9, 1963) is an engineer, a Colonel in the United States Army, a NASA astronaut, and the former commander of the International Space Station.

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Tokyo Broadcasting System

, TBS Holdings, Inc. or TBSHD, is a stockholding company in Tokyo, Japan.

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Toyohiro Akiyama

is a Japanese TV journalist best known for his flight to the Mir space station aboard a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in 1990.

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U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps

With the advent of unmanned and manned space flight a new era of American history had presented itself.

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Ulf Merbold


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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Astronaut Hall of Fame

The United States Astronaut Hall of Fame, located inside the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Heroes & Legends building, honors American astronauts and features the world's largest collection of their personal memorabilia, focusing on those astronauts who have been inducted into the Hall; as well as Sigma 7, the fifth manned Mercury spacecraft.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Usenet newsgroup

A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users in different locations using Internet.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Valentina Tereshkova

Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (a; born 6 March 1937) is a retired Russian cosmonaut, engineer, and politician.

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Valeri Polyakov

Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov (Валерий Владимирович Поляков, born Valeri Ivanovich Korshunov on April 27, 1942) is a former Russian cosmonaut.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vladimír Remek

Vladimír Remek (born 26 September 1948) is a Czech politician and diplomat as well as a former cosmonaut and military pilot.

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Voskhod 1

Voskhod 1 (Восход-1; Восход is Russian for Sunrise) was the seventh manned Soviet space flight.

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Vostok 1

Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.

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Vostok 2

Vostok 2 (Восток-2, Orient 2 or East 2) was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961 to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body.

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Vostok 6

Vostok 6 (Восток-6, Orient 6 or East 6) was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.

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William Anders

William Alison "Bill" Anders (born October 17, 1933), (Maj Gen, USAFR, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force officer, electrical engineer, nuclear engineer, NASA astronaut, and businessman.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Women in space

Women of many nationalities have worked in space.

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X-15 Flight 90

Flight 90 of the North American X-15 was a test flight conducted by NASA and the US Air Force in 1963.

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Yang Liwei

Yang Liwei (born 21 June 1965) is a major general, military pilot, and China National Space Administration astronaut.

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Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.

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Yuri's Night

Yuri's Night is an international celebration held every April 12 to commemorate milestones in space exploration.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronaut

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