138 relations: Affricate consonant, Ahtna language, Alaska, Alaska Native Language Center, Albert Gallatin, Alberta, Algonquian languages, Alveolar consonant, Americanist phonetic notation, Anglo, Apache, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Babine-Witsuwit'en language, Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, British Columbia, Broken Slavey, Cahto language, California, Canada, Carrier language, Central consonant, Chilcotin language, Chipewyan language, Close vowel, Comparative method, Cree language, Dane-zaa language, Deg Xinag language, Dena'ina language, Dené–Yeniseian languages, Dogrib language, Edward Sapir, Edward Vajda, Ejective consonant, Eloise Jelinek, Ethnologue, Eyak language, Fort Apache Indian Reservation, Franz Boas, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Galice language, Glottal consonant, Gwich’in language, Haida language, Harry Hoijer, Hän language, ..., Historical linguistics, Holikachuk language, Hupa language, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Ives Goddard, Jicarilla language, Kaska language, Keren Rice, Koyukon language, Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie language, Labialization, Lake Athabasca, Laminal consonant, Lateral consonant, Li Fang-Kuei, Lingua franca, Linguistic reconstruction, Lipan language, Louis Shotridge, Lower Tanana language, Mandarin Chinese, Manitoba, Marianne Mithun, Mattole language, Mescalero-Chiricahua language, Mexico, Michael E. Krauss, Mid vowel, Mora (linguistics), Morphology (linguistics), Na-Dene languages, Nasal consonant, Navajo language, Nicola Athapaskans, Nicola language, North America, Northern Athabaskan languages, Northwest Territories, Obstruent, Official language, Open vowel, Oregon, Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages, Palate, Plains Apache language, Polysynthetic language, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-language, Retroflex consonant, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Sarcee language, Saskatchewan, Sekani language, Slavey language, Sockeye salmon, Sonorant, Southern Athabaskan languages, Stop consonant, Tagish language, Tahltan language, Tanacross language, Tanana Athabaskans, Tanana Chiefs Conference, Tanana Valley, Tenuis consonant, Tlingit language, Tolowa language, Tone (linguistics), Tonto Apache, Transcription (linguistics), Tsetsaut language, Tutchone language, Tututni language, Upper Kuskokwim language, Upper Tanana language, Upper Umpqua language, Urheimat, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel reduction, Wailaki language, Washington (state), Western Apache language, Yeniseian languages, Yukon. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Ahtna or Ahtena is the Na-Dené language of the Ahtna ethnic group of the Copper River area of Alaska.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The, established in 1972 in Fairbanks, Alaska, is a research center focusing on the research and documentation of the Native languages of Alaska.
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
Anglo is a prefix indicating a relation to the Angles, England, the English people, or the English language, such as in the term Anglo-Saxon language.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Babine–Witsuwit'en or Nadot’en-Wets’uwet’en is an Athabaskan language spoken in the Central Interior of British Columbia.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Broken Slavey (also Broken Slavé, Broken Slave, Slavey Jargon, Broken Slavee, and le Jargon esclave) was a trade language used between Native Americans and whites in the Yukon area (for example, in around Liard River and in the Mackenzie River district) in the 19th century.
Cahto (also spelled Kato) is an extinct Athabaskan language that was formerly spoken by the Kato people of the Laytonville and Branscomb area at the head of the South Fork of the Eel River.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Carrier language is a Northern Athabaskan language.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tsilhqut’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia by the Tsilhqot’in people.
Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
Dane-zaa, known in the language as Danezaa ZaageɁ (syll: ᑕᓀᖚ ᖚᗀᐥ) and once known as Beaver, is an Athabascan language of western Canada.
Deg Xinag is a moribund Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Deg Hit’an peoples in Shageluk and Anvik and at Holy Cross along the lower Yukon River in Alaska.
Dena’ina, also Tanaina, is the Athabaskan language of the region surrounding Cook Inlet.
Dené–Yeniseian is a proposed language family consisting of the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America.
The Dogrib" language or Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib people) of the Canadian Northwest Territories.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
Edward J. Vajda (Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, September 10, 1958 as Edward M. Johnson; changed his name in 1981) is a historical linguist at Western Washington University.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Eloise Jelinek (February 2, 1924 in Dallas – December 21, 2007 in Tucson) was an American linguist specializing in the study of syntax.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Eyak is an extinct Na-Dené language historically spoken by the Eyak people, indigenous to south-central Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River.
The Fort Apache Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in Arizona, United States, encompassing parts of Navajo, Gila, and Apache counties.
Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Galice, or Galice-Applegate or Upper Rogue River, is an extinct Athabaskan language once spoken by the two Upper Rogue River Athabaskan tribes, the Galice (Taltushtuntede) tribe and Applegate (Nabiltse, Dakubetede) tribe of southwestern Oregon.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Gwich’in language (Dinju Zhuh K’yuu) belongs to the Athabaskan language family and is spoken by the Gwich’in First Nation (Canada) / Alaska Native People (United States).
Haida (X̱aat Kíl, X̱aadas Kíl, X̱aayda Kil, Xaad kil) is the language of the Haida people, spoken in the Haida Gwaii archipelago of the coast of Canada and on Prince of Wales Island in Alaska.
Harry Hoijer (September 6, 1904 – March 11, 1976) was a linguist and anthropologist who worked on primarily Athabaskan languages and culture.
The Hän language (Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide) is an Athabaskan language spoken primarily in Eagle, Alaska (United States) and Dawson City, Yukon (Canada), though there are also speakers in Fairbanks, Alaska.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Holikachuk (own name: Doogh Qinag) was an Athabaskan language formerly spoken at the village of Holikachuk (Hiyeghelinhdi) on the Innoko River in central Alaska.
Hupa (native name: Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe, lit. "language of the Hoopa Valley people") is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken along the lower course of the Trinity River in Northwestern California by the Hupa (Na:tinixwe) and, before European contact, by the Chilula and Whilkut peoples, to the west.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Robert Hale Ives Goddard III (1941–) is curator emeritus in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution.
Jicarilla (Abáachi mizaa) is an Eastern Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Jicarilla Apache.
The Kaska language originated from the family of Athabaskan languages.
Keren Rice (born 1949) is a Canadian linguist.
Koyukon (also called Denaakk'e) is the geographically most widespread Athabascan language spoken in Alaska.
Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie (Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai) is an extinct Athabascan language of Washington State, along the lower Columbia River.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Lake Athabasca (French: lac Athabasca; from Woods Cree: aðapaskāw, " there are plants one after another") is located in the northwest corner of Saskatchewan and the northeast corner of Alberta between 58° and 60° N. The lake is 26% in Alberta and 74% in Saskatchewan.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Li Fang-Kuei (20 August 190221 August 1987) was a Chinese linguist, known for his studies of the varieties of Chinese, and for his reconstructions of Old Chinese and Proto-Tai.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
Lipan is an Eastern Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Lipan Apache.
Louis Shotridge (c. 1882 – August 6, 1937) was an American art collector and ethnological assistant who was an expert on the traditions of his people, the Tlingit nation of southeastern Alaska.
Lower Tanana (also Tanana and/or Middle Tanana) is an endangered language spoken in Interior Alaska in the lower Tanana River villages of Minto and Nenana.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marianne Mithun is an American linguist specializing in American Indian languages and language typology.
Mattole, or Mattole–Bear River, is an extinct Athabaskan language once spoken by the Mattole and Bear River peoples of northern California.
Mescalero-Chiricahua (also known as Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache) is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Mescalero and the Chiricahua tribes in Oklahoma and New Mexico.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael E. Krauss (born August 15, 1934) is an American linguist, professor emeritus, founder and long-time head of the Alaska Native Language Center.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
The Nicola Athapaskans, also known as the Nicola people or Stuwix, were an Athabascan people who migrated into the Nicola Country of what is now the Southern Interior of British Columbia from the north a few centuries ago but were slowly reduced in number by constant raiding from peoples from outside the valley (mostly Secwepemc), with the survivors, the last of whom lived near Nicola Lake, assimilated to the Scw'exmx-Syilx Nicola people by the end of the 19th century.
Nicola is an extinct Athabascan language formerly spoken in the Similkameen and Nicola Countries of British Columbia by the group known to linguists and ethnographers as the Nicola people, although that name in modern usage refers to an alliance of Interior Salishan bands living in the same area.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Northern Athabaskan is a geographic sub-grouping of the Athabaskan language family spoken by indigenous peoples in the northern part of North America, particularly in Alaska (Alaskan Athabaskans), the Yukon and the Northwest Territories.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Pacific Coast Athabaskan is a geographical and possibly genealogical grouping of the Athabaskan language family.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
The Plains Apache language (or Kiowa Apache) is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Plains Apache peoples living primarily in central Oklahoma.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, in southeastern Arizona, United States, was established in 1872 as a reservation for the Chiricahua Apache tribe as well as surrounding Yavapai and Apache bands forcibly removed from their original homelands under a strategy devised by General Crook of using an Apache to catch an Apache.
Sarcee (Sarsi), also Tsuut’ina (Tsuu T’ina, Tsu T’ina, Tsúùtínà) is a language spoken by the people of the Tsuu T'ina Nation band government whose reserve and community is near Calgary, Alberta.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
The Sekani language is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Sekani people of north-central British Columbia, Canada.
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), also called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States (including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah) and the Mexican state of Sonora, with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Tagish was a language spoken by the Tagish or Carcross-Tagish, a First Nations people that historically lived in the Northwest Territories and Yukon in Canada.
Tahltan is a poorly documented Northern Athabaskan language historically spoken by the Tahltan people (also "Nahanni") who live in northern British Columbia around Telegraph Creek, Dease Lake, and Iskut.
Tanacross (also Transitional Tanana) is an endangered Athabaskan language spoken by fewer than 60 people in eastern Interior Alaska.
The Tanana Athabaskans, Tanana Athabascans or Tanana Athapaskans are an Alaskan Athabaskan peoples of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group.
Tanana Chiefs Conference (TCC), the traditional tribal consortium of the 42 villages of Interior Alaska, is based on a belief in tribal self-determination and the need for regional Native unity.
The Tanana Valley is a lowland region in central Alaska in the United States, on the north side of the Alaska Range where the Tanana River emerges from the mountains.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
The Tlingit language (Lingít) is spoken by the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada.
The Tolowa language (also called Chetco-Tolowa, or Siletz Dee-ni) is a member of the Pacific Coast subgroup of the Athabaskan language family.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
The Tsetsaut language is an extinct Athabascan language formerly spoken by the now-extinct Tsetsaut in the Behm and Portland Canal area of Southeast Alaska and northwestern British Columbia.
Tutchone is a Athabaskan language spoken by the Northern and Southern Tutchone First Nations in central and southern regions of Yukon Territory, Canada.
Tututni (Dotodəni, alternatively "Tutudin"), also known as Coquille and (Lower) Rogue River, is an extinct Athabaskan language once spoken by three Tututni (Lower Rogue River Athabaskan) tribes: Tututni tribe (including Euchre Creek band), Coquille tribe, and Chasta Costa tribe who are part of the Rogue River Indian peoples of southwestern Oregon.
The Upper Kuskokwim language (also called Kolchan or Goltsan or Dinak'i) is an Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené language family.
Upper Tanana (also known as Tabesna or Nabesna) is an endangered Athabaskan language spoken in eastern Interior Alaska, United States, mainly in the villages of Northway, Tetlin, and Tok, and adjacent areas of the Canadian province of Yukon. In 2000 there were fewer than 100 speakers, and the language was no longer being acquired by children.
Upper Umpqua is an extinct Athabaskan language formerly spoken along the south fork of the Umpqua River in west-central Oregon by Upper Umpqua (Etnemitane) people in the vicinity of modern Roseburg.
In historical linguistics, the term homeland (also Urheimat;; from a German compound of ur- "original" and Heimat "home, homeland") denotes the area of origin of the speakers of a proto-language, the (reconstructed or known) parent language of a group of languages assumed to be genetically related.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Wailaki, also known as Eel River, is a coming back Athabaskan language spoken by the people of the Round Valley Reservation of northern California, one of four languages belonging to the California Athabaskan cluster of the Pacific Coast Athabaskan languages.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken among the 14,000 Western Apaches living primarily in east central Arizona as well as Texas and New Mexico.
The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages Khanty and Selkup. occasionally spelled with -ss-) are a family of languages that were spoken in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
Athabasca Indian, Athabasca Indians, Athabascan, Athabascan Indian, Athabascan language, Athabascan languages, Athabascans, Athabaskan, Athabaskan Indians, Athabaskan language, Athabaskan language family, Athabaskans, Athabaskes, Athapasca, Athapascan, Athapascan language, Athapascan languages, Athapascan languages language, Athapaskan, Athapaskan Indians, Athapaskan language, Athapaskan languages, Athapaskans, Athapaskes, ISO 639:ath, Proto-Athabaskan.