416 relations: A Short History of Christianity, A. J. Ayer, Abingdon-on-Thames, Abington School District v. Schempp, Abu Isa al-Warraq, Adevism, Age of Enlightenment, Agnosticism, Al-Maʿarri, Alain de Botton, Alchemy, Alexander Bard, Alpha privative, Amalric of Bena, An Intelligent Person's Guide to Atheism, Analytic philosophy, Anarchism, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Greek religion, Annie Besant, Annie Laurie Gaylor, Anti-clericalism, Antisemitism, Antitheism, Antony Flew, Apatheism, Apollo, Apologetics, Apophatic theology, Apostasy, Argument from analogy, Argument from authority, Argument from inconsistent revelations, Argument from nonbelief, Aristophanes, Arthur Golding, Arthur Schopenhauer, Astrology, Ataraxia, Atheism in Hinduism, Atheist feminism, Atheistic existentialism, Athens, Atomism, Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Austria, Authoritarianism, Axiology, ..., Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Āstika and nāstika, Baron d'Holbach, Baruch Spinoza, BBC, BBC Online, Belief, Benjamin Franklin, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell, Blaise Pascal, Bloomington, Indiana, Bodhisattva, Bonaventure des Périers, Boobquake, Bradford County, Florida, Brahmin, Brain injury, Brethren of the Free Spirit, Brights movement, Buddhism, Burden of proof (philosophy), Cairo, Callimachus, Caste, Cataphatic theology, Charles Bradlaugh, Charvaka, China, Christian atheism, Christianity Unveiled, Christopher Hitchens, Church Fathers, Cicero, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, Classical antiquity, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Conceptions of God, Consciousness, Creationism, Creator deity, Creator in Buddhism, Critias, Criticism of atheism, Criticism of Christianity, Criticism of religion, Crusades, Cult of Reason, Cult of the Supreme Being, Cyrenaics, Czech Republic, Daniel Dennett, David Hume, David of Dinant, De Docta Ignorantia, Death of God theology, Deathbed conversion, Deism, Deity, Dementia, Democritus, Demographics of atheism, Determinism, Diagoras of Melos, Diodorus Siculus, Discovery Institute, Divine command theory, Divine law, Divine providence, Dogma, Duke University Press, Dysteleology, Early Christianity, Early Middle Ages, Edmund Burke, Eleusinian Mysteries, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Epicurus, Ernest Nagel, Essence, Eternal Buddha, Ethnocentrism, Euhemerus, Euripides, Eurobarometer, European Commission, European Union, Eusebius, Euthyphro dilemma, Existence of God, Existentialism, Faith and rationality, Falsifiability, Feminism, Fideism, François Rabelais, France, Free Inquiry, Freedom From Religion Foundation, Freethought, French language, French materialism, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Solmsen, Fundamentalism, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Gallup (company), Gautama Buddha, Geoffrey Blainey, George H. Smith, George Holyoake, George W. Bush, Germany, Globalization, God in Abrahamic religions, Graham Oppy, Greg Koukl, Gregory S. Paul, Heresy in Christianity, Hindu deities, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, Human nature, Humanism, Humanistic Judaism, Ibn al-Rawandi, Iceland, Ignosticism, Immanence, Immanuel Kant, Immorality, Immutability (theology), India, Indiana University Press, Indra, Infant cognitive development, Innatism, Inquisition, Intelligence (journal), International Humanist and Ethical Union, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Internet Infidels, Irreligion, Irreligion in China, Irreligion in North Korea, Islamic Golden Age, J. J. C. Smart, Jacobin, Jacques Hébert, Jacques-André Naigeon, Jainism, Jan Hus, Jan Söderqvist, Japan, Jean Meslier, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jeremy Waldron, Jewish atheism, John Calvin, John Dewey, John Locke, John Niemeyer Findlay, John of Mirecourt, John Scotus Eriugena, John Toland, John Wycliffe, José Saramago, Joseph Stalin, Julian Baggini, Justice, Kantian ethics, Karen Armstrong, Karl Marx, Kazimierz Łyszczyński, Lactantius, Latin, League of Militant Atheists, Leap of faith, Leonardo da Vinci, Letter to a Christian Nation, List of atheist philosophers, List of Roman deities, Logical consequence, Logical positivism, Los Angeles Times, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lyric poetry, Madalyn Murray O'Hair, Malaise, Mao Zedong, Martin Cohen (philosopher), Martin Luther, Marxism, Materialism, Matthias Knutzen, Max Stirner, Mīmāṃsā, Meaning of life, Medieval Inquisition, Mercy, Metaphysics, Michael Martin (philosopher), Michel de Montaigne, Middle Ages, Mikhail Bakunin, Modern Paganism, Moksha, Monotheism, Moral nihilism, Moral relativism, Moral universalism, Motilal Banarsidass, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muslim world, Napoleonic era, Nationalism, Naturalism (philosophy), Naturalistic fallacy, Netherlands, New religious movement, New Statesman, New Zealanders, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicholas of Autrecourt, Nicholas of Cusa, Nihilism, Nominalism, Normative ethics, NPR, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Occam's razor, Omnibenevolence, Omnipotence, Omnipresence, Omniscience, Ontology, Opium of the people, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, OxfordDictionaries.com, Paganism, Panentheism, Pantheism, Pensées, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Personal god, Pew Research Center, Phil Zuckerman, Philip Sidney, Philodemus, Philosophical skepticism, Plutarch, Polemic, Polytheism, Practical atheism, Pragmatism, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Problem of evil, Prodicus, Protagoras, Psychology Today, Pyrrhonism, Pythia, Quran, Raëlism, Racism, Rationalism, Reason, Reflections on the Revolution in France, Reformation, Reign of Terror, Religion for Atheists, Religious orientation, Religious terrorism, Renaissance, Republic of Ireland, Richard Dawkins, Richard Pipes, Robert G. Ingersoll, Roman Empire, Routledge, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Rowman & Littlefield, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Sam Harris, Samkhya, Satyr play, Science of morality, Scientism, Secular Buddhism, Secular humanism, Secularism, Separation of church and state, September 11 attacks, Sextus Empiricus, Sexual harassment, Sigmund Freud, Sisyphus fragment, Skeptical movement, Skepticism, Slavoj Žižek, Social contract, Social democracy, South Korea, Soviet anti-religious legislation, Soviet Union, Spectrum of theistic probability, Spirituality, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State atheism, Stephen Law, Strato of Lampsacus, Structural anthropology, Structuralism, Subject (philosophy), Suffering, Supernatural, Supreme Court of the United States, Susan Neiman, Syntheism, Taoism, The Anatomy of Melancholy, The Brothers Karamazov, The Clouds, The Essence of Christianity, The Guardian, The System of Nature, The Washington Post, Theism, Theodicy, Theodore Drange, Theodorus the Atheist, Theodosius I, Theological noncognitivism, There are no atheists in foxholes, Thermidorian Reaction, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, Time (magazine), Tirthankara, Transcendence (philosophy), Transcendence (religion), Truthdig, Utilitarianism, Vashti McCollum, Vedas, Vedic period, Vergilius Ferm, Victor J. 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A Short History of Christianity is a non-fiction book on the history of the Christian religion written by the Australian historian Geoffrey Blainey.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Abingdon-on-Thames, also known as Abingdon on Thames or just Abingdon, is a historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England.
Abington School District v. Schempp,,. was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court decided 8–1 in favor of the respondent, Edward Schempp, and declared school-sponsored Bible reading in public schools in the United States to be unconstitutional.
Abu 'Isa al-Warraq, full name Abu 'Isa Muhammad ibn Harun al-Warraq (أبو عيسى محمد ابن هارون الوراق Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Warrāq, 889 – 24 June 994), was a 9th-century Arab skeptic scholar and critic of Islam and religion in general.
Adevism (from the Sanskrit term deva, on the analogy of atheism) is a term introduced by Friedrich Max Müller to imply the denial of gods, in particular, the legendary gods of Hinduism.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Abu al-ʿAlaʾ al-Maʿarri (Arabic, full name; December 973 – May 1057) was a blind Arab philosopher, poet, and writer.
Alain de Botton, FRSL (born 20 December 1969) is a Swiss-born British philosopher and author.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alexander Bengt Magnus Bard (born 17 March 1961) is a Swedish songwriter, record producer, TV personality and religious and political activist.
An alpha privative or, rarely, privative a (from Latin alpha prīvātīvum, from Ancient Greek α στερητικόν) is the prefix a- or an- (before vowels) that is used in Greek and in words borrowed from Greek to express negation or absence, for example the English words atypical, anesthetic, and analgesic.
Amalric of Bena (Amaury de Bène, Amaury de Chartres; Almaricus, Amalricus, Amauricus; died 1204–1207 AD) was a French theologian and sect leader, after whom the Amalricians are named.
An Intelligent Person's Guide to Atheism is the first book by Daniel Harbour, an Oxford maths and philosophy graduate, who at the time of writing was working for a PhD in linguistics at MIT.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Annie Besant, née Wood (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
Annie Laurie Gaylor (born November 2, 1955) is a co-founder of – and, with her husband Dan Barker, a current co-president of – the Freedom From Religion Foundation.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is the opposition to theism.
Antony Garrard Newton Flew (11 February 1923 – 8 April 2010) was an English philosopher.
Apatheism (a portmanteau of apathy and theism) is the attitude of apathy towards the existence or non-existence of god(s).
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed.
An argument from authority, also called an appeal to authority, or argumentum ad verecundiam is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority's support is used as evidence for an argument's conclusion.
The argument from inconsistent revelations, also known as the avoiding the wrong hell problem, is an argument against the existence of God.
An argument from nonbelief is a philosophical argument that asserts an inconsistency between the existence of God and a world in which people fail to recognize him.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Arthur Golding (May 1606) was an English translator of more than 30 works from Latin into English.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "not perturbed", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek philosophy term used to describe a lucid state of robust equanimity that was characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.
Atheism (Sanskrit: निरीश्वरवाद,, lit. "statement of no Lord", "doctrine of godlessness") or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Hindu philosophies.
Atheist feminism is a branch of feminism that advocates atheism.
"Atheistic existentialism" is a kind of existentialism which strongly diverged from the Christian existential works of Søren Kierkegaard and developed within the context of an atheistic world view.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Axiology (from Greek ἀξία, axia, "value, worth"; and -λογία, -logia) is the philosophical study of value.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Online, formerly known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
Bonaventure des Périers (1544) was a French author.
Boobquake was a rally which took place on April 26, 2010.
Bradford County is a county in the U.S. state of Florida.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.
The Brethren of the Free Spirit, a lay Christian movement, flourished in northern Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Brights Movement is an international intellectual movement.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The burden of proof (Latin: onus probandi, shortened from Onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat) is the obligation on a party in a dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Cataphatic theology or kataphatic theology is theology that uses "positive" terminology to describe or refer to the divine – specifically, God – i.e. terminology that describes or refers to what the divine is believed to be, in contrast to the "negative" terminology used in apophatic theology to indicate what it is believed the divine is not.
Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was an English political activist and atheist.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christian atheism is a form of cultural Christianity and a system of ethics which draws its beliefs and practices from the life and teachings of Jesus Christ as recorded in the Gospels of the New Testament and other sources while rejecting the supernatural claims of Christianity at large.
Christianity Unveiled, or examination of the principles and effects of the Christian religion (Le christianisme devoile, ou examination of principes et des effets de la religion chrétienne) is a book that criticizes Christianity attributed to Baron d'Holbach, probably published in 1766.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy ("Constitution civile du clergé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution, that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France to the French government.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.
Conceptions of God in monotheist, pantheist, and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
Buddhist thought consistently rejects the notion of a creator deity.
Critias (Κριτίας, Kritias; c. 460 – 403 BCE) was an ancient Athenian political figure and author.
Criticism of atheism is criticism of the concepts, validity, or impact of atheism, including associated political and social implications.
Criticism of Christianity has a long history stretching back to the initial formation of the religion during the Roman Empire.
Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, the truth, or the practice of religion, including its political and social implications.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Cult of Reason (Culte de la Raison) was France's first established state-sponsored atheistic religion, intended as a replacement for Roman Catholicism during the French Revolution.
The Cult of the Supreme Being (Culte de l'Être suprême) was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution.
The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics (Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí) were a sensual hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BCE, supposedly by Aristippus of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus the Younger.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David of Dinant (1160 – c. 1217) was a pantheistic philosopher.
De docta ignorantia (On learned ignorance/on scientific ignorance) is a book on philosophy and theology by Nicholas of Cusa (or Nicolaus Cusanus), who finished writing it on 12 February 1440 in his hometown of Kues, Germany.
Death of God theology refers to a range of ideas by various theologians and philosophers that try to account for the rise of secularity and abandonment of traditional beliefs in God.
A deathbed conversion is the adoption of a particular religious faith shortly before dying.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism vary across different cultures and languages from being an active concept to being unimportant or not developed.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Diagoras "the Atheist" of Melos (Διαγόρας ὁ Μήλιος) was a Greek poet and sophist of the 5th century BC.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
The Discovery Institute (DI) is a politically conservative non-profit think tank based in Seattle, Washington, that advocates the pseudoscientific principle Article available from of intelligent design (ID).
Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action's status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God.
Divine law is any law that is understood as deriving from a transcendent source, such as the will of God or gods, in contrast to man-made law.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Dysteleology is the philosophical view that existence has no telos or final cause from purposeful design.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Philosophy is one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901 – September 20, 1985) was an American philosopher of science.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
In East Asian Buddhism the Buddha of the Lotus Sutra is regarded as the eternal Buddha.
Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.
Euhemerus (also spelled Euemeros or Evemerus; Εὐήμερος Euhēmeros, "happy; prosperous"; late fourth century BC), was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedon.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Plato's dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro, "Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?" (10a) The dilemma has had a major effect on the philosophical theism of the monotheistic religions, but in a modified form: "Is what is morally good commanded by God because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?" Ever since Plato's original discussion, this question has presented a problem for some theists, though others have thought it a false dilemma, and it continues to be an object of theological and philosophical discussion today.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Faith and rationality are two ideologies that exist in varying degrees of conflict or compatibility.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Free Inquiry is a bi-monthly journal of secular humanist opinion and commentary published by the Council for Secular Humanism, which is a program of the Center for Inquiry.
The Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF) is an American non-profit organization based in Madison, Wisconsin with members from all 50 states.
Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French materialism is the name given to a handful of French 18th-century philosophers during the Age of Enlightenment, many of them clustered around the salon of Baron d'Holbach.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friedrich W. Solmsen (February 4, 1904 – January 30, 1989) was a philologist and professor of classical studies.
Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Geoffrey Norman Blainey (born 11 March 1930) is an Australian historian, academic, philanthropist and commentator with a wide international audience.
George Hamilton Smith (born February 10, 1949, Japan) is an American author, editor, educator and speaker, known for his writings on atheism and libertarianism.
George Jacob Holyoake (13 April 1817 – 22 January 1906), was a British secularist, co-operator, and newspaper editor.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition of a god, Yahweh, that revealed himself to the prophet Abraham.
Graham Robert Oppy (born 6 October 1960) is an Australian philosopher whose main area of research is the philosophy of religion.
Gregory Koukl (born June 10, 1950) is a Christian apologist, radio talk show host, author, speaker, and the founder of the Christian apologetics organization Stand To Reason.
Gregory Scott Paul (born December 24, 1954) is an American freelance researcher, author and illustrator who works in paleontology, and more recently has examined sociology and theology.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
Hindu deities are the gods and goddesses in Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humanistic Judaism (Yahdut Humanistit) is a Jewish movement that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life.
Abu al-Hasan Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Ishaq al-Rawandi (أبو الحسن أحمد بن يحيى بن إسحاق الراوندي), commonly known as Ibn al-Rawandi (ابن الراوندي;‎ 827–911 CE), was an early skeptic of Islam and a critic of religion in general.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Ignosticism or igtheism is the idea that the question of the existence of God is meaningless because the term has no coherent and unambiguous definition.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Immorality is the violation of moral laws, norms or standards.
The Immutability of God is an attribute that "God is unchanging in his character, will, and covenant promises." The Westminster Shorter Catechism says that " is a spirit, whose being, wisdom power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth are infinite, eternal, and unchangeable." Those things do not change.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Infant cognitive development is the study of how psychological processes involved in thinking and knowing develop in young children.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
Intelligence is a peer-reviewed academic journal of psychology that covers intelligence and psychometrics.
The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is an umbrella organisation of humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, freethought and Ethical Culture organisations worldwide.
The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion is a peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to research on the psychology of religion.
Internet Infidels, Inc.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
China has the world's greatest irreligious population.
Irreligion in North Korea is difficult to measure in the country as the country is officially designated as secular.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
John Jamieson Carswell "Jack" Smart AC (16 September 1920 – 6 October 2012) was an Australian philosopher and academic, and was appointed as an Emeritus Professor by the Australian National University.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques René Hébert (15 November 1757 – 24 March 1794) was a French journalist, and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.
Jacques-André Naigeon (July 15, 1738, Paris – 28 February 1810, Paris) was a French artist, atheist philosopher, editor and man of letters best known for his contributions to the Encyclopédie and for reworking Baron d'Holbach's and Diderot's manuscripts.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jan Söderqvist (born 1961) is an author, lecturer, writer and consultant, and among other things also working as a literary and film critic for the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean Meslier (also Mellier; 15 June 1664 – 17 June 1729), was a French Catholic priest (abbé) who was discovered, upon his death, to have written a book-length philosophical essay promoting atheism.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jeremy Waldron (born 13 October 1953) is a New Zealand professor of law and philosophy.
Jewish atheism refers to the atheism of people who are ethnically and (at least to some extent) culturally Jewish.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Niemeyer Findlay (25 November 1903 – 27 September 1987), usually cited as J. N. Findlay, was a South African philosopher.
John of Mirecourt, also known as Monachus Albus, was a Cistercian scholastic philosopher of the fourteenth century, from Mirecourt, Lorraine.
John Scotus Eriugena or Johannes Scotus Erigena (c. 815 – c. 877) was an Irish theologian, neoplatonist philosopher, and poet.
John Toland (30 November 1670 – 11 March 1722) was an Irish rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE (16 November 1922 – 18 June 2010), was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Julian Baggini (born 1968) is a British philosopher, and the author of several books about philosophy written for a general audience.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory ascribed to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Coat of Arms of Kazimierz Łyszczyński Kazimierz Łyszczyński (Born on March 4, 1634 in Łyszczyce (today Belarus) – March 30, 1689 in Warsaw, Poland), also known in English as Casimir Liszinski, was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, landowner in Brest Litovsk Voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, philosopher, and soldier in the ranks of the Sapieha family, who was accused, tried, and executed for atheism in 1689.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Militant AtheistsBurleigh, Michael.
A leap of faith, in its most commonly used meaning, is the act of believing in or accepting something outside the boundaries of reason.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Letter to a Christian Nation is a book by Sam Harris, written in response to feedback he received following the publication of his first book The End of Faith.
There have been many philosophers in recorded history who were atheists.
The Roman deities most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Madalyn Murray O'Hair (née Mays; April 13, 1919 – September 29, 1995), was an American activist, founder of American Atheists, and the organization's president from 1963 to 1986.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Martin Cohen (born 1964) is a British philosopher, an editor and reviewer who writes on philosophy, philosophy of science and political philosophy.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Matthias Knutzen (also: Knuzen, Knutsen) (1646 – after 1674) was a German-languaged critic of religion and the author of three atheistic pamphlets.
Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.
Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.
The Medieval Inquisition was a series of Inquisitions (Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing heresy) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s).
Mercy (Middle English, from Anglo-French merci, from Medieval Latin merced-, merces, from Latin, "price paid, wages", from merc-, merxi "merchandise") is a broad term that refers to benevolence, forgiveness, and kindness in a variety of ethical, religious, social, and legal contexts.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael L. Martin (February 3, 1932 – May 27, 2015) was an American philosopher and former professor at Boston University.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Moral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism or the error theory) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is morally right or wrong.
Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
In philosophical ethics, the term "naturalistic fallacy" was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are people associated with New Zealand, sharing a common history, culture, and language (New Zealand English).
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nicholas of Autrecourt (French: Nicholas d'Autrécourt; Latin: Nicolaus de Autricuria or Nicolaus de Ultricuria; c. 1299, Autrecourt – 16 or 17 July 1369, Metz) was a French medieval philosopher and Scholastic theologian.
Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).
Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere.
Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
"Religion is the opium of the people" is one of the most frequently paraphrased statements of German philosopher and economist Karl Marx.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
The Pensées ("Thoughts") is a collection of fragments on theology and philosophy written by 17th-century philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal.
Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy (17 September 1879 – 24 December 1973), was commonly known as Periyar also referred to as Thanthai Periyar, was an Indian social activist, and politician who started the Self-Respect Movement and Dravidar Kazhagam.
A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Philip "Phil" Zuckerman (born June 26, 1969 in Los Angeles, California) is a professor of sociology and secular studies at Pitzer College in Claremont, California.
Sir Philip Sidney (30 November 1554 – 17 October 1586) was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age.
Philodemus of Gadara (Φιλόδημος ὁ Γαδαρεύς, Philodēmos, "love of the people"; c. 110 – prob. c. 40 or 35 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher and poet.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Practical atheism is the view that one should live their life with disregard towards a god.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
Psychology Today is a magazine published every two months in the United States since 1967.
Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Raëlism (also known as Raëlianism or the Raëlian movement) is a UFO religion that was founded in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon (b. 1946), now known as Raël.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Reflections on the Revolution in France is a political pamphlet written by the Irish statesman Edmund Burke and published in November 1790.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
Religion for Atheists: A non-believer's guide to the uses of religion is a book by Alain de Botton published in 2012.
An individual's or community's religious orientation involves presumptions about the existence and nature of God or gods, religious prescriptions about morality and communal and personal spirituality.
Religious terrorism is terrorism carried out based on motivations and goals that have a predominantly religious character or influence.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
Robert Green "Bob" Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899) was an American lawyer, father of the feminist Eva Ingersoll Brown, a Civil War veteran, politician, and orator of the United States during the Golden Age of Free Thought, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies is an independent, non-profit, scientific research institute located in La Jolla, San Diego, California, United States.
Sam Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, neuroscientist, critic of religion, blogger, and podcast host.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar in spirit to the bawdy satire of burlesque.
The science of morality may refer to various forms of ethical naturalism grounding morality in rational, empirical consideration of the natural world.
Scientism is the ideology of science.
Secular Buddhism—sometimes also referred to as agnostic Buddhism, Buddhist agnosticism, ignostic Buddhism, atheistic Buddhism, pragmatic Buddhism, Buddhist atheism, or Buddhist secularism—is a broad term for an emerging form of Buddhism and secular spirituality that is based on humanist, skeptical, and/or agnostic values, as well as pragmatism and (often) naturalism, rather than religious (or more specifically supernatural or paranormal) beliefs.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Sisyphus fragment is a fragment of verse, preserved in the works of Sextus Empiricus and thought to have been composed in the 5th-century BC by a Greek playwright, either Critias or Euripides, and which is thought to contain an atheistic argument.
The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
Slavoj Žižek (born 21 March 1949) is a Slovenian continental philosopher.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The government of the Soviet Union followed an unofficial policy of state atheism, aiming to gradually eliminate '''religious belief''' within its borders.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Popularized by Richard Dawkins in The God Delusion, the spectrum of theistic probability is a way of categorizing one's belief regarding the probability of the existence of a deity.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Stephen Law is an English philosopher and reader in philosophy at Heythrop College, University of London.
Strato of Lampsacus (Στράτων ὁ Λαμψακηνός, Straton ho Lampsakenos, c. 335 – c. 269 BC) was a Peripatetic philosopher, and the third director (scholarch) of the Lyceum after the death of Theophrastus.
Structural anthropology is a school of anthropology based on Claude Lévi-Strauss' idea that immutable deep structures exist in all cultures, and consequently, that all cultural practices have homologous counterparts in other cultures, essentially that all cultures are equitable.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Susan Neiman (born March 27, 1955) is an American moral philosopher, cultural commentator, and essayist.
Syntheism is a new religious movement focused on how atheists and pantheists can achieve the same feelings of community and awe experienced in traditional theistic religions.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Anatomy of Melancholy (full title: The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognostickes, and Several Cures of it. In Three Maine Partitions with their several Sections, Members, and Subsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, Opened and Cut Up) is a book by Robert Burton, first published in 1621, but republished four more times over the next seventeen years with massive alterations and expansions.
The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The Clouds (Νεφέλαι Nephelai) is a Greek comedy play written by the celebrated playwright Aristophanes.
The Essence of Christianity (Das Wesen des Christentums; historical orthography: Das Weſen des Chriſtenthums) is a book by Ludwig Feuerbach first published in 1841.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The System of Nature or, the Laws of the Moral and Physical World (Système de la Nature ou Des Loix du Monde Physique et du Monde Moral) is a work of philosophy by Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723–1789).
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.
Theodore "Ted" Michael Drange (born 1934) is a philosopher of religion and Professor Emeritus at West Virginia University, where he taught philosophy from 1966 to 2001.
Theodorus the Atheist (Θεόδωρος ὁ ἄθεος; c. 340 – c. 250 BC), of Cyrene, was a philosopher of the Cyrenaic school.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theological noncognitivism is the position that religious language – specifically, words such as "God" – are not cognitively meaningful.
The statement "There are no atheists in foxholes" is an aphorism used to argue that in times of extreme stress or fear, such as during war ("in foxholes"), all people will believe in, or hope for, a higher power (and there are therefore no atheists).
On 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
Truthdig is a news website that provides a mix of long-form articles, blog items, curated links, interviews, arts criticism and commentary on current events delivered from a politically progressive, left-leaning point of view.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Vashti Cromwell McCollum (November 6, 1912 – August 20, 2006) was the plaintiff in the landmark 1948 Supreme Court case McCollum v. Board of Education, which struck down religious education in public schools.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vergilius Ture Anselm Ferm (1896 – February 4, 1974 in Wooster, Ohio) was the Compton Professor of Philosophy at the College of Wooster.
Victor John Stenger (January 29, 1935 – August 25, 2014) was an American particle physicist, philosopher, author, and religious skeptic.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) was an international cooperation of independent market research and polling firms.
The Wisconsin State Journal is a daily newspaper published in Madison, Wisconsin by Lee Enterprises.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zofia Józefa Zdybicka (born 5 August 1928 in Kraśnik) is a nun and philosopher.
Aetheism, Aetheists, Aithism, Astheism, Astheist, Ateism, Atheism and behavior, Atheism and the Devil, Atheism/DR, Atheist, Atheistic, Atheists, Atheology, Athieism, Athieists, Athiesm, Athiest, Athiests, Attitudes toward atheism, Danger of religion, Danger of religions, Dangers of religion, Dangers of religions, Devil and atheism, Disbelief in God, Fundamentalist Atheism, Fundamentalist Atheist, Godlessness, Godlessness (atheism), No god, Pragmatic atheism, Protest atheism, The rationality of atheism, TheRationalityOfAtheism, Theoretical atheism, Without god.