396 relations: Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Achaeans (Homer), Achaemenid Empire, Achilles, Acquittal, Acropolis, Acropolis of Athens, Adamant, Aeacus, Aegean civilizations, Aegina, Aegis, Aelius Aristides, Aeschylus, Ageleia, Aglaurus, daughter of Cecrops, Ajax (play), Ajax the Great, Ajax the Lesser, Alcyoneus, Aleus, Alexander the Great, Amphitrite, Anat, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek art, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, Andrea Mantegna, Angelos (mythology), Antinous son of Eupeithes, Aphaea, Aphrodite, Apollo, Apotheosis, Apotropaic magic, Arachne, Arcadia, Ares, Argos, Armour, Arrhephoria, Artemis, Asia, Athena Alea, Athena Parthenos, Athena Promachos, Athenaeum, Athens, Attic calendar, ..., Attic Greek, Attica, Aulos, Austrian Parliament Building, Axe, Bartholomeus Spranger, Battle of Salamis, Bellerophon, Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Bird goddess, Bit (horse), Black Athena, Black-figure pottery, Brian Friel, Bridle, Britannia, British Museum, Britomartis, Bryn Mawr College, Bulgaria, Byblos, Cassandra, Catalogue of Ships, Cecrops I, Chalceia, Chariclo, Chariot, Charites, Chiton (costume), Chryselephantine sculpture, Classics, Clement of Alexandria, Clymenus, Clytemnestra, Constantinople, Convict, Corinthian helmet, Cratylus (dialogue), Crete, Cronus, Cult (religious practice), Cyclops, Cypria, D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Dactyl (mythology), Danaë, De Natura Deorum, Deiphobus, Delphi, Demeter, Democracy, Diomedes, Dione (Titaness), Dionysus, Doric Greek, Doric order, Dyeus, East Semitic languages, Eileithyia, Ejaculation, Electryone, Elis, Elizabeth I of England, Enceladus (mythology), Enyo, Epic Cycle, Epic poetry, Epithet, Epithets in Homer, Epitome, Erechtheion, Erichthonius of Athens, Erinyes, Eris (mythology), Ersa, Etymologicum Magnum, Eupeithes, Europa (mythology), Europe, Eusebius, Fable, Feminism, Fibula, Flaying, Freedom, French Revolution, Gaia, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Gandhara, Georgics, Giants (Greek mythology), Giuseppe Bottani, Glyptothek, Gorgon, Gorgoneion, Gortyn, Great Seal of California, Greco-Buddhist art, Greek drachma, Greek mythology, Hades, Hebe (mythology), Hector, Helen of Troy, Helios, Hellenism (religion), Helmet, Hephaestus, Hera, Heraclea Lucania, Heracles, Herma, Hermes, Herse, Hesiod, Hestia, Histories (Herodotus), Homer, Homeric Greek, Homeric Hymns, Horae, Hubris, Hygieia, Iliad, Inanna, India, Interpretatio graeca, Invidia, Ionic Greek, Ionic order, Itonia, Itonus, Jacques-Louis David, Jane Ellen Harrison, Jason, John Tzetzes, Joseph-Benoît Suvée, Judgement of Paris, Julius Firmicus Maternus, Jupiter (mythology), Jury, Justin Martyr, Kantharos, Kato Symi, Károly Kerényi, Knossos, Kofinas, Kylix, Labours of Hercules, Labrys, Laconia, Laertes, Larissa, Latin, Laws (dialogue), Leda (mythology), Leto, Library of Congress, Lindos, Linear A, Linear B, List of Aegean frescos, Litae, Logos, Louvre, Lydia, Maia, Mantineia, Marie de' Medici, Marinus of Neapolis, Marsyas, Martin Bernal, Martin P. Nilsson, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Medea, Medusa, Megara, Melanippides, Menelaus, Metamorphoses, Metis (mythology), Metope, Minerva, Minerva Fighting Mars, Minerva Protecting Peace from Mars, Minoan civilization, Minoan language, Minoan snake goddess figurines, Minor places in Beleriand, Minos, Modern Paganism, Moirai, Mount Ida, Mount Olympus, Mourning Athena, Muses, Mycenae, Mycenaean Greek, Myron, Nashville, Tennessee, Nausicaa, Neith, Nemean lion, Nike (mythology), Nous, Oceanus, Odysseus, Odyssey, Olive, Oresteia, Orestes, Orestes (play), Origin myth, Ovid, Owl, Owl of Athena, Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Palladium (classical antiquity), Pallas (daughter of Triton), Pallas (Giant), Pallas and the Centaur, Pamboeotia, Panama–Pacific commemorative coins, Panathenaic Games, Pandia, Pandrosus, Paris Bordone, Parthenogenesis, Parthenon, Parthenon (Nashville), Patriarchy, Pausanias (geographer), Pegasus, Peleus, Peloponnese, Pergamon Altar, Pericles, Persephone, Perseus, Peter Paul Rubens, Petrifaction in mythology and fiction, Pharsalia, Phi Delta Theta, Phidias, Philodemus, Philostratus of Lemnos, Phlegra (mythology), Phoenicia, Pindar, Place de la Concorde, Plato, Plutarch, Plynteria, Polis, Polychrome, Porphyry (philosopher), Poseidon, Potnia, Pre-Greek substrate, Priam, Priene, Priene Inscription, Priest, Proclus, Prometheus, Proto-Indo-European religion, Pylades, Pythia, Pythius of Priene, Rembrandt, Renaissance, René-Antoine Houasse, Rhadamanthus, Rhea (mythology), Rigveda, Robert Graves, Roman mythology, Sais, Egypt, Sanchuniathon, Sandro Botticelli, Saulė, Scheria, Scholia, Scylla, Scythe, Sea eagle, Second Persian invasion of Greece, Semele, Semen, Seppo Telenius, Shearwater, Sigmund Freud, Sinology, Snake, Sofia, Solar deity, Sophocles, Sparring, Sparta, Spear, Statue of Liberty, Stone palette, Suicide, Sulis, Sumer, Synoecism, Tegea, Temple of Aphaea, Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Tethys (mythology), Thebes, Greece, Theogony, Theseus, Thetis, Thomas Blennerhassett, Timaeus (dialogue), Tiresias, Toponymy, Trident, Tripod, Trita, Triton (mythology), Triumph of the Virtues (Mantegna), Trojan War, Troy, Tusculum, Tutelary deity, Twelve Olympians, Tydeus, Tyrian purple, Ugarit, Uranus (mythology), Vatican Museums, Vienna, Virgil, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Wagon, Walter Friedrich Otto, Weaving, Wicca, Wiccan views of divinity, Women in ancient warfare, Wool, Zeus. 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Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
The Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί Akhaioí, "the Achaeans" or "of Achaea") constitute one of the collective names for the Greeks in Homer's Iliad (used 598 times) and Odyssey.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.
An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.
Adamant and similar words are used to refer to any especially hard substance, whether composed of diamond, some other gemstone, or some type of metal.
Aeacus (also spelled Eacus; Ancient Greek: Αἰακός) was a mythological king of the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.
Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
The aegis (αἰγίς aigis), as stated in the Iliad, is carried by Athena and Zeus, but its nature is uncertain.
Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus (Αἴλιος Ἀριστείδης; 117–181 CE) was a Greek orator and author considered to be a prime example of the Second Sophistic, a group of celebrated and highly influential orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 CE.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Ageleia or Ageleis (Gr. Ἀγελεία or Ἀγεληῖς) was an epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, of somewhat obscure definition, mostly playing off the meaning of the Greek words ago (ἄγω), the verb for "leading" or "doing", and leia (λεία), a noun meaning "plunder" or "spoils", particularly herds of cattle.
Aglaurus (Ancient Greek: Ἄγλαυρος) or Agraulus (Ancient Greek: Ἄγραυλος) was in Greek mythology, an Athenian princess.
Sophocles' Ajax, or Aias (or; Αἴας, gen. Αἴαντος), is a Greek tragedy written in the 5th century BCE.
Ajax or Aias (or; Αἴας, gen. Αἴαντος Aiantos) is a mythological Greek hero, the son of King Telamon and Periboea, and the half-brother of Teucer.
Ajax (Αἴας Aias) was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the king of Locris.
Alcyoneus (Ἀλκυονεύς, Alkuoneus) was a traditional opponent of the hero Heracles.
In Greek mythology, Aleus (or Aleos) (Ἀλεός) was the king of Arcadia, eponym of Alea, and founder of the cult of Athena Alea.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (Ἀμφιτρίτη) was a sea goddess and wife of Poseidon and the queen of the sea.
Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
The ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, known in Sumerian as Kur and in Akkadian as Irkalla, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth".
Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.
In Greek mythology, Angelos (Ἄγγελος) or Angelia (Ἀγγελία) was a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became known as a chthonic deity.
In Greek mythology, Antinous (Ἀντίνοος), son of Eupeithes, is most known for his role in Homer’s Odyssey.
Aphaea (Ἀφαία, Aphaía) was a Greek goddess who was worshipped almost exclusively at a single sanctuary on the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic intended to turn away harm or evil influences, as in deflecting misfortune or averting the evil eye.
In Greek mythology (and later Roman mythology), Arachne (from ἀράχνη "spider", cognate with Latin araneus) was a talented mortal weaver who challenged Athena, goddess of wisdom and crafts, to a weaving contest; this hubris resulted in her being transformed into a spider.
Arcadia (Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
Arrhephoria was a feast among the Athenians, instituted in honor of Athena.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Alea (Greek: Ἀλέα) was an epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, prominent in Arcadian mythology, under which she was worshiped at Alea, Mantineia and Tegea.
Athena Parthenos (Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος; literally, "Athena the Virgin") is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens.
The Athena Promachos (Ἀθηνᾶ Πρόμαχος "Athena who fights in the front line") was a colossal bronze statue of Athena sculpted by Pheidias, which stood between the Propylaea and the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens.
Athenaeum referred to the Athenaeum, a school in ancient Rome.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
The Austrian Parliament Building (Parlamentsgebäude, colloquially das Parlament) in Vienna is where the two houses of the Austrian Parliament conduct their sessions.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
Bartholomeus Spranger (name variations: Bartholomaeus or Bartholomäus and Spraneers; at the Netherlands Institute for Art History 21 March 1546 in Antwerp – 1611 in Prague) was a Flemish painter, draughtsman, sculptor and etcher who became a painter to the imperial court in Prague.
The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.
Bellerophon (Βελλεροφῶν) or Bellerophontes (Βελλεροφόντης) is a hero of Greek mythology.
The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.
The term Bird goddess was coined by Marija Gimbutas with relation to figurines attributed to the neolithic Vinca culture.
A bit is a type of horse tack used in equestrian activities, usually made of metal, or a synthetic material.
Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, its three volumes first published in 1987, 1991, and 2006 respectively, is a scholarly work by Martin Bernal.
Black-figure pottery painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic (Greek, μελανόμορφα, melanomorpha) is one of the styles of painting on antique Greek vases.
Brian Patrick Friel (9 January 1929 – 2 October 2015), born in Omagh, Northern Ireland, was a dramatist, short story writer and founder of the Field Day Theatre Company.
A bridle is a piece of equipment used to direct a horse.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Britomartis (Βριτόμαρτις) was a Greek goddess of mountains and hunting, who was primarily worshipped on the island of Crete.
Bryn Mawr College (Welsh) is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
Cassandra or Kassandra (Ancient Greek: Κασσάνδρα,, also Κασάνδρα), also known as Alexandra, was a daughter of King Priam and of Queen Hecuba of Troy in Greek mythology.
The Catalogue of Ships (νεῶν κατάλογος, neōn katálogos) is an epic catalogue in Book 2 of Homer's Iliad (2.494-759), which lists the contingents of the Achaean army that sailed to Troy.
Cecrops (Κέκροψ, Kékrops; gen.: Κέκροπος) was a mythical king of Athens who, according to Eusebius reigned for fifty years.
The Chalkeia festival (also spelled Chalceia), the festival of Bronze-workers, was a religious festival devoted to the goddess Athena.
Chariclo (or; graceful spinner) is either of two nymphs in Greek mythology.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
In Greek mythology, a Charis (Χάρις) or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites (Χάριτες) or Graces.
A chiton (Greek: χιτών, khitōn) was a form of clothing.
Chryselephantine sculpture (from Greek χρυσός, chrysós, gold, and ελεφάντινος, elephántinos, ivory) is sculpture made with gold and ivory.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
In Greek mythology, Clymenus (notorious) may refer to multiple individuals.
Clytemnestra (Κλυταιμνήστρα, Klytaimnḗstra) was the wife of Agamemnon and queen of Mycenae (or sometimes Argos) in ancient Greek legend.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison".
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
A cyclops (Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps; plural cyclopes; Κύκλωπες, Kyklōpes), in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, is a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the center of his forehead.
The Cypria (Κύπρια Kúpria; Latin: Cypria) is a lost epic poem of ancient Greek literature, which has been attributed to Stasinus and was quite well known in classical antiquity and fixed in a received text, but which subsequently was lost to view.
Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson CB FRS FRSE (2 May 1860 – 21 June 1948) was a Scottish biologist, mathematician and classics scholar.
In Greek mythology, the Dactyls (from Greek Δάκτυλοι "fingers") were the archaic mythical race of male beings associated with the Great Mother, whether as Cybele or Rhea.
In Greek mythology, Danaë (Δανάη) was the daughter, and only child of King Acrisius of Argos and his wife Queen Eurydice.
De Natura Deorum (On the Nature of the Gods) is a philosophical dialogue by Roman orator Cicero written in 45 BC.
In Greek mythology, Deiphobus (Δηίφοβος Deiphobos) was a son of Priam and Hecuba.
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Diomedes (Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP, 2006. or) or Diomede (God-like cunning, advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War.
Dione (Διώνη, Diōnē) was an ancient Greek goddess, an oracular TitanessSmith, William.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.
Dyēus (also *Dyḗus Ph2tḗr, alternatively spelled dyēws) is believed to have been the chief deity in the religious traditions of the prehistoric Proto-Indo-European societies.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Eileithyia or Ilithyia (Εἰλείθυια;,Ἐλεύθυια (Eleuthyia) in Crete, also Ἐλευθία (Eleuthia) or Ἐλυσία (Elysia) in Laconia and Messene, and Ἐλευθώ (Eleuthō) in literature) was the Greek goddess of childbirth and midwifery.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
In Greek mythology, Electryone or Electryo or Alectrona (Doric form) was a daughter of Helios and Rhodos, and sister to the Heliadae.
Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
In Greek mythology, Enceladus (Ἐγκέλαδος Enkélados) was one of the Giants, the offspring of Gaia (Earth), and Uranus (Sky).
Enyo (Ancient Greek: Ἐνυώ) was a goddess of war in Classical Greek mythology.
The Epic Cycle (Ἐπικὸς Κύκλος, Epikos Kyklos) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems, composed in dactylic hexameter and related to the story of the Trojan War, including the Cypria, the Aethiopis, the so-called Little Iliad, the Iliupersis, the Nostoi, and the Telegony.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
A characteristic of Homer's style is the use of epithets, as in "rosy-fingered" dawn or "swift-footed" Achilles.
An epitome (ἐπιτομή, from ἐπιτέμνειν epitemnein meaning "to cut short") is a summary or miniature form, or an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiments.
The Erechtheion or Erechtheum (Ἐρέχθειον, Ερέχθειο) is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.
In Greek mythology, King Erichthonius was a legendary early ruler of ancient Athens.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).
Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of strife and discord.
In Greek mythology, Ersa or Herse (Ἔρσα Érsa, Ἕρση Hérsē, literally "dew") is the goddess of dew and the daughter of Zeus and the Moon (Selene), sister of Pandia and half-sister to Endymion's 50 daughters.
Etymologicum Magnum (Ἐτυμολογικὸν Μέγα, Ἐtymologikὸn Mέga) (standard abbreviation EM, or Etym. M. in older literature) is the traditional title of a Greek lexical encyclopedia compiled at Constantinople by an unknown lexicographer around 1150 AD.
In Greek mythology, Eupeithês (Εὐπείθης) was the father of Antinous, the leader of the suitors of Penelope.
In Greek mythology, Europa (Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē) was the mother of King Minos of Crete, a woman with Phoenician origin of high lineage, and after whom the continent Europe was named.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
Flaying, also known colloquially as skinning, is a method of slow and painful execution in which skin is removed from the body.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.
Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BC.
In Greek and Roman Mythology, the Giants, also called Gigantes (jye-GAHN-tees or gee-GAHN-tees; Greek: Γίγαντες, Gígantes, Γίγας, Gígas) were a race of great strength and aggression, though not necessarily of great size, known for the Gigantomachy (Gigantomachia), their battle with the Olympian gods.
Giuseppe Bottani (1717 – 1784) was an Italian painter active in the Baroque period.
The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence γλυπτο- glypto- "sculpture", from the Greek verb γλύφειν glyphein "to carve").
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.
In Ancient Greece, the Gorgoneion (Greek: Γοργόνειον) was a special apotropaic amulet showing the Gorgon head, used most famously by the Olympian deities Athena and Zeus: both are said to have worn the gorgoneion as a protective pendant.
Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.
The Great Seal of the State of California was adopted at the California state Constitutional Convention of 1849 and has undergone minor design changes since then, the last being the standardization of the seal in 1937.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector (Ἕκτωρ Hektōr) was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός, Ἑllēnismós), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ ἐθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism (Ὀλυμπιανισμός), refers to various religious movements that revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices, publicly, emerging since the 1990s.
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.
Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heraclea, also Heracleia or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), was an ancient city of Magna Graecia.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
A herma (ἑρμῆς, pl. ἑρμαῖ hermai), commonly in English herm, is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may also be carved at the appropriate height.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
In Greek mythology, Herse (Ἕρση "dew") may refer to the following figures.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
In Ancient Greek religion, Hestia (Ἑστία, "hearth" or "fireside") is a virgin goddess of the hearth, architecture, and the right ordering of domesticity, the family, the home, and the state.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.
The Homeric Hymns are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods.
In Greek mythology the Horae or Horai or Hours (Ὧραι, Hōrai,, "Seasons") were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time.
Hubris (from ancient Greek ὕβρις) describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence, often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.
In Greek as well as Roman mythology, Hygieia (also Hygiea or Hygeia; Ὑγιεία or Ὑγεία, Hygēa or Hygīa), was one of the Aeclepiadae; the sons and daughters of the god of medicine, Asclepius, and the goddess of healing, Epione.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
In Latin, invidia is the sense of envy, a "looking upon" associated with the evil eye, from invidere, "to look against, to look in a hostile manner." Invidia ("Envy") is one of the Seven Deadly Sins in Christian belief.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
Itonia, Itonias or Itonis (Gr. Ἰτωνία, Ἰτωνίας or Ἰτωνίς) was an epithet of the Greek goddess Athena worshiped widely in Thessaly and elsewhere.
In Greek mythology, Itonus was the son of Amphictyon.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
Jane Ellen Harrison (9 September 1850 – 15 April 1928) was a British classical scholar, linguist.
Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.
John Tzetzes (Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Ioánnis Tzétzis; c. 1110, Constantinople – 1180, Constantinople) was a Byzantine poet and grammarian who is known to have lived at Constantinople in the 12th century.
Joseph-Benoît Suvée (3 January 1743 – 9 February 1807) was a Flemish painter strongly influenced by French neo-classicism.
The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, which was one of the events that led up to the Trojan War and (in slightly later versions of the story) to the foundation of Rome.
Julius Firmicus Maternus was a Latin writer and notable astrologer, who received a pagan classical education that made him conversant with Greek; he lived in the reign of Constantine I (306 to 337 AD) and his successors.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Justin Martyr (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.
A kantharos (κάνθαρος) or cantharus is a type of ancient Greek cup used for drinking.
Kato Symi (Κάτω Σύμη) is a small historic village of Crete, in Heraklion regional unit, from Ierapetra and from Heraklion city.
Károly (Carl, Karl) Kerényi (Kerényi Károly,; 19 January 1897 – 14 April 1973) was a Hungarian scholar in classical philology and one of the founders of modern studies of Greek mythology.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
Kofinas (Κόφινας) is a former municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Crete, Greece.
In the pottery of ancient Greece, a kylix (κύλιξ, pl.; also spelled cylix; pl.: kylikes) is the most common type of wine-drinking cup.
--> The Twelve Labours of Heracles or of Hercules (ἆθλοι, hoi Hērakleous athloi) are a series of episodes concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes, whose name was later Romanised as Hercules.
Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrus) is, according to Plutarch (Quaestiones Graecae 2.302a) the Lydian word for the double-bitted axe called in Greek a πέλεκυς (pélekus).
Laconia (Λακωνία, Lakonía), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.
In Greek mythology, Laertes (Λαέρτης, Laértēs), also spelled Laërtes, was the son of Arcesius and Chalcomedusa.
Larissa (Λάρισα) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece according to the population results of municipal units of 2011 census and capital of the Larissa regional unit.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Laws (Greek: Νόμοι, Nómoi; Latin: De Legibus) is Plato's last and longest dialogue.
In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was an Aetolian princess who became a Spartan queen.
In Greek mythology, Leto (Λητώ Lētṓ; Λατώ, Lātṓ in Doric Greek) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, the sister of Asteria.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lindos (Λίνδος) is an archaeological site, a fishing village and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece.
Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
List of Aegean frescos is a list of Minoan, Mycenaean, and related frescos and quasi-frescos (not completed before the plaster dried) found at Bronze Age archaeological sites on islands and in and around the shores of the Aegean Sea and other relevant places in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Litae (Λιταί meaning 'Prayers') are personifications in Greek mythology.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Maia (or; Μαῖα; Maia), in ancient Greek religion, is one of the Pleiades and the mother of Hermes.
Mantineia (also Mantinea; Μαντίνεια; also Koine Greek Ἀντιγόνεια Antigoneia) was a city in ancient Arcadia, Greece that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Marinus (Μαρῖνος ὁ Νεαπολίτης; born c. 440 AD) was a Neoplatonist philosopher born in Flavia Neapolis (modern Nablus), Palestine.
In Greek mythology, the satyr Marsyas (Μαρσύας) is a central figure in two stories involving music: in one, he picked up the double oboe (aulos) that had been abandoned by Athena and played it; in the other, he challenged Apollo to a contest of music and lost his hide and life.
Martin Gardiner Bernal (10 March 1937 – 9 June 2013) was a British scholar of modern Chinese political history.
Martin Persson Nilsson (Stoby, Kristianstad County, 12 July 1874 – Lund, 7 April 1967) was a Swedish philologist, mythographer, and a scholar of the Greek, Hellenistic and Roman religious systems.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus (Μαυσωλεῖον τῆς Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ; Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene. The Mausoleum was approximately in height, and the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors—Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. The finished structure of the mausoleum was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century, the last surviving of the six destroyed wonders. The word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb.
In Greek mythology, Medea (Μήδεια, Mēdeia, მედეა) was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god Helios.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Melanippides of Melos (Μελανιππίδης), one of the most celebrated lyric poets in the use of dithyramb, and an exponent of the "new music.".
In Greek mythology, Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people," "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and the son of Atreus and Aerope.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Metis (Greek: Μῆτις - "wisdom," "skill," or "craft"), in ancient Greek religion, was a mythical Titaness belonging to the second generation of Titans.
In classical architecture, a metope (μετόπη) is a rectangular architectural element that fills the space between two triglyphs in a Doric frieze, which is a decorative band of alternating triglyphs and metopes above the architrave of a building of the Doric order.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
Minerva Fighting Mars (Combat de Mars contre Minerve) is a 1771 painting by Jacques-Louis David, now in the Louvre.
Minerva protecting Peace from Mars or Peace and War is a painting by Peter Paul Rubens.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
The Minoan language is the language (or languages) of the ancient Minoan civilization of Crete written in the Cretan hieroglyphs and later in the Linear A syllabary.
"Snake goddess" is a type of figurine depicting a woman holding a snake in each hand, as were found in Minoan archaeological sites in Crete.
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contains many locations.
In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
In Greek mythology, the Moirai or Moerae or (Μοῖραι, "apportioners"), often known in English as the Fates (Fata, -orum (n)), were the white-robed incarnations of destiny; their Roman equivalent was the Parcae (euphemistically the "sparing ones").
In Greek mythology, two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida, the "Mountain of the Goddess": Mount Ida in Crete; and Mount Ida in the ancient Troad region of western Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey) which was also known as the Phrygian Ida in classical antiquity and is the mountain that is mentioned in the Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
The so-called Mourning Athena is an Athenian marble relief dated circa 460 BC.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
Myron of Eleutherae (Μύρων), working c. 480 BC - 440 BC, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-5th century BC.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
Nausicaa (Ναυσικάα or Ναυσικᾶ,; also Nausicaä, Nausikaa) is a character in Homer's Odyssey.
Neith (or; also spelled Nit, Net, or Neit) is an early goddess in ancient Egyptian religion who was said to be the first and the prime creator.
The Nemean lion (Νεμέος λέων Neméos léōn; Leo Nemeaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived at Nemea.
In ancient Greek religion, Nike (Νίκη, "Victory") was a goddess who personified victory.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, Ὀdysseús), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses (Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
The Oresteia (Ὀρέστεια) is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes.
In Greek mythology, Orestes (Ὀρέστης) was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon.
Orestes (Ὀρέστης, Orestēs) (408 BCE) is an Ancient Greek play by Euripides that follows the events of Orestes after he had murdered his mother.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
In Greek mythology, a little owl (Athene noctua) traditionally represents or accompanies Athena, the virgin goddess of wisdom, or Minerva, her syncretic incarnation in Roman mythology.
The Oxford Classical Dictionary (OCD) is generally considered "the best one-volume dictionary on antiquity," an encyclopedic work in English consisting of articles relating to classical antiquity and its civilizations.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena that Odysseus and Diomedes stole from the citadel of Troy and which was later taken to the future site of Rome by Aeneas.
In Greek mythology, Pallas (Παλλάς) was the daughter of Triton.
In Greek mythology, Pallas (Πάλλας)) was one of the Gigantes (Giants), the offspring of Gaia, born from the blood of the castrated Uranus. According to the mythographer Apollodorus, during the Gigantomachy, the cosmic battle of the Giants with the Olympian gods, he was flayed by Athena who used his skin as a shield. Though the origin of Athena's epithet "Pallas" is obscure, according to a fragment from an unidentified play of Epicharmus (between c. 540 and c. 450 BC), Athena, after having used his skin for her cloak, took her name from the Giant Pallas. This story, related by Apollodorus and Epicharmus, is one of a number of stories in which Athena kills and flays an opponent, with its hide becoming her aegis. For example, Euripides tells that during "the battle the giants fought against the gods in Phlegra" that it was "the Gorgon" (possibly considered here to be one of the Giants) that Athena killed and flayed, while the epic poem Meropis, has Athena kill and flay the Giant Asterus, using his impenetrable skin for her aegis. Another of these flayed adversaries, also named Pallas, was said to be the father of Athena, who had tried to rape her. The late 4th century AD Latin poet Claudian in his Gigantomachia, has Pallas, as one of several Giants turned to stone by Minerva's Gorgon shield, calling out "What is happening to me? What is this ice that creeps o're all my limbs? What is this numbness that holds me prisoner in these marble fetters?" Pallas was also the name of a Titan, with whom the Giant is sometimes confused or identified.
Pallas and the Centaur is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli, c. 1482.
Pamboeotia (Gr. παμβοιώτια) was a major festive panegyris of all the Boeotians, celebrated probably annually.
The five Panama–Pacific commemorative coins were produced in connection with the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.
The Panathenaic Games were held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece from 566 BC to the 3rd century AD.
In Greek mythology, the goddess Pandia or Pandeia (Πανδία, Πανδεία, meaning "all brightness") was a daughter of Zeus and the goddess Selene, the Greek personification of the moon.
Pandrosos or Pandrosus (Ancient Greek: Πάνδροσος) was known in Greek myth as one of the three daughters of Kekrops, the first king of Athens, along with her sisters Aglauros and Herse.
Paris Bordon (or Paris Paschalinus Bordone; 5 July 1500 – 19 January 1571) was an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of Mannerist complexity and provincial vigor.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
The Parthenon in Centennial Park, Nashville, Tennessee is a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
Pegasus (Πήγασος, Pḗgasos; Pegasus, Pegasos) is a mythical winged divine stallion, and one of the most recognized creatures in Greek mythology.
In Greek mythology, Peleus (Πηλεύς, Pēleus) was a hero whose myth was already known to the hearers of Homer in the late 8th century BC.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Pergamon Altar is a monumental construction built during the reign of king Eumenes II in the first half of the 2nd century BC on one of the terraces of the acropolis of the ancient Greek city of Pergamon in Asia Minor.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Petrifaction, or petrification as defined as turning people to stone, is also a common theme in folklore and mythology, as well as in some works of modern fiction.
De Bello Civili (On the Civil War), more commonly referred to as the Pharsalia, is a Roman epic poem by the poet Lucan, detailing the civil war between Julius Caesar and the forces of the Roman Senate led by Pompey the Great.
Phi Delta Theta (ΦΔΘ), commonly known as Phi Delt, is an international social fraternity founded at Miami University in 1848 and headquartered in Oxford, Ohio.
Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.
Philodemus of Gadara (Φιλόδημος ὁ Γαδαρεύς, Philodēmos, "love of the people"; c. 110 – prob. c. 40 or 35 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher and poet.
Philostratus of Lemnos (Φιλόστρατος ὁ Λήμνιος; c. 190 – c. 230 AD), also known as Philostratus the Elder to distinguish him from Philostratus the Younger who was also from Lemnos, was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Phlegra (Φλέγρα) is both a real and a mythical location in both Greek and Roman mythology.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Plynteria (Gr. πλυντήρια) was a festival of ancient Greece celebrated at Athens every year, on the 22nd of Thargelion, in honor of Athena Polias, with the heroine Aglauros (or with the two combined as Athena Aglauros),Plutarch, Alcibiades 34 whose temple stood on the Acropolis.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors.
Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; فرفوريوس, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Potnia is an Ancient Greek word for "Mistress, Lady" and a title of a goddess.
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
In Greek mythology, Priam (Πρίαμος, Príamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son of Laomedon.
Priene (Priēnē; Prien) was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about north of the then course of the Maeander (now called the Büyük Menderes or "Big Maeander") River, from ancient Anthea, from ancient Aneon and from ancient Miletus.
The Priene Inscription is a dedicatory inscription by Alexander the Great that was discovered at the Temple of Athena Polias, in the city of Priene in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) in the nineteenth century.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς,, meaning "forethought") is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
In Greek mythology, Pylades (Πυλάδης) is the son of King Strophius of Phocis and of Anaxibia, who is the daughter of Atreus and sister of Agamemnon and Menelaus.
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
Pythius, also known as Pytheos or Pythis, was a Greek architect of the 4th century BC.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René-Antoine Houasse (c. 1645–1710) was a decorative French painter.
In Greek mythology, Rhadamanthus or Rhadamanthys (Ῥαδάμανθυς) was a wise king of Crete.
Rhea (Ῥέα) is a character in Greek mythology, the Titaness daughter of the earth goddess Gaia and the sky god Uranus as well as sister and wife to Cronus.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985), also known as Robert von Ranke Graves, was an English poet, historical novelist, critic, and classicist.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
Sais (Σάϊς, ⲥⲁⲓ) or Sa El Hagar (صا الحجر) was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile.
Sanchuniathon (Σαγχουνιάθων; probably from SKNYTN, Sakun-yaton, " Sakon has given") is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos, according to the Christian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Saulė (Saulė, Saule) is a solar goddess, the common Baltic solar deity in the Lithuanian and Latvian mythologies.
Scheria (Σχερίη or Σχερία)—also known as Scherie or Phaeacia—was a region in Greek mythology, first mentioned in Homer's Odyssey as the home of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus in his 10-year journey before returning home to Ithaca.
Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses.
In Greek mythology, Scylla (Σκύλλα,, Skylla) was a monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis.
A scytheOxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1933: Scythe is an agricultural hand tool for mowing grass or reaping crops.
A sea eagle (also called erne or ern, mostly in reference to the white-tailed eagle) is any of the birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
Semele (Σεμέλη Semelē), in Greek mythology, is a daughter of the Boeotian hero Cadmus and Harmonia, and the mother of Dionysus by Zeus in one of his many origin myths.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
Seppo Sakari Telenius (born 16 February 1954, in Porvoo, Finland) is a Finnish writer and historian who lives in Harjavalta.
Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
Sparring is a form of training common to many combat sports.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Stone palettes, also called toilet trays, are round trays commonly found in the areas of Bactria and Gandhara, which usually represent Greek mythological scenes.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
In localised Celtic polytheism practised in Britain, Sulis was a deity worshipped at the thermal spring of Bath (now in Somerset).
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Synoecism or synecism (συνοικισμóς, sunoikismos), also spelled synoikism, was originally the amalgamation of villages in Ancient Greece into poleis, or city-states.
Tegea (Τεγέα) was a settlement in ancient Arcadia, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece.
The Temple of Aphaia (Ναός Αφαίας) or Afea is located within a sanctuary complex dedicated to the goddess Aphaia on the Greek island of Aigina, which lies in the Saronic Gulf.
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was an ancient Greek temple in Olympia, Greece, dedicated to the god Zeus.
In Greek mythology, Tethys (Τηθύς), was a Titan daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and wife of Titan-god Oceanus, mother of the Potamoi and the Oceanids.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.
Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.
Thomas Blennerhassett (fl. 1584-1611) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1584 and 1611.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
In Greek mythology, Tiresias (Τειρεσίας, Teiresias) was a blind prophet of Apollo in Thebes, famous for clairvoyance and for being transformed into a woman for seven years.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
A trident is a three-pronged spear.
A tripod is a portable three-legged frame or stand, used as a platform for supporting the weight and maintaining the stability of some other object.
Trita ("the Third") is a minor deity of the Rigveda, mentioned 41 times.
Triton (Τρίτων Tritōn) is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the sea.
The Triumph of the Virtues (also known as Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue) is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Andrea Mantegna, executed in 1502.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.
In Greek mythology, Tydeus (Τυδεύς Tūdeus) was an Aeolian hero of the generation before the Trojan War.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani; Musea Vaticana) are Christian and art museums located within the city boundaries of the Vatican City.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, or VMFA, is an art museum in Richmond, Virginia, in the United States, which opened in 1936.
A wagon (also alternatively and archaically spelt waggon in British and Commonwealth English) is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals or on occasion by humans (see below), used for transporting goods, commodities, agricultural materials, supplies and sometimes people.
Walter Friedrich Gustav Hermann Otto (usually shortened to Walter F. Otto; 22 June 1874 in Hechingen – 23 September 1958 in Tübingen) was a German classical philologist particularly known for his work on the meaning and legacy of Greek religion and mythology, especially as represented in his seminal 1929 work The Homeric Gods.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wiccan views of divinity are generally theistic, and revolve around a Goddess and a Horned God, thereby being generally dualistic.
The role of women in ancient warfare differed from culture to culture.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
AthenA, Athena (mythology), Athena Ergane, Athena Nikephoros, Athena Pallas, Athena Polias, Athena and Minerva, Athena of the city, Athena the virgin, Athene, Athiná, Athēnâ, Athḗnē, Cydonia (goddess), Pallas Athena, Pallas Athena (goddess), Pallas Athene, Pallas-athena, Polias, That goddess that fell out of Zeus' head, Tritogeneia, Αθήνη, Ασάνα, Ἀθήνη, Ἀθηνᾶ.