177 relations: Abdominal obesity, Ageing, Air pollution, Alcohol (drug), American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, Aneurysm, Angina, Angiography, Angiology, Angioplasty, Antihypertensive drug, Antioxidant, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Aorta, ApoA-1 Milano, Arsenic poisoning, Arteriole, Arteriolosclerosis, Arteriosclerosis, Artery, Aspirin, Atheroma, Bacteria, Basophil, Blood, Blood pressure, C-reactive protein, Calcification, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac stress test, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Carotid endarterectomy, CETP inhibitor, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Cholesterol, Chromosome abnormality, Chronic stress, Coagulation, Collagen, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary circulation, Critical limb ischemia, CT scan, Cyclodextrin, ..., Cytokine, Deuterated drug, Developed country, Diabetes mellitus, DNA, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA damage theory of aging, DNA repair, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dyslipidemia, Elastin, Electrocardiography, Electron beam tomography, Endothelium, Enzyme, Extracellular matrix, Ezetimibe, Fibrate, Fibrous cap, Five prime untranslated region, Foam cell, Food pyramid (nutrition), Fred Kummerow, Gary Taubes, Göran K. Hansson, Genetically modified mouse, Glycated hemoglobin, Gruel, High-density lipoprotein, Homocysteine, Hounsfield scale, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertension, Hypothyroidism, Immune system, Infarction, Inflammation, Insulin resistance, Intima-media thickness, Intravascular ultrasound, Ischemia, Kidney failure, Korean War, Lesion, Lipid, Lipid peroxidation, Lipoprotein, Low-density lipoprotein, Low-fat diet, Lp-LpA2, Lumen (anatomy), Macrophage, Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Male, Mediterranean diet, Medscape, Metabolism, Microbiota, Microorganism, MicroRNA, MiR-33, Monocyte, Monounsaturated fat, Myocardial infarction, Nanobacterium, National Cholesterol Education Program, Necrosis, Niacin, Nitric oxide, Nurses' Health Study, Nutrient, Obesity, Organic peroxide, Oxygen, Oxysterol, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Periodontal disease, Peripheral artery disease, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, Phospholipid, Platelet, Polyunsaturated fat, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Principal investigator, Radical (chemistry), Rainer Liedtke, Rancidification, RecQ helicase, Saturated fat, Science (journal), Sedentary lifestyle, Senescence, Sleep deprivation, Smoking, Smooth muscle tissue, South Asia, Statin, Stenosis, Stent, Stroke, Systemic inflammation, Three prime untranslated region, Thrombophilia, Thrombus, Tissue factor, Tobacco smoking, Torcetrapib, Trans fat, Triglyceride, Trimethylamine N-oxide, Tunica intima, Tunica media, United States Department of Agriculture, Vascular bypass, Vascular smooth muscle, VCAM-1, Venous thrombosis, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vietnam War, Vulnerable plaque, Walter Willett, Werner syndrome, Western pattern diet, White blood cell, World War II, 8-Oxoguanine. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a United States-based nonprofit that seeks to educate the public about diabetes and to help those affected by it by funding research to manage, cure and prevent diabetes (including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes).
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
Angiology (from Greek ἀγγεῖον, angeīon, "vessel"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty which studies the diseases of the circulatory system and of the lymphatic system, i.e., arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels, and its diseases.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling and antioxidant research.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Apolipoprotein A-1 Milano (also ETC-216, now MDCO-216) is a naturally occurring mutated variant of the apolipoprotein A1 protein found in human HDL, the lipoprotein particle that carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver and is associated with protection against cardiovascular disease.
Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Arteriolosclerosis is a form of cardiovascular disease involving hardening and loss of elasticity of arterioles or small arteries and is most often associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure used to reduce the risk of stroke by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery.
A CETP inhibitor is a member of a class of drugs that inhibit cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP).
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of Chlamydophila, an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), also referred to as limb threat, is an advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD).
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Deuterated drug is a small molecule medicinal product in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms contained in the drug molecule have been replaced by its heavier stable isotope deuterium.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of computed tomography (CT) in which the X-ray tube is not mechanically spun in order to rotate the source of X-ray photons.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Ezetimibe is a drug that lowers plasma cholesterol levels.
In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids.
The fibrous cap is a layer of fibrous connective tissue, which is thicker and less cellular than the normal intima, found in atherosclerotic plaques.
The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) (also known as a leader sequence or leader RNA) is the region of an mRNA that is directly upstream from the initiation codon.
Foam cells are the fat-laden M2 macrophages that serve as the hallmark of early stage atherosclerotic lesion formation.
A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a triangular diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups.
Fred August Kummerow (October 4, 1914 – May 31, 2017) was a German-born American biochemist.
Gary Taubes (born April 30, 1956) is an American science writer.
Göran K. Hansson (born 1951), is a Swedish physician and medical researcher.
A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques.
Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.
Gruel is a food consisting of some type of cereal—oat, wheat or rye flour, or rice—boiled in water or milk.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.
The Hounsfield scale or CT numbers, named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Intima–media thickness (IMT), also called intimal medial thickness, is a measurement of the thickness of tunica intima and tunica media, the innermost two layers of the wall of an artery.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a medical imaging methodology using a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to the distal end of the catheter.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative degradation of lipids.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
A low-fat diet is one that restricts fat and often saturated fat and cholesterol as well.
Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 has been identified and verified in multiple human trials as an enzymatic activity which is an independent predictor of atherosclerotic disease progression and events in humans, including coronary heart disease, because it promotes oxidation of lipoproteins and certain fatty acids.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine which influences hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
The Mediterranean diet is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain in the 1940s and 1950s.
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
miR-33 is a family of microRNA precursors, which are processed by the Dicer enzyme to give mature microRNAs.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nanobacterium (pl. nanobacteria) is the unit or member name of a proposed class of living organisms, specifically cell-walled microorganisms with a size much smaller than the generally accepted lower limit for life (about 200 nm for bacteria, like mycoplasma).
The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
The Nurses Health Study (NHS), is a series of prospective studies that examine epidemiology and the long-term effects of nutrition, hormones, environment, and nurses' work-life on health and disease development.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol which may be important in many biological processes, including.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.
A principal investigator (PI) is the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Rainer Kurt Liedtke (16 September 1943 – 15 September 2012) was a German physician, scientist and entrepreneur who specialised in the theory and practice of biomedical information systems and medical innovation, and new therapies of pain, stress, cell degeneration.
Rancidity is the complete or incomplete oxidation or hydrolysis of fats and oils when exposed to air, light, moisture or by bacterial action, resulting in unpleasant taste and odor, which may be described as rancidity.
RecQ helicase is a family of helicase enzymes initially found in Escherichia coli that has been shown to be important in genome maintenance.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Chronic systemic inflammation (SI) is the result of release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from immune-related cells and the chronic activation of the innate immune system.
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
Thrombophilia (sometimes hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels).
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142 is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Torcetrapib (CP-529,414, Pfizer) was a drug being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and prevent cardiovascular disease.
Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NO.
The tunica intima (New Latin "inner coat"), or intima for short, is the innermost tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
The tunica media (New Latin "middle coat"), or media for short, is the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
A vascular bypass (or vascular graft) is a surgical procedure performed to redirect blood flow from one area to another by reconnecting blood vessels.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 also known as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or cluster of differentiation 106 (CD106) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VCAM1 gene.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
A vulnerable plaque is a kind of atheromatous plaque – a collection of white blood cells (primarily macrophages) and lipids (including cholesterol) in the wall of an artery – that is particularly unstable and prone to produce sudden major problems such as a heart attack or stroke.
Walter C. Willett (born June 20, 1945, in Hart, Michigan), is an American physician and nutrition researcher.
Werner syndrome (WS), also known as "adult progeria",James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).
The Western pattern diet or Standard American Diet (SAD) is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of red and processed meat, butter, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, potatoes, and high-sugar drinks.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
8-Oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine, 8-oxo-Gua, or OH8Gua) is one of the most common DNA lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species and can result in a mismatched pairing with adenine resulting in G to T and C to A substitutions in the genome.
Arterial sclerosis, Arteriosclerotic, Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, Arterosclerosis, Atherisclerosis, Atherogenesis, Atherogenic, Atheromae, Atheromas, Atheromatous disease, Atherosclerotic, Atherosclerotic plaques, Atherosclerotic vascular disease, Atherosclosis, Clogged arteries, Coronary Arteriosclerosis, Coronary arteriosclerosis, Coronary atherosclerosis, Coronary sclerosis, Diet, atherogenic, Hardening of the arteries, Hemorheologic-Hemodynamic Theory of Atherosclerosis, Hemorheologic-hemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis, Homogenized Milk and Atherosclerosis, Intracranial arteriosclerosis, Intracranial stenosis, Macroangiopathy, Unstable plaque.