305 relations: Abolitionism, Abolitionism in the United States, Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, Afonso I of Kongo, Africa, African Americans, African diaspora, African empires, Afro-Eurasia, Agence France-Presse, Akan people, Alex Haley, Ambundu, American Broadcasting Company, American Civil War, American Colonization Society, Americas, Ana Lucia Araujo, Angola, Annual Customs of Dahomey, Arab slave trade, Archibald Dalzel, Aro Confederacy, Article One of the United States Constitution, Ashanti Empire, Asia, Asiento, Associated Press, Atlantic history, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic slave trade to Brazil, Aztecs, Bamana Empire, Bantu peoples, Barack Obama, Barbados, Barbary pirates, Barbary slave trade, BBC News, Belize, Benguela, Benin, Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra, Birmingham, Bissagos Islands, Bob Riley, Bonny, Rivers, Brazil, Bristol, ..., British Empire, British Guiana, British North America, Cambria Press, Cameroon, Campeche City, Canary Islands, Caribbean, Central Africa, Chamba people, Chicago Tribune, Christendom, Clotilda (slave ship), Coffeehouse, Colombia, Conquest of the Canary Islands, Costa Rica, Cotton, Crimes against humanity, Cuba, Cudjoe Lewis, Dahomey, Daily Mail, Danish West Indies, Das Kapital, David Livingstone, David Stannard, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Durban, Dutch Caribbean, Dutch Empire, Dysentery, Economic history, Economic history of the United Kingdom, El Salvador, Elmina, Emigration, Endemic warfare, English overseas possessions, Epidemic, Equatorial Guinea, Eric Williams, Ethnic groups in Europe, Europe, European colonization of the Americas, Florida, Fox News, France, French colonial empire, French people, French West Indies, Gabon, Gbe languages, Genealogy, Ghana, Gold, Gold Coast (British colony), Google News, Guanches, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gun Quarter, Haiti, Haitian Revolution, Harvard University, Hernán Cortés, Hispaniola, History of slavery, Honduras, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Howard Winant, Iberian Union, Igala people, Igbo people, Igbo people in the Atlantic slave trade, Imbangala, Indentured servitude, Indian indenture system, Indian Ocean, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Industrial Revolution, International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition, International migration, International Slavery Museum, Islam, Ivory Coast, Jacques Chirac, Jaja of Opobo, Jamaica, James Madison, James Watt, Jamestown, Virginia, Jerry Rawlings, Jesse Jackson, John Fage, John Hawkins (naval commander), John Henrik Clarke, John III of Portugal, John Thornton (historian), Joseph C. Miller, Kaabu, Karl Marx, Ken Livingstone, Khasso, King Leopold's Ghost, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Kongo, Kongo Civil War, Kongo people, Le Monde diplomatique, Leeward Islands, Liberia, List of ethnic groups of Africa, List of Governors of Alabama, Liverpool, Liverpool City Council, London, Luc Gnacadja, Madagascar, Makua people, Manchester, Mandé peoples, Manikongo, Maryland, Mathieu Kérékou, Maya civilization, Mayor of London, Mexico, Middle East, Middle Passage, Milton Meltzer, Mobile, Alabama, Molasses, Montserrat, Mortality rate, Mozambique, Mungo Park (explorer), Musket, Muslim world, National Museums Liverpool, Netherlands, New France, New World, Niger Delta, Niger River, Nigeria, North Carolina, Old World, Ovimbundu, Oyo Empire, Partus sequitur ventrem, Pepper Coast, Pierre Chaunu, Piracy, Plantation, Portugal, Portuguese Angola, Portuguese colonization of the Americas, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese people, President of the United States, Prisoner of war, Quakers, Rastafari, Reconstruction era, Red Sea, Reggae, Republic of the Congo, Richard Pares, Roger van Boxtel, Roots (1977 miniseries), Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Royal African Company, Royal Navy, Rum, Sahara, Saint-Domingue, San Miguel de Guadalupe, Seasoning (colonialism), Senegal, Senegambia Confederation, Shortage, Sierra Leone, Slave Coast of West Africa, Slave ship, Slave Trade Act, Slave Trade Act 1807, Slave Trade Act of 1794, Slavery, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Slavery in Africa, Slavery in Canada, Slavery in contemporary Africa, Slavery in medieval Europe, Slavery in the colonial United States, Slavery in the United States, Somalis, South Africa, Southeast Alaska, Spain, Spaniards, Spanish Empire, Spice, Stanley Engerman, Sugar, Swahili people, The Gambia, The Washington Post, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Kitchin, Timeline of historic inventions, Tlingit, Tobacco, Togo, Tony Blair, Trans-Saharan trade, Treaty of Paris (1814), Triangular trade, Tribal chief, Trinidad, Tropical disease, Tupi people, Uganda, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United Nations Slavery Memorial, United States, United States Congress, United States House of Representatives, United States labor law, United States Senate, University of North Carolina Press, Upper Guinea, Viking Press, Virginia, Virginia General Assembly, Volume (finance), W. E. B. Du Bois Institute, Walter Rodney, War, West Africa, West Africa Squadron, West Indies, Western Europe, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, William Wilberforce, Wolof people, World Conference against Racism, Yoruba people, Yoweri Museveni. Expand index (255 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 (enacted March 2, 1807) is a United States federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States.
Mvemba a Nzinga or Nzinga Mbemba (c. 1456–1542 or 1543), also known as King Afonso I, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
African empires is an umbrella term used in African studies to refer to a number of pre-colonial African kingdoms in Africa with multinational structures incorporating various populations and polities into a single entity, usually through conquest.
Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia,Field, Henry. "", American Anthropologist, New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia, or nicknamed the World Island) is a landmass which can be subdivided into Africa and Eurasia (which can be further subdivided into Asia and Europe).
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana.
Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer and the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family. ABC adapted the book as a television miniseries of the same name and aired it in 1977 to a record-breaking audience of 130 million viewers.
The Northern Mbundu or Ambundu (distinct from the Southern Mbundu or Ovimbundu) are a Bantu people living in Angola's North-West, North of the river Kwanza.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ana Lucia Araujo (born in 1971) is a Brazilian-born Canadian historian, author and professor of History at Howard University.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Annual Customs of Dahomey (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon) were the main yearly celebration in the Kingdom of Dahomey, held at the capital, Abomey.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
Archibald Dalzel (1740 – 1811) was a British adventurer and Governor of the Gold Coast (now Ghana).
The Aro Confederacy (1690–1902) was a political union orchestrated by the Aro people, Igbo subgroup, centered in Arochukwu in present-day southeastern Nigeria.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, they were included in some peace treaties, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product, an example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of African slaves in the Spanish colonies.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Atlantic history is a specialty field in history that studies of the Atlantic World in the early modern period.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade to Brazil refers to the period of history in which there was a forced migration of Africans to Brazil. It lasted from the mid-sixteenth century until the mid-nineteenth century . African, Portuguese, Dutch, British and Brazilians dominated a trade that involved the movement of more than 3 million people. It was divided into four phases.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Bamana Empire (also Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barbary slave trade refers to the slave markets that were extremely lucrative and vast on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benguela (São Felipe de Benguela, formerly spelled Benguella) is a city in western Angola, south of Luanda, and capital of Benguela Province.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
The Bight of Benin or Bay of Benin is a bight in the Gulf of Guinea area on the western African coast.
The Bight of Biafra (also known as the Bight of Bonny) is a bight off the West African coast, in the easternmost part of the Gulf of Guinea.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Bissagos Islands, also spelled Bijagós (Arquipélago dos Bijagós), are a group of about 88 islands and islets located in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the African nation of Guinea-Bissau.
Robert Renfroe Riley (born October 3, 1944) is an American politician and a member of the Republican Party who served as the 52nd Governor of Alabama from 2003 to 2011.
Bonny (or Ubani) is an island town and a Local Government Area in Rivers State in southern Nigeria, on the Bight of Bonny.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Guiana was the name of the British colony, part of the British West Indies (Caribbean), on the northern coast of South America, now known as the independent nation of Guyana.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Cambria Press is an independent academic publisher based in Amherst, New York.
San Francisco de Campeche (Ahk'ìin Pech) is a city in Campeche Municipality in the state of Campeche—located at, on the shore of the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico—and its municipal seat also serves as the state's capital city.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Chamba people, also known as Samba, Tchamba, Tsamba, Daka and Chamba-Ndagan, are an African ethnic group found in the Gongola State of east-central Nigeria and neighboring parts of north Cameroon.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
Christendom has several meanings.
The schooner Clotilda (often misspelled Clotilde) was the last known U.S. slave ship to bring captives from Africa to the United States, arriving at Mobile Bay in autumn 1859 or July 9, 1860, with 110-160 slaves.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The conquest of the Canary Islands by the Crown of Castille took place between 1402 and 1496.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cudjoe Kazoola Lewis (c. 1840 – July 17, 1935), or Cudjo Lewis or Oluale Kossola, was the last known survivor of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and the United States.
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom (located within the area of the present-day country of Benin) that existed from about 1600 until 1894, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, and the country was annexed into the French colonial empire.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Danish West Indies (Dansk Vestindien) or Danish Antilles was a Danish colony in the Caribbean, consisting of the islands of Saint Thomas with; Saint John with; and Saint Croix with.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Christian Congregationalist, pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society, an explorer in Africa, and one of the most popular British heroes of the late-19th-century Victorian era.
David Edward Stannard (born 1941) is an American historian and Professor of American Studies at the University of Hawaii.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the economic history of England and Great Britain from 1500 to the early 21st century.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elmina is a town and the capital of the Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem District on the south coast of South Ghana in the Central Region, situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, west of Cape Coast.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Endemic warfare is a state of continual or frequent warfare, such as is found in some tribal societies (but is not limited to tribal societies).
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
The Rt Hon. Dr. Eric Eustace Williams TC, CH (25 September 1911 – 29 March 1981) served as the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
The Gbe languages (pronounced) form a cluster of about twenty related languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957.
Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google.
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
The Gun Quarter is a district of the city of Birmingham, England, which was for many years a centre of the world's gun-manufacturing industry, specialising in the production of military firearms and sporting guns.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
How Europe Underdeveloped Africa is a 1972 book written by Walter Rodney that takes the view that Africa was deliberately exploited and underdeveloped by European colonial regimes.
Howard Winant (born 1946) is an American sociologist and race theorist.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
The Igala are an ethnic group of Nigeria.
The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.
The Igbo in the Atlantic slave trade became one of the main ethnic groups enslaved in the era lasting between the 16th and late 19th century.
The Imbangala or Mbangala were 17th century groups of Angolan warriors and marauders who founded the Kasanje Kingdom.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
The Indian indenture system was a system of indenture, a form of debt bondage, by which 3.5 million Indians were transported to various colonies of European powers to provide labour for the (mainly sugar) plantations.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition, August 23 of each year, the day designated by UNESCO to memorialize the transatlantic slave trade.
International migration occurs when peoples cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of time.
The International Slavery Museum is a museum located in Liverpool, England that focuses on the history and legacy of the transatlantic slave trade.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
King Jaja of Opobo (full name: Jubo Jubogha; 1821–1891) was a merchant prince and the founder of Opobo city-state in an area that is now the Rivers state of Nigeria.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jerry John Rawlings (born 22 June 1947) is a former head of state and president of Ghana.
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (né Burns; born October 8, 1941) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and politician.
John Donnelly Fage (3 June 1921 – 6 August 2002) was a British historian.
Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns) (1532 – 12 November 1595) was an English slave trader, naval commander and administrator, merchant, navigator, shipbuilder and privateer.
John Henrik Clarke (born John Henry Clark, January 1, 1915 – July 12, 1998), was an American historian, professor, and a pioneer in the creation of Pan-African and Africana studies, and professional institutions in academia starting in the late 1960s.
John III (João III; 7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557) nicknamed "o Colonizador" (English: "The Colonizer") was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557.
John K. Thornton is an American historian specializing in the history of Africa, the African Diaspora and the Atlantic world.
Joseph Calder Miller (born 1939) has been the T. Cary Johnson Jr.
The Kaabu Empire (1537–1867), also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu', was a Mandinka empire of Senegambia centered within modern northeastern Guinea-Bissau, Larger parts of today's Gambia; Kingdom of Saloum, extending into Koussanar, Koumpentoum regions of South Eastern Senegal, and Casamance in Senegal.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London from the creation of the office in 2000 until 2008.
Khasso or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the 17th to 19th centuries, occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the Kayes Region of Mali.
King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1998) is a best-selling popular history book by Adam Hochschild that explores the exploitation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium between 1885 and 1908, as well as the large-scale atrocities committed during that period.
The Kingdom of Benin, also known as the Benin Kingdom, was a pre-colonial kingdom in what is now southern Nigeria.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
The Kongo Civil War (1665–1709) was an internal conflict between rival houses of the Kingdom of Kongo.
The Kongo people (Kongo: Esikongo (singular: Mwisikngo, also Bakongo (singular: Mukongo) "since about 1910 it is not uncommon for the term Bakongo (singular Mukongo) to be used, especially in areas north of the Zaire river, and by intellectuals and anthropologists adopting a standard nomenclature for Bantu-speaking peoples." J. K. Thornton, "Mbanza Kongo / São Salvador" in Anderson (ed.), Africa's Urban Past (2000)) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well organized Kongo kingdom, but is now a part of three countries. Their highest concentrations are found south of Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo, southwest of Pool Malebo and west of the Kwango River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and north of Luanda, Angola., Encyclopædia Britannica They are the largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries they are found in. In 1975, the Kongo population was reported as 10,220,000. The Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE, and began converting to Catholicism in the late 15th century. They were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s, then succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century. The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th century. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese, Belgian and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance. They now occupy influential positions in the politics, administration and business operations in the three countries they are most found in.
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The Leeward Islands are a group of islands situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
The Governor of Alabama is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Alabama.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Liverpool City Council is the governing body for the city of Liverpool in Merseyside, England.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Luc-Marie Constant Gnacadja or simply Luc Gnacadja is a Beninese politician and architect.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Makua people, also known as Makhuwa, are a southeastern African ethnic group predominantly found in north Mozambique and southern border provinces of Tanzania such as the Mtwara Region.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mandé is a family of ethnic groups in Western Africa who speak any of the many related Mande languages of the region.
The Manikongo or Mwene Kongo was the title of the rulers of the Kingdom of Kongo, a kingdom that existed from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries and consisted of land in present-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mathieu Kérékou (2 September 1933 – 14 October 2015) was a Beninese politician who served as President of Benin from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mayor of London is the head of the executive body of the Greater London Authority.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
Milton Meltzer (May 8, 1915 – September 19, 2009) was an American historian and author best known for his history nonfiction books on Jewish, African-American, and American history.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mungo Park (11 September 1771 – 1806) was a Scottish explorer of West Africa.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
National Museums Liverpool, formerly National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside, comprises several museums and art galleries in and around Liverpool, England.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The Niger Delta is the delta of the Niger River sitting directly on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Ovimbundu, also known as the Southern Mbundu, are a Bantu ethnic group who lives on the Bié Plateau of central Angola and in the coastal strip west of these highlands.
The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.
Partus sequitur ventrem, often abbreviated to partus, in the British American colonies and later in the United States, was a legal doctrine which the English royal colonies incorporated in legislation related to the status of children born in the colonies and the definitions of slavery.
Pepper Coast was the name given by European traders to a coastal area of western Africa, between Cape Mesurado and Cape Palmas.
Pierre Chaunu (17 August 1923 – 22 October 2009) was a French historian.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Richard Pares (25 August 1902 – 3 May 1958) was a British historian.
Roger Henri Ludovic Maria van Boxtel (born 8 February 1954 in Tilburg) is a Dutch politician and business executive.
Roots is an American television miniseries based on Alex Haley's 1976 novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family.
Roots: The Saga of an American Family is a novel written by Alex Haley and first published in 1976.
The Royal African Company (RAC) was an English mercantile (trading) company set up by the Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
San Miguel de Guadalupe, founded in 1526 by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón,In early 1521, Ponce de León had made a poorly documented, disastrous attempt to plant a colony near Charlotte Harbor, Florida but was quickly repulsed by the native Calusa.
Seasoning, or The Seasoning, is the term applied to the period of adjustment that was undertaken by African slaves and European immigrants following their first attack of tropical disease, during the colonization of the Americas.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal.
In economics, a shortage or excess demand is a situation in which the demand for a product or service exceeds its supply in a market.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
The Slave Coast is a historical name formerly used for parts of coastal West Africa along the Bight of Benin.
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves.
Slave Trade Act is a stock short title used for legislation in the United Kingdom and the United States that relates to the slave trade.
The Slave Trade Act 1807, officially An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire.
The Slave Trade Act of 1794 was a law passed by the United States Congress that limited American involvement in the international slave trade.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.
Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.
Slavery in Canada includes both that practised by First Nations from earliest times and that under European colonization.
The continent of Africa is one of the regions most rife with contemporary slavery.
Slavery had mostly died out in western Europe about the year 1000, replaced by serfdom.
Slavery in the colonial area which later became the '''United States''' (1600–1776) developed from complex factors, and researchers have proposed several theories to explain the development of the institution of slavery and of the slave trade.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Stanley Lewis Engerman (born March 14, 1936) is an economist and economic historian at the University of Rochester.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Kitchin (or Thomas Kitchen) (1718–1784) was an English engraver and cartographer, who became hydrographer to the king.
The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions and the people who created the inventions.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies.
Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
The Tupi people were one of the most important indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Nations Slavery Memorial, officially known as The Permanent Memorial at the United Nations in Honour of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade, is an installation at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City intended as a permanent reminder of the long-lasting effects of slavery and the slave trade.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
United States labor law sets the rights and duties for employees, labor unions, and employers in the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
Upper Guinea is a geographical term used in several contexts.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619.
In capital markets, volume, or trading volume, is the amount (total number) of a security (or a given set of securities, or an entire market) that was traded during a given period of time.
The W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research is located at Harvard University and was established in 1969.
Walter Anthony Rodney (23 March 1942 – 13 June 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian, political activist and academic.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron at substantial expense in 1808 after Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law.
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.
The World Conference Against Racism (WCAR) is a series of international events organized by UNESCO to promote struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
Yoweri Museveni (born 15 September 1944) is a Ugandan politician who has been the President of Uganda since 1986.
Atlantic Slave Trade, Atlantic Slave trade, Atlantic Trade, Atlantic economy, Atlantic economym, Black slave, Black slaves, British Transatlantic Slave Trade, Enslaved Africans, European slave trade, International slave trade, Slave trade (Americas), Slave trade in the Americas, Slave triangle, The Atlatnic EConomy, Tobacco and the Atlantic slave trade, Tobacco and the atlantic slave trade, Trans Atlantic Slave Trade, Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Transatlantic Slave Trade, Transatlantic slave trade, Tri-Atlantic slave trade.