192 relations: Absorption spectroscopy, Aerial perspective, Aerosol, Air (classical element), Airglow, Airliner, Airshed, Ammonia, Animal, Apollo 12, Archean, Argon, Asteroid, Astronaut, Atmosphere, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric dispersion modeling, Atmospheric electricity, Atmospheric entry, Atmospheric models, Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Atmospheric sciences, Aurora, Aviation, Ballistics, Banded iron formation, Barometric formula, Biosphere, Black body, Breathing, Breathing gas, Cambrian, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Chemical compound, Chemical substance, Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Compressed air, COSPAR international reference atmosphere, Cumulonimbus cloud, Curvature, Cyanobacteria, Daytime, Deep Space Climate Observatory, Diurnal temperature variation, Drag (physics), ..., Dust, E (mathematical constant), Earth, Eclipse, Environmental impact of aviation, Equator, Exosphere, F region, Faint young Sun paradox, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Fluorine, Gabon, Gas, Gas giant, Geologic time scale, Geomagnetic storm, Geophysical Research Letters, Global dimming, Global temperature record, Global warming, Gravity of Earth, Great Oxygenation Event, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gas, Halo (optical phenomenon), Helium, High frequency, Horizon, Human impact on the environment, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrosphere, Hypermobility (travel), Ice crystals, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Infrared, Infrared window, Instrumental temperature record, Interglacial, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Space Station, International Standard Atmosphere, Inversion (meteorology), Ionosphere, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Jupiter, Kármán line, Kinetic theory of gases, Kyoto Protocol, Late Heavy Bombardment, Léon Teisserenc de Bort, Leaching (agriculture), Life, Lithosphere, Low-pressure area, Magnetosphere, Mass, Mean free path, Mercury (element), Mesopause, Meteoroid, Methane, Mirage, Mole fraction, Nanometre, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Neon, Night, Nitrogen, Noctilucent cloud, North American X-15, Ocean current, Opacity (optics), Optical window, Organic matter, Outer space, Overcast, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Paleoatmosphere, Particulates, Parts-per notation, Percentage, Phanerozoic, Photon, Photosynthesis, Planetary boundary layer, Planetary surface, Plate tectonics, Polar stratospheric cloud, Pollen, Pollutant, Pyrite, Radiation, Radio wave, Radio window, Rayleigh scattering, Redox, Reflection (physics), Refractive index, Richard Assmann, Saturn, Scale height, Scientific consensus, Sea spray, Solar irradiance, Solar wind, Sounding rocket, Space Shuttle, Speed of sound, Spore, Stable isotope ratio, Stratopause, Stratosphere, Stromatolite, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sun, Terrestrial animal, Terrestrial plant, The New York Times, Thermopause, Thermosphere, Tonne, Tropopause, Troposphere, Turbopause, Turbulence, Types of volcanic eruptions, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, Ultraviolet, Upper-atmospheric lightning, Visible spectrum, Volcanic ash, Volcanism, Volume fraction, Water, Water vapor, Weather balloon. Expand index (142 more) » « Shrink index
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.
Airglow (also called nightglow) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
An airshed is a part of the atmosphere that behaves in a coherent way with respect to the dispersion of emissions.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere.
Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet).
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Static atmospheric models describe how the ideal gas properties (namely: pressure, temperature, density, and molecular weight) of an atmosphere change, primarily as a function of altitude.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Climate Research Facility) is a United States Department of Energy scientific user facility for the study of global climate change by the national and international research community.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.
The barometric formula, sometimes called the exponential atmosphere or isothermal atmosphere, is a formula used to model how the pressure (or density) of the air changes with altitude.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure.
The COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) is an empirical model of the atmosphere of Earth.
Cumulonimbus, from the Latin cumulus ("heaped") and nimbus ("rainstorm"), is a dense, towering vertical cloud, forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents.
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
On Earth, daytime is roughly the period of the day during which any given point in the world experiences natural illumination from especially direct sunlight.
Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR; formerly known as Triana, unofficially known as GoreSat) is a NOAA space weather and Earth observation satellite.
In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs during the same day.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.
The F region of the ionosphere is home to the F layer of ionization, also called the Appleton–Barnett layer, after the English physicist Edward Appleton and New Zealander Miles Barnett.
The faint young Sun paradox or faint young Sun problem describes the apparent contradiction between observations of liquid water early in Earth's history and the astrophysical expectation that the Sun's output would be only 70 percent as intense during that epoch as it is during the modern epoch.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
The global temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by, refers to the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Halo (from Greek ἅλως, halōs) is the name for a family of optical phenomena produced by sunlight interacting with ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz).
The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
Hypermobile travelers are "highly mobile individuals" who take "frequent trips, often over great distances." They "account for a large share of the overall kilometres travelled, especially by air." These people contribute significantly to the overall amount of airmiles flown within a given society.
Ice crystals are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering on various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The infrared atmospheric window is the overall dynamic property of the earth's atmosphere, taken as a whole at each place and occasion of interest, that lets some infrared radiation from the cloud tops and land-sea surface pass directly to space without intermediate absorption and re-emission, and thus without heating the atmosphere.
The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures.
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.
In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.
Léon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort (5 November 1855 in Paris, France – 2 January 1913 in Cannes, France) was a French meteorologist and a pioneer in the field of aerology.
In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The mesopause is the temperature minimum at the boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere atmospheric regions.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a US federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Night or nighttime (sp. night-time or night time) is the period of time between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Noctilucent clouds, or night shining clouds, are tenuous cloud-like phenomena in the upper atmosphere of Earth.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
The meaning of this term depends on the context.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Overcast or overcast weather, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization, is the meteorological condition of clouds obscuring at least 95% of the sky.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
A paleoatmosphere (or palaeoatmosphere) is an atmosphere, particularly that of Earth, at some unspecified time in the geological past.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In meteorology the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere.
A planetary surface is where the solid (or liquid) material of the outer crust on certain types of astronomical objects contacts the atmosphere or outer space.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), also known as nacreous clouds (from nacre, or mother of pearl, due to its iridescence), are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
The radio window is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation that the earth's atmosphere lets through.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Richard Assmann (Anglicized spelling of the German name Richard Aßmann); (13 April 1845 in Magdeburg – 28 May 1918 in Gießen) was a German meteorologist and physician who was a native of Magdeburg.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
In various scientific contexts, a scale height is a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e (approximately 2.72, the base of natural logarithms).
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Sea spray refers to aerosol particles that are formed directly from the ocean, mostly by ejection into the atmosphere by bursting bubbles at the air-sea interface.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
The stratopause (formerly Mesopeak) is the level of the atmosphere which is the boundary between two layers: the stratosphere and the mesosphere.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).
A terrestrial plant is a plant that grows on or in or from land.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The thermopause is the atmospheric boundary of Earth's energy system, located at the top of the thermosphere.
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earth's atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
The U.S. Standard Atmosphere is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
In chemistry, the volume fraction φi is defined as the volume of a constituent Vi divided by the volume of all constituents of the mixture V prior to mixing: Being dimensionless, its unit is 1; it is expressed as a number, e.g., 0.18.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A weather or sounding balloon is a balloon (specifically a type of high-altitude balloon) that carries instruments aloft to send back information on atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed by means of a small, expendable measuring device called a radiosonde.
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