247 relations: Ablation, Adiabatic process, Aerocapture, Aerodynamic heating, Aerojet, Aeroshell, Aircraft, Alfred J. Eggers, Alloy, Altitude, Aluminium, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Ames Research Center, Angle of attack, Annealing (metallurgy), Anti-ballistic missile, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo program, Astronomical object, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Mars, Attitude control, Australia, AVCOAT, Ballistic coefficient, Ballistic missile, Beagle 2, Belarus, Beryllium, Best, worst and average case, Black Brant (rocket), Bolide, Boost-glide, Boundary layer, Buoyancy, Buran (spacecraft), Buran programme, Burt Rutan, Canada, Capitán Bermúdez, Carbon, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon monoxide, Chemical equilibrium, China, China Manned Space Engineering Office, Communications blackout, Compressive strength, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Computational fluid dynamics, ..., Concorde, Congress, Copper, Corona (satellite), Cruiser, Cyanogen, Dean Roden Chapman, Deep Space 2, Delta wing, Diatomic molecule, Dissociation (chemistry), Double ionization, Drag (physics), Drag coefficient, Dwarf planet, Dynamic pressure, Earth, Enthalpy, Entropy, Epoxy, European Space Agency, Fiji, Fobos-Grunt, Frustum, Galileo (spacecraft), Galileo Probe, Gas constant, Gas giant, Gemini 2, General Electric, Genesis (spacecraft), Gibbs free energy, Glossary of shapes with metaphorical names, GNU Fortran, Gravity, Great Slave Lake, Hafnium diboride, Harry Julian Allen, Hawaii, Heat capacity ratio, Heat shield, Huygens (spacecraft), Hydraulic machinery, Hydrazine, Hyperbolic trajectory, Hypersonic speed, Ideal gas, Inconel, Indian Space Research Organisation, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Ionization, Isentropic process, John Young (astronaut), Jupiter, Kármán line, Kevlar, Kosmos 1686, Kosmos 954, Lander (spacecraft), Landing footprint, LGM-30 Minuteman, LI-900, Lifting body, Lockheed Martin, Lockheed Martin X-33, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, Low Earth orbit, Maneuverable reentry vehicle, Mars, Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars 96, Mars atmospheric entry, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander, Mars program, Mars Science Laboratory, Martin X-23 PRIME, McDonnell Douglas, McDonnell Douglas DC-X, Meteoroid, Mir, Moffett Federal Airfield, MOOSE, MSNBC, Nadi, NASA, NASA reentry prototypes, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Natural satellite, Newton's method, Nitric oxide, Northwest Territories, Operating temperature, Orion (spacecraft), Outback, Outer space, Pacific Ocean, Paracone, Partition function (statistical mechanics), Phenol formaldehyde resin, Pioneer Venus project, Planet, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Pyrolysis, Quantum harmonic oscillator, R-5 Pobeda, Radar, Reconnaissance satellite, Reinforced carbon–carbon, René 41, RIM-161 Standard Missile 3, Robert Crippen, Robert H. Goddard, Rockwell X-30, Rogallo wing, Ronald F. Probstein, ROSAT, Rotational symmetry, Salyut 1, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Schrödinger equation, Scramjet, Shenzhou program, Shuttlecock, Silicone, Single-stage-to-orbit, Skylab, Solar constant, Sounding rocket, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 5, Soyuz programme, Soyuz TMA-11, Space capsule, Space debris, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle program, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Space Shuttle thermal protection system, Spacecraft, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipTwo, SpaceX, SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 1, SpaceX Dragon, Stagnation point, Stardust (spacecraft), STS-1, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Sublimation (phase transition), Subsonic and transonic wind tunnel, Superalloy, Telemetry, Tempering (metallurgy), Terminal velocity, Thermal conductivity, Thermal radiation, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermogravimetric analysis, Tiangong-1, Titan (moon), Titanium, Ultra high temperature ceramic matrix composite, United States Department of Defense, United States House Committee on Appropriations, United States Navy, University of Montana, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, USA-193, USS Lake Erie (CG-70), V-2 rocket, Vacuum packing, Van Allen radiation belt, Venera, Venus, Viking 1, Viking program, Viscosity, Vladimir Komarov, Volna, Voskhod 2, Voskhod programme, Vostok programme, Wind tunnel, Zirconium diboride, Zond program, 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Aerocapture is an orbital transfer maneuver used to reduce the velocity of a spacecraft from a hyperbolic trajectory to an elliptical orbit around the targeted celestial body.
Aerodynamic heating is the heating of a solid body produced by its high-speed passage through air (or by the passage of air past a test object in a wind tunnel), whereby its kinetic energy is converted to heat by skin friction on the surface of the object at a rate that depends on the viscosity and speed of the air.
Aerojet was an American rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer based primarily in Rancho Cordova, California, with divisions in Redmond, Washington, Orange and Gainesville in Virginia, and Camden, Arkansas.
An aeroshell is a rigid heat-shielded shell that helps decelerate and protects a spacecraft vehicle from pressure, heat, and possible debris created by drag during atmospheric entry (see blunt body theory).
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Alfred J. Eggers, Jr. (June 24, 1922 – September 22, 2006) was NASA's Assistant Administrator for Policy and devoted efforts to determine the influence of aviation technology in world peace and lectured widely.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
AVCOAT 5026-39 is a NASA code for a specific ablative heat shield material created by Avco (acquired by Textron in 1984).
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Beagle 2 was a British Mars lander that was transported by the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission. It was an astrobiology mission that would have looked for past life on the shallow surface of Mars. The spacecraft was successfully deployed from the Mars Express on 19 December 2003 and was scheduled to land on the surface of Mars on 25 December; however, no contact was received at the expected time of landing on Mars, with the ESA declaring the mission lost in February 2004, after numerous attempts to contact the spacecraft were made. The Beagle 2 fate remained a mystery until January 2015 when it was located intact on the surface of Mars in a series of images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera. The images suggest that two of the spacecraft's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna. The Beagle 2 is named after, the ship used by Charles Darwin.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In computer science, best, worst, and average cases of a given algorithm express what the resource usage is at least, at most and on average, respectively.
The Black Brant is a family of Canadian-designed sounding rockets built by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile") is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere.
Boost-glide trajectories are a class of spacecraft guidance and reentry trajectories that extend the range of suborbital spaceplanes and reentry vehicles by employing aerodynamic lift in the high upper atmosphere.
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan (born June 17, 1943) is a retired American aerospace engineer noted for his originality in designing light, strong, unusual-looking, energy-efficient aircraft.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capitán Bermúdez is a city in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, located within the metropolitan area of Greater Rosario, (north of Rosario, immediately north of Granadero Baigorria), on the western shore of the Paraná River.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Manned Space Engineering Office (CMSEO or sometimes CSME) provides engineering and administrative functions for the human spaceflight effort of the People's Republic of China.
In telecommunications, communications blackouts are.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.
Dean Roden Chapman (8 March 1922 – 4 October 1995) was a mechanical engineer at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and at Stanford University.
Deep Space 2 was a NASA probe part of the New Millennium Program.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Double ionization is a process of formation of doubly charged ions when laser radiation is exerted on neutral atoms or molecules.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: \scriptstyle C_\mathrm d\,, \scriptstyle C_\mathrm x\, or \scriptstyle C_\mathrm w\) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Dynamic pressure (sometimes called velocity pressure) is the increase in a moving fluid's pressure over its static value due to motion.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt (Фобос-Грунт, literally "Phobos-Ground") was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars.
In geometry, a frustum (plural: frusta or frustums) is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
The Galileo Probe was an atmospheric-entry probe carried by the main ''Galileo'' spacecraft to Jupiter, where it directly entered a hot spot and returned data from the planet.
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Gemini 2 (Gemini-Titan 2; GT-2) was the second spaceflight of the American human spaceflight program Project Gemini.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Genesis was a NASA sample-return probe that collected a sample of solar wind particles and returned them to Earth for analysis.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Many shapes have metaphorical names, i.e., their names are metaphors: these shapes are named after a most common object that has it.
GNU Fortran or GFortran is the name of the GNU Fortran compiler, which is part of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC).
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The Great Slave Lake (Grand lac des Esclaves) is the second-largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada (after Great Bear Lake), the deepest lake in North America at, and the tenth-largest lake in the world.
Hafnium diboride belong to the class of Ultra-high-temperature ceramics, a type of ceramic composed of hafnium and boron.
Harry Julian Allen (1 April 1910 – 29 January 1977), also known as Harvey Allen, was an aeronautical engineer and a Director of the NASA Ames Research Center, most noted for his "Blunt Body Theory" of atmospheric entry which permitted successful recovery of orbiting spacecraft.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of specific heats or Poisson constant, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.
A heat shield is designed to shield a substance from absorbing excessive heat from an outside source by either dissipating, reflecting or simply absorbing the heat.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do simple work.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Inconel is a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is both adiabatic and reversible.
John Watts Young (September 24, 1930 – January 5, 2018) was an American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.
Kosmos 1686 (Космос 1686 meaning Cosmos 1686), also known as TKS-4, was a heavily modified TKS spacecraft which docked unmanned to the Soviet space station Salyut 7 as part of tests to attach scientific expansion modules to stations in Earth orbit.
Kosmos 954 (Космос 954) was a reconnaissance satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1977.
A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body.
After atmospheric reentry, a non-powered spacecraft will land on an area depending upon entry angle, entry mass, atmosphere and drag.
The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.
LI-900 is a type of reusable surface insulation tile developed and manufactured by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company in Sunnyvale, California.
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
The Lockheed Martin X-33 was an unmanned, sub-scale technology demonstrator suborbital spaceplane developed in the 1990s under the U.S. government-funded Space Launch Initiative program.
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The maneuverable reentry vehicle (abbreviated MARV or MaRV) is a type of ballistic missile whose warhead is capable of autonomous tracking ground targets.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars 2 was an unmanned space probe of the Mars program, a series of unmanned Mars landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union May 19, 1971.
Mars 3 was an unmanned space probe of the Soviet Mars program which spanned the years between 1960 and 1973.
Mars 6, also known as 3MP No.50P was a Soviet spacecraft launched to explore Mars.
Mars 96 (sometimes called Mars 8) was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name.
Mars atmospheric entry is the entry into the atmosphere of Mars.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
The Mars Polar Lander, also known as the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander, was a 290-kilogram robotic spacecraft lander launched by NASA on January 3, 1999 to study the soil and climate of Planum Australe, a region near the south pole on Mars.
The Mars program was a series of unmanned spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1973.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
The Martin X-23A PRIME (Precision Reentry Including Maneuvering reEntry) (SV-5D) was a small lifting-body re-entry vehicle tested by the United States Air Force in the mid-1960s.
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft and the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967.
The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle built by McDonnell Douglas in conjunction with the United States Department of Defense's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) from 1991 to 1993.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Moffett Federal Airfield, also known as Moffett Field, is a joint civil-military airport located in an unincorporated part of Santa Clara County between northern Mountain View and northern Sunnyvale, California.
MOOSE, originally an acronym for Man Out Of Space Easiest but later changed to the more professional-sounding Manned Orbital Operations Safety Equipment, was a proposed emergency "bail-out" system capable of bringing a single astronaut safely down from Earth orbit to the planet's surface.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Nadi (pronounced) is the third-largest conurbation in Fiji.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
NASA reentry prototypes were a series of atmosphere reentry prototypes built by NASA and experimented in a series of top secret projects between the 1940s and 1960s.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method), named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A paracone is a 1960s atmospheric reentry or spaceflight mission abort concept using an inflatable ballistic cone.
In physics, a partition function describes the statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
The Pioneer Venus project was part of the Pioneer program consisting of two spacecraft, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, launched to Venus in 1978.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.
The R-5 Pobeda (Побе́да, "Victory") was a theatre ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
René 41 is a nickel-based high temperature alloy developed by General Electric.
The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the United States Navy to intercept short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System.
Robert Laurel Crippen (born September 11, 1937) is an American retired naval officer and aviator, test pilot, aerospace engineer, and retired astronaut.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
The Rockwell X-30 was an advanced technology demonstrator project for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), part of a United States project to create a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spacecraft and passenger spaceliner.
The Rogallo wing is a flexible type of airfoil.
Ronald F. Probstein (born March 11, 1928) is the Ford Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
ROSAT (short for Röntgensatellit, in German X-rays are called Röntgenstrahlen, in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen) was a German Aerospace Center-led satellite X-ray telescope, with instruments built by West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
The Shenzhou program is a manned spaceflight initiative by China.
A shuttlecock (also called a bird or birdie) is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
The solar constant is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area.
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Soyuz 1 (Союз 1, Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program.
Soyuz 11 (Союз 11, Union 11) was the only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching problems).
Soyuz 5 (Союз 5, Union 5) was a Soyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on 15 January 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit.
The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.
Soyuz TMA-11 was a human spaceflight mission using a Soyuz-TMA spacecraft to transport personnel to and from the International Space Station (ISS).
A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
The Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2) is an air-launched suborbital spaceplane type designed for space tourism.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 1 was the first orbital spaceflight of the Dragon cargo spacecraft, and the second overall flight of the Falcon 9 rocket manufactured by SpaceX.
Dragon is a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
In fluid dynamics, a stagnation point is a point in a flow field where the local velocity of the fluid is zero.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
0.4) (Barlow, Rae, Pope; 1999).
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys.
Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example).
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes.
Tiangong-1 was China's first prototype space station.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites (UHTCMC) or Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composites (UHTCC) are a class of refractory ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), the motivation to develop UHTCMCs is to overcome the limits associated with the bulk UHTCs like ZrB2, HfB2, or their composites due to a catastrofic fracture easily under mechanical or thermo-mechanical loads because of cracks initiated by small defects or scratches.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States House Committee on Appropriations is a committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The University of Montana (often simply referred to as UM) is a public research university in Missoula, Montana, in the United States.
The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) was a NASA-operated orbital observatory whose mission was to study the Earth’s atmosphere, particularly the protective ozone layer.
USA-193, also known as NRO launch 21 (NROL-21 or simply L-21), was a U.S. military reconnaissance satellite (radar imaging) launched on 14 December 2006.
USS Lake Erie (CG-70) is a guided missile cruiser of the United States Navy, commissioned in 1993.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Vacuum packing is a method of packaging that removes air from the package prior to sealing.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program.
The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (p; 16 March 192724 April 1967) was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer and cosmonaut.
Space launch vehicle Volna (Волна "wave"), is a converted Submarine-launched ballistic missile used for launching satellites into orbit.
Voskhod 2 (Sunrise-2) was a Soviet manned space mission in March 1965.
The Voskhod programme (Восхо́д,, Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
On January 11, 2007, China conducted an anti-satellite missile test.
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