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Atmospheric refraction

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Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height. [1]

66 relations: Applied Physics Laboratory, Astronomer, Astronomical object, Astronomical seeing, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric optics, Atmospheric pressure, Bar (unit), Cartography, Celsius, Culmination, Density of air, Dispersion (optics), Electromagnetic radiation, Ernest Shackleton, Fata Morgana (mirage), Friedrich Bessel, George Comstock (astronomer), Height, Horizon, Horizontal coordinate system, Humidity, Ibn al-Haytham, Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, International Astronomical Union, International Standard Atmosphere, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Kelvin, Lapse rate, Levelling refraction, Light, Looming and similar refraction phenomena, Millimeter of mercury, Millisecond, Minute and second of arc, Mirage, Moon, Naked eye, National Observatory of Athens, Novaya Zemlya effect, Optical telescope, Pascal (unit), Pressure, Radian, Ray tracing (physics), Refraction, Refraction (sound), Refractive index, Scattering, ..., Semidiameter, Shen Kuo, Star, Sun, Sunrise, Sunset, Surveying, Temperature, The Nautical Almanac, Trigonometric functions, Turbulence, Twinkling, United States Naval Observatory, Visible spectrum, Water vapor, Zenith. Expand index (16 more) »

Applied Physics Laboratory

The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, commonly known as simply the Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL, located in Howard County, Maryland, near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center (or UARC) employing 6,000 people.

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Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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Astronomical seeing

Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric optics

Atmospheric optics deals with how the unique optical properties of Earth's atmosphere cause a wide range of spectacular optical phenomena.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Bar (unit)

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Culmination

In astronomy, the culmination of a planet, star, or constellation is its transit over an observer's meridian.

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Density of air

The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Ernest Shackleton

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

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Fata Morgana (mirage)

A Fata Morgana is an unusual and complex form of superior mirage that is seen in a narrow band right above the horizon.

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Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

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George Comstock (astronomer)

George Cary Comstock (February 12, 1855 – May 11, 1934) was an American astronomer and educator.

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Height

Height is the measure of vertical distance, either how "tall" something or someone is, or how "high" the position is.

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Horizon

The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

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Horizontal coordinate system

The horizontal coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system that uses the observer's local horizon as the fundamental plane.

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Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition

The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–17), also known as the Endurance Expedition, is considered the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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International Standard Atmosphere

The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Lapse rate

Lapse rate is the rate at which Earth's atmospheric temperature decreases with an increase in altitude, or increases with the decrease in altitude.

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Levelling refraction

Levelling refraction refers to the systematic refraction effect distorting the results of line levelling over the Earth's surface.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Looming and similar refraction phenomena

While mirages are the best known atmospheric refraction phenomena, looming and similar refraction phenomena do not produce mirages.

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Millimeter of mercury

A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.

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Millisecond

A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Mirage

A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Naked eye

Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.

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National Observatory of Athens

The National Observatory of Athens (NOA; Εθνικό Αστεροσκοπείο Αθηνών) is a research institute in Athens, Greece.

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Novaya Zemlya effect

The Novaya Zemlya effect is a polar mirage caused by high refraction of sunlight between atmospheric thermoclines.

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Optical telescope

An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Radian

The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.

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Ray tracing (physics)

In physics, ray tracing is a method for calculating the path of waves or particles through a system with regions of varying propagation velocity, absorption characteristics, and reflecting surfaces.

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Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Refraction (sound)

Refraction, in acoustics, comparable to the refraction of electromagnetic radiation, is the bending of sound propagation trajectories (rays) in inhomogeneous elastic media (gases, liquids, and solids) in which the wave velocity is a function of spatial coordinates.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Scattering

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

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Semidiameter

In geometry, the semidiameter or semi-diameter of a set of points may be one half of its diameter; or, sometimes, one half of its extent along a particular direction.

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Shen Kuo

Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.

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Star

A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sunrise

Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.

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Sunset

Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.

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Surveying

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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The Nautical Almanac

The Nautical Almanac has been the familiar name for a series of official British almanacs published under various titles since the first issue of The Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris, for 1767: this was the first nautical almanac ever to contain data dedicated to the convenient determination of longitude at sea.

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Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

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Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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Twinkling

Twinkling, or scintillation, is a generic term for variations in apparent brightness or position of a distant luminous object viewed through a medium.

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United States Naval Observatory

The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Water vapor

No description.

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Zenith

The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.

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Redirects here:

Astronomical refraction, Geodetic refraction, Terrestrial refraction.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_refraction

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