444 relations: Ablation, Acute radiation syndrome, Aiming point, Aioi Bridge, Air raids on Japan, Aircraft carrier, Aitape–Wewak campaign, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Allies of World War II, AM broadcasting, AN/APQ-13, Anencephaly, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anxiety, Area bombardment, Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan, Arthur Compton, Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, Avgas, Battle of Iwo Jima, Battle of Okinawa, Battle of the Bulge, Beryllium, Big Stink (aircraft), Biological warfare, Birth defect, Bockscar, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Bombardment group, Bombing of Tokyo, Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945), Borneo campaign (1945), Bougainville Campaign, BREN Tower, Brigadier general (United States), Burma Campaign 1944–45, Cancer, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Carl Spaatz, Cellular differentiation, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Charles Sweeney, Chemical Corps, Chemical warfare, Chengdu, Chest radiograph, Chicago Daily News, Chief Cabinet Secretary, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Civil defense, ..., Claude Eatherly, Clinton Engineer Works, Coal tar, Cold War, Colonel, Colonel (United States), Commander, Commonwealth Corps, Controlling for a variable, Crosswind, Cruiser, Curtis LeMay, Cuthbert Thicknesse, Cyanogen chloride, Daily Express, David M. Dennison, Dean of St Albans, Dean Rusk, Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Democracy Now!, Demon core, Demoralization (warfare), Discrimination, Dose–response relationship, Dosimetry, Douglas C-54 Skymaster, Douglas MacArthur, Edwin O. Reischauer, Eighth United States Army, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Emperor of Japan, Empire of Japan, End of World War II in Asia, Enewetak Atoll, Enola Gay, Epidemiology, Ernest Lawrence, European theatre of World War II, Evacuations of civilians in Japan during World War II, Fat Man, Fertilisation, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Fifty-Ninth Army (Japan), Firebombing, Firebreak, Firestorm, First United States Army, Fleet admiral (United States), Fortune (magazine), Fox News, Francis Birch (geophysicist), Franck Report, Frederick Ashworth, Frederick C. Bock, Fritz Strassmann, Fuel injection, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Full House (aircraft), Fumimaro Konoe, Gar Alperovitz, General of the army, Gensui (Imperial Japanese Army), Geography of Japan, Geography of Taiwan, George Marshall, George Washington University, George Weller, German Instrument of Surrender, German nuclear weapon project, Gestational age, Gray (unit), Great Bend, Kansas, Gross register tonnage, Ground zero, Group captain, Guam, Gun-type fission weapon, Hanford Site, Harry S. Truman, Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum, Haywood S. Hansell, Heavy water, Henry L. Stimson, Henry Maitland Wilson, Heritability, Hibakusha, Hirohito, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (book), Hiroshima Castle, Hiroshima Peace Memorial, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, Hisatsune Sakomizu, Honolulu, Honshu, Human embryogenesis, Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Hypocenter, Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service, Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, In utero, Incendiary device, Intellectual disability, Interim Committee, International Security (journal), Isotope, Iwo Jima, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jabit III, Jacob Beser, James F. Crow, James Franck, James McCormack, James V. Neel, Jan Letzel, Japan Standard Time, Japanese archipelago, Japanese Instrument of Surrender, Japanese nuclear weapon program, Japanese prisoners of war in World War II, Jewel Voice Broadcast, Joe Kieyoomia, John Hersey, John von Neumann, Johns Hopkins University, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joseon, Joseph Stalin, Kantarō Suzuki, Kantō Plain, Karl Wirtz, Kōichi Kido, Kenpeitai, Kermit Beahan, Killed in action, Kirtland Air Force Base, Kokura, Kokutai, Korechika Anami, Kumao Imoto, Kure, Hiroshima, Kwantung Army, Kyūjō incident, Kyoto, Kyushu, Kyushu University, L'Osservatore Romano, Laggin' Dragon, Last batch of Imperial Japanese Army Divisions, Leonard Cheshire, Leslie Groves, Leukemia, Linear no-threshold model, Lise Meitner, Little Boy, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan, Luis Walter Alvarez, Luzon, Maebashi, Magic (cryptography), Mainichi Shimbun, Major general (United States), Malnutrition, Manchuria, Manhattan Project, Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, Mariana Islands, Martial law, MAUD Committee, Median lethal dose, Michael DeBakey, Microcephaly, Midori Naka, Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army), Military personnel, Military Police Corps (United States), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan), Miscarriage, Mitsubishi, Modulated neutron initiator, Mokusatsu, Montreal Laboratory, Morris R. Jeppson, Morse code, Mountain Home, Idaho, Mushroom cloud, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Archives and Records Administration, National Security Archive, NATO, Nazi Germany, Necessary Evil (aircraft), Neurogenesis, Neutron, Neutron flux, Neutron moderator, Neutron reflector, New Look (policy), New Mexico, NHK, NHK World-Japan, Niigata, Niigata, Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga, Nishinomiya, North Field (Tinian), Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear technology, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Occupation of Japan, Okinawa Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Operation Downfall, Operation Epsilon, Operation Matterhorn, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Pacific War, Paul Tibbets, Peace Pagoda, People's Daily, Philip Morrison, Philippines Campaign (1944–1945), Phosgene, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plutonium, Polity, Polonium, Polytrauma, Potsdam Conference, Potsdam Declaration, Precision bombing, Prenatal development, President of the United States, Prime Minister of Japan, Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, Prisoner of war, Project Alberta, Project Y, Propaganda, Propeller, Psychological warfare, Pulitzer Prize, Pumpkin bomb, Quebec Agreement, Quincy Wright, Rad (unit), Radiation, Radiation burn, Radiation dose reconstruction, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Radiation therapy, Radiation-induced cancer, Radio station, Radiophobia, Radiosensitivity, Raemer Schreiber, Rear admiral (United States), Reinforced concrete, Richard C. Tolman, Riken, Robert Jay Lifton, Robert R. Wilson, Robert Serber, Ronald Shaw, Ryukyu Islands, Sadako Sasaki, Saipan, Sannō Shrine, Schizophrenia, Searchlight, Seattle, Second General Army (Japan), Second lieutenant, Senkichi Awaya, Sepsis, Shigenori Tōgō, Shima Hospital, Shin'yō-class suicide motorboat, Shunroku Hata, Sievert, Silverplate, Sixth United States Army, Soemu Toyoda, Somatization, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Union, Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, Soviet–Japanese War, St Albans Cathedral, Statistical significance, Straight Flush, Strategic bombing during World War II, Suicide, Sulfur mustard, Surrender of Japan, Synaptogenesis, Tactical nuclear weapon, Takashi Nagai, Takijirō Ōnishi, Tear gas, Tenth United States Army, Terufumi Sasaki, The Advocate (Tasmania), The Argus (Melbourne), The Great Artiste, The Japan Times, The Nation, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Pentagon, Thermonuclear weapon, Thomas Farrell (general), Thomas Ferebee, Thomas T. Handy, Thrust reversal, Tinian, Tokyo Imperial Palace, Top Secret (aircraft), Torii, Treatment and control groups, Treatment of infections after exposure to ionizing radiation, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trinity (nuclear test), Tsutomu Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Tube Alloys, Ube, Yamaguchi, Ujina, Ultimatum, Ultra, Unconditional surrender, UNESCO, United Press International, United States, United States Army Air Forces, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Department of Energy, United States Secretary of War, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, University of California, Berkeley, University of Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, Urakami, Uranium, Uranium-235, Vice admiral, Victory in Europe Day, Volunteer Fighting Corps, Vyacheslav Molotov, War crime, Weapon of mass destruction, Wendover Air Force Base, Werner Heisenberg, Wilfred Burchett, William D. Leahy, William L. Laurence, William Penney, Baron Penney, William R. Purnell, William Shockley, William Sterling Parsons, Winston Churchill, World Health Organization, World Heritage site, World War II, Wounded in action, XXI Bomber Command, Yahata, Fukuoka, Yahoo! GeoCities, Yakushima, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Yōsuke Yamahata, Yi U, Yokohama, Yomiuri Shimbun, Yontan Airfield, Yoshijirō Umezu, Yoshio Nishina, Yuki Tanaka (historian), 1943 Cairo Declaration, 320th Troop Carrier Squadron, 393d Bomb Squadron, 509th Composite Group, 5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army). Expand index (394 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
In field artillery, the accuracy of indirect fire depends on the use of aiming points.
The is an unusual "T"-shaped three-way bridge in Hiroshima, Japan.
Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
The Aitape–Wewak campaign was one of the final campaigns of the Pacific Theatre of World War II.
Albuquerque (Beeʼeldííl Dahsinil; Arawageeki; Vakêêke; Gołgéeki) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.
The AN/APQ-13 radar was an American ground scanning radar developed by Bell Laboratories, Western Electric, and MIT as an improved model of the airborne H2X radar, itself developed from the first ground scanning radar, the British H2S radar.
Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
In military aviation, area bombardment (or area bombing) is a type of aerial bombardment that targeted indiscriminately at a large area, such as a city block or an entire city.
The Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan during that Empire's existence from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 through the Second World War until the signing of the Constitution of Japan (1868–1947) included the.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was a commission established in 1946 in accordance with a presidential directive from Harry S. Truman to the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council to conduct investigations of the late effects of radiation among the atomic-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK), is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft.
The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II.
The (Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Big Stink – later renamed Dave's Dream – was a United States Army Air Forces Boeing B-29-40-MO Superfortress bomber (Victor number 90) that participated in the atomic bomb attack on Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bockscar, sometimes called Bock's Car, is the name of the United States Army Air Forces B-29 bomber that dropped a Fat Man nuclear weapon over the Japanese city of Nagasaki during World War II in the second – and last – nuclear attack in history.
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
A bombardment group or bomb group was a group of bomber aircraft the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.
The often refers to a series of firebombing air raids by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II.
On the night of 9/10 March 1945 the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city.
The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area during World War II.
The Bougainville Campaign was a series of land and naval battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II between Allied forces and the Empire of Japan.
BREN Tower was a guyed steel framework mast, high, on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, USA.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (28 June 1912 – 28 April 2007) was a German physicist and philosopher.
Carl Andrew Spaatz (born Spatz; June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974), nicknamed "Tooey", was an American World War II general.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
Major General Charles W. Sweeney (December 27, 1919 – July 16, 2004) was an officer in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II and the pilot who flew Bockscar carrying the Fat Man atomic bomb to the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
The Chemical Corps is the branch of the United States Army tasked with defending against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
The Chicago Daily News was an afternoon daily newspaper in the midwestern United States, published between 1876 and 1978 in Chicago,.
The is a Minister of State who is responsible for directing the Cabinet Secretariat of Japan.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.
Claude Robert Eatherly (October 2, 1918 – July 1, 1978) was an officer in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II, and the pilot of a weather reconnaissance aircraft ''Straight Flush'' that supported the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, August 6, 1945.
The Clinton Engineer Works (CEW) was the production installation of the Manhattan Project that during World War II produced the enriched uranium used in the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the first examples of reactor-produced plutonium.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
The Commonwealth Corps was the name given to a proposed British Commonwealth army formation, which was scheduled to take part in the planned Allied invasion of Japan during 1945 and 1946.
In statistics, controlling for a variable is the attempt to reduce the effect of confounding variables in an observational study or experiment.
A crosswind is any wind that has a perpendicular component to the line or direction of travel.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.
The Very Rev Cuthbert Carroll Thicknesse (19 November 1887 – 2 June 1971) was Dean of St Albans from 1936 until his retirement in 1955.
Cyanogen chloride is a chemical compound with the formula NCCl.
The Daily Express is a daily national middle market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom.
David Mathias Dennison (April 26, 1900 in Oberlin, Ohio – April 3, 1976) was an American physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and the physics of molecular structure.
The Dean of St Albans is the head of the Chapter of St Albans Cathedral in the city of St Albans, England in the Diocese of St Albans.
David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal, and military controversies surrounding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of World War II (1939–45).
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
The demon core was a subcritical mass of plutonium measuring in diameter, which was involved in two criticality accidents.
Demoralization is, in a context of warfare, national security, and law enforcement, a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.
The Douglas C-54 Skymaster is a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and the Korean War.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was an American educator and professor at Harvard University.
The Eighth United States Army (EUSA) is a U.S. field army.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 14 and 15 August 1945, when armed forces of the Empire of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allies.
Enewetak Atoll (also spelled Eniwetok Atoll or sometimes Eniewetok; Ānewetak,, or Āne-wātak) is a large coral atoll of 40 islands in the Pacific Ocean and with its 850 people forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands.
The Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, who selected the aircraft while it was still on the assembly line.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
About 8.5 million Japanese civilians were displaced from their homes between 1943 and 1945 as a result of air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the final days of World War II.
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.
A firebreak is a gap in vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire or wildfire.
A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system.
The First Army is the oldest and longest established field army of the United States Army, having seen service in both World War I and World War II, under some of the most famous and distinguished officers of the U.S. Army.
Fleet admiral (abbreviated FADM), officially known as "Fleet Admiral of the United States Navy", is a five-star flag officer rank in the United States Navy.
Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Francis Birch (August 22, 1903 – January 30, 1992) was an American geophysicist.
The Franck Report of June 1945 was a document signed by several prominent nuclear physicists recommending that the United States not use the atomic bomb as a weapon to prompt the surrender of Japan in World War II.
Frederick Lincoln "Dick" Ashworth (24 January 1912 – 3 December 2005) was a United States Navy officer who served as the weaponeer on the B-29 Bockscar that dropped a Fat Man atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan on 9 August 1945 during World War II.
Frederick C. Bock (January 18, 1918 – August 25, 2000) was a World War II pilot who took part in the atomic bombing of Nagasaki in 1945.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.
is a city located on the Ashida River in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
Full House was the name of a B-29 Superfortress (B-29-36-MO 44-27298, victor number 83) participating in the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
Gar Alperovitz (born May 5, 1936) is an American political economist and historian.
General of the Army (GA) is a military rank used (primarily in the United States of America) to denote a senior military leader, usually a general in command of a nation's army.
was the highest title in the pre-war Imperial Japanese military.
Japan is an island nation in East Asia comprising a volcanic archipelago extending along the continent's Pacific coast.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
George Anthony Weller (July 13, 1907 – December 19, 2002) was an American novelist, playwright, and journalist for The New York Times and Chicago Daily News.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Great Bend is a city in and the county seat of Barton County, Kansas, United States.
Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to.
In terms of nuclear explosions and other large bombs, the term "ground zero" (also known as "surface zero") describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation.
Group captain is a senior commissioned rank in many air forces.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the "gun" method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and resting place of Harry S. Truman, the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), located on U.S. Highway 24 in Independence, Missouri.
Haywood Shepherd Hansell Jr. (September 28, 1903 – November 14, 1988) was a general officer in the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II, and later the United States Air Force.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician.
Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson, (5 September 1881 – 31 December 1964), also known as Jumbo Wilson, was a senior British Army officer of the 20th century.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
is the Japanese word for the surviving victims of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
Hiroshima is a book by Pulitzer Prize-winning author John Hersey.
, sometimes called, was a castle in Hiroshima, Japan that was the home of the daimyō (feudal lord) of the Hiroshima han (fief).
The, originally the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, and now commonly called the Genbaku Dome,, is part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Hiroshima, Japan and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996.
The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum is a museum located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, in central Hiroshima, Japan, dedicated to documenting the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in World War II.
is a memorial park in the center of Hiroshima, Japan.
was a Japanese government official and politician before, during and after World War II.
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
The San Francisco Naval Shipyard was a United States Navy shipyard in San Francisco, located on of waterfront at Hunters Point in the southeast corner of the city.
A hypocenter (or hypocentre) (from ὑπόκεντρον for 'below the center') is the point of origin of an earthquake or a subsurface nuclear explosion.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The or, more literally, the Greater Japan Empire Army Air Corps, was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).
The, also called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.
The was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The was the highest organ within the Imperial Japanese Navy.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
The Interim Committee was a secret high-level group created in May 1945 by United States Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson at the urging of leaders of the Manhattan Project and with the approval of President Harry S. Truman to advise on matters pertaining to nuclear energy.
International Security is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of international and national security.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
, known in English as Iwo Jima, is one of the Japanese Volcano Islands and lies south of the Ogasawara Islands.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jabit III (alternately spelled Jabbitt III) was the name of a B-29 Superfortress (B-29-36-MO 44-27303, Victor number 71) participating in the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
Jacob Beser (May 15, 1921 – June 16, 1992) was a lieutenant in the United States Army Air Forces who served during World War II.
James Franklin Crow (January 18, 1916 – January 4, 2012) was Professor Emeritus of Genetics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a prominent population geneticist whose career spanned from the modern synthesis to the genomic era.
James Franck (26 August 1882 – 21 May 1964) was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".
James McCormack, Jr. (8 November 1910 – 3 January 1975) was a United States Army officer who served in World War II, and was later the first Director of Military Applications of the United States Atomic Energy Commission.
James Van Gundia Neel (March 22, 1915 – February 1, 2000) was an American geneticist who played a key role in the development of human genetics as a field of research in the United States.
Jan Letzel (April 9, 1880 – December 26, 1925) was a Czech architect, most famous for designing a building in Hiroshima whose ruins are now the A-Bomb Dome or Peace Memorial.
is the standard timezone in Japan, 9 hours ahead of UTC (i.e. it is UTC+09:00).
The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.
The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan, marking the end of World War II.
The Japanese program to develop nuclear weapons was conducted during World War II.
During World War II, it has been estimated that between 19,500 and 50,000 members of the Imperial Japanese military surrendered to Western Allied combatants prior to the end of the Pacific War in August 1945.
The was the radio broadcast in which Japanese Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa 昭和天皇 Shōwa-tennō) read out the, announcing to the Japanese people that the Japanese Government had accepted the Potsdam Declaration demanding the unconditional surrender of the Japanese military at the end of World War II.
Joe Kieyoomia (November 21, 1919 – February 17, 1997) was a Navajo soldier in New Mexico's 200th Coast Artillery unit who was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of the Philippines in 1942 during World War II.
John Richard Hersey (June 17, 1914 – March 24, 1993) was an American writer and journalist.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Baron was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, member and final leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April to 17 August 1945.
The is the largest plain in Japan, and is located in the Kantō region of central Honshū.
Karl Eugen Julius Wirtz (24 April 1910 – 12 February 1994) was a German nuclear physicist, born in Cologne.
(July 18, 1889 – April 6, 1977) served as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan from 1940 to 1945, and was the closest advisor to Emperor Showa throughout World War II.
The was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945.
Kermit K. Beahan (August 9, 1918 – March 9, 1989) was a career officer in the United States Air Force and its predecessor United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Kirtland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in the southeast quadrant of the Albuquerque, New Mexico urban area, adjacent to the Albuquerque International Sunport.
is an ancient castle town and the center of Kitakyushu, Japan, guarding the Straits of Shimonoseki between Honshu and Kyushu with its suburb Moji.
is a concept in the Japanese language translatable as "system of government", "sovereignty", "national identity, essence and character", "national polity; body politic; national entity; basis for the Emperor's sovereignty; Japanese constitution".
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, and was War Minister at the time of the surrender of Japan.
Kumao Imoto (1903-2000) (井本熊男) was a Japanese military officer.
is a port and major shipbuilding city situated on the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
The was an attempted military coup d'état in the Empire of Japan at the end of the Second World War.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands.
, abbreviated to, is a Japanese national university located in Fukuoka, in the island of Kyushu.
L'Osservatore Romano (Italian for "The Roman Observer") is the daily newspaper of Vatican City State which carries the Pope’s discourses and reports on the activities of the Holy See, reports on events taking place in the Church and the world, and many cultural articles.
Laggin' Dragon was the name of a Boeing B-29 Superfortress (B-29-50-MO, 44-86347 Victor number 95) configured to carry the atomic bomb in World War II.
Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire, (7 September 1917 – 31 July 1992) was a highly decorated Royal Air Force pilot, group captain, and philanthropist during World War II.
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
The was an administrative post not of Cabinet rank in the government of the Empire of Japan, responsible for keeping the Privy Seal of Japan and State Seal of Japan.
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.
is a city located in Gunma Prefecture, in the northern Kantō region of Japan.
Magic was an Allied cryptanalysis project during World War II.
The is one of the major newspapers in Japan, published by.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, also known as Operation Forager, was an offensive launched by United States forces against Imperial Japanese forces in the Mariana Islands and Palau in the Pacific Ocean between June and November, 1944 during the Pacific War.
The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The MAUD Committee was a British scientific working group formed during the Second World War.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
Michael Ellis DeBakey (September 7, 1908 – July 11, 2008) was a Lebanese-American cardiac surgeon, scientist, and medical educator.
Microcephaly is a medical condition in which the brain does not develop properly resulting in a smaller than normal head.
Midori Naka (Japanese: 仲みどり) (19 June 1909 – 24 August 1945) was a Japanese stage actress of the Shingeki style, famous in her country at the time of her death.
The Military Intelligence Corps (sometimes referred to as MI) is the intelligence branch of the United States Army.
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces.
The Military Police Corps is the uniformed law enforcement branch of the United States Army.
The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
A modulated neutron initiator is a neutron source capable of producing a burst of neutrons on activation.
is a Japanese noun literally meaning "kill" with "silence", and is used with a verb marker idiomatically to mean "ignore", "take no notice of" or "treat with silent contempt".
The Montreal Laboratory in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was established by the National Research Council of Canada during World War II to undertake nuclear research in collaboration with the United Kingdom, and to absorb some of the scientists and work of the Tube Alloys nuclear project in Britain.
Morris Richard Jeppson (June 23, 1922 – March 30, 2010) was a Second Lieutenant in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
Mountain Home is the largest city and county seat of Elmore County, Idaho, United States.
A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
The is in the city of Nagasaki, Japan.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Necessary Evil, also referred to as Plane #91, was the name of Boeing B-29-45-MO Superfortress 44-86291, (Victor 91), participating in the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
is Japan's national public broadcasting organization.
NHK World-Japan is the international broadcasting service of NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai - Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Japan's public broadcaster.
is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture located in the Chūbu region of Japan.
, often referred to as just Nipponzan Myohoji or the Japan Buddha Sangha, is a Japanese new religious movement founded in 1917 by Nichidatsu Fujii, emerging from Nichiren Buddhism.
is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, between the cities of Amagasaki and Ashiya.
North Field is a former World War II airfield on Tinian in the Mariana Islands.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
is the largest of the Okinawa Islands and the Ryukyu (Nansei) Islands of Japan.
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.
Operation Epsilon was the codename of a program in which Allied forces near the end of World War II detained ten German scientists who were thought to have worked on Nazi Germany's nuclear program.
Operation Matterhorn was a military operation of the United States Army Air Forces in World War II for the strategic bombing of Japanese forces by B-29 Superfortresses based in India and China.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Paul Warfield Tibbets Jr. (23 February 1915 – 1 November 2007) was a brigadier general in the United States Air Force.
A Peace Pagoda is a Buddhist stupa; a monument to inspire peace, designed to provide a focus for people of all races and creeds, and to help unite them in their search for world peace.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
Philip Morrison (November 7, 1915 – April 22, 2005) was a professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
The Philippines campaign, the Battle of the Philippines or the Liberation of the Philippines (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas, Labanan sa Pilipinas & Liberasyon ng Pilipinas), (Operation Musketeer I, II, and III) (Filipino: Operasyon Mosketero I, II, at III), was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines during World War II.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Polytrauma and multiple traumata are medical terms describing the condition of a person who has been subjected to multiple traumatic injuries, such as a serious head injury in addition to a serious burn.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.
Precision bombing refers to the attempted aerial bombing of a target with some degree of accuracy, with the aim of maximising target damage or limiting collateral damage.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The is the head of government of Japan.
General was the founder of a collateral branch of the Japanese imperial family and a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Project Alberta, also known as Project A, was a section of the Manhattan Project which assisted in delivering the first nuclear weapons in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II.
The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
Pumpkin bombs were conventional aerial bombs developed by the Manhattan Project and used by the United States Army Air Forces against Japan during World War II.
The Quebec Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States outlining the terms for the coordinated development of the science and engineering related to nuclear energy, and, specifically nuclear weapons.
Philip Quincy Wright (December 28, 1890 – October 17, 1970) was an American political scientist based at the University of Chicago known for his pioneering work and expertise in international law and international relations.
The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation.
Radiation dose reconstruction refers to the process of estimating radiation doses that were received by individuals or populations in the past as a result of particular exposure situations of concern.
The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is a joint U.S.-Japan research organization responsible for studying the medical effects of radiation and associated diseases in humans for the welfare of the survivors and all humankind.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.
Radiophobia is an obsessive fear of ionizing radiation, in particular, fear of X-rays.
Radiosensitivity is the relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs or organisms to the harmful effect of ionizing radiation.
Raemer Edgar Schreiber (November 11, 1910 – December 24, 1998) was an American physicist from McMinnville, Oregon who served Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II, participating in the development of the atomic bomb.
Rear admiral in the United States refers to two different ranks of commissioned officers — one-star flag officers and two-star flag officers.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881 – September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics.
is a large research institute in Japan.
Robert Jay Lifton (born May 16, 1926) is an American psychiatrist and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of wars and political violence and for his theory of thought reform.
Robert Rathbun Wilson (March 4, 1914 – January 16, 2000) was an American physicist known for his work on the Manhattan Project during World War II, as a sculptor, and as an architect of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), where he was the first director from 1967 to 1978.
Robert Serber (March 14, 1909 – June 1, 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project.
Ronald Shaw (19209 August 1945) was a British pilot who was captured by the Japanese during World War II, and was killed by the atomic bombing of Nagasaki while in Japanese captivity.
The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
was a Japanese girl who was 2 years old when an American atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, near her home next to the Misasa Bridge.
Saipan (formerly in Spanish: Saipán) is the largest island of the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean.
The, located about 800 metres south-east of the atomic bomb hypocentre in Nagasaki, is noted for its one-legged stone torii at the shrine entrance.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A searchlight (or spotlight) is an apparatus that combines an extremely luminous source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually constructed so that it can be swiveled about.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of western Honshū, Kyūshū and Shikoku during the final stage of the Pacific War.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
was a Japanese public official who was killed by the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima while he was its mayor.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
(Korean: 박무덕, Hanja: 朴茂德, Pak Mudǒk, 10 December 1882 – 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Empire of Japan at both the start and the end of the Japanese-Allied conflict during World War II.
was a Japanese hospital destroyed by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.
The were Japanese suicide motorboats developed during World War II.
was a Field Marshal (Gensui) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Silverplate was the code reference for the United States Army Air Forces' participation in the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Sixth Army is a field army of the United States Army.
was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II.
Somatization is a tendency to experience and communicate psychological distress in the form of somatic symptoms and to seek medical help for them.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The, also known as the, was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
St Albans Cathedral, sometimes called the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban, and referred to locally as "the Abbey", is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
Straight Flush was the name of a B-29 Superfortress (B-29-36-MO 44-27301, Victor number 85) that participated in the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.
A tactical nuclear weapon (TNW) or non-strategic nuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon, generally smaller in its explosive power, which is designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations, mostly with friendly forces in proximity and perhaps even on contested friendly territory.
was a Catholic physician specializing in radiology, an author and survivor of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki.
was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II, who came to be known as the father of the kamikaze.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
The Tenth United States Army was the last army level command established in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II.
was a surgeon at the Red Cross hospital in Hiroshima in 1945 and was personally situated 1,650 yards from the hypocenter of the Little Boy explosion.
The Advocate is a local newspaper of North-West and Western Tasmania, Australia.
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia that was established in 1846 and closed in 1957.
The Great Artiste was a U.S. Army Air Forces Silverplate B-29 bomber (B-29-40-MO 44-27353, Victor number 89), assigned to the 393d Bomb Squadron, 509th Composite Group.
The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Major General Thomas Francis Farrell (3 December 1891 – 11 April 1967) was the Deputy Commanding General and Chief of Field Operations of the Manhattan Project, acting as executive officer to Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. Farrell graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a degree in civil engineering in 1912.
Thomas Wilson Ferebee (November 9, 1918 – March 16, 2000) was the bombardier aboard the B-29 Superfortress, Enola Gay, which dropped the atomic bomb, "Little Boy", on Hiroshima in 1945.
Thomas Troy Handy (March 11, 1892 – April 12, 1982) was a United States Army four-star general who served as Deputy Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (DCSA) from 1944 to 1947; Commanding General, Fourth United States Army from 1947 to 1949; Commander in Chief, United States European Command (CINCEUR) from 1949 to 1952; Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Europe/Commander, Central Army Group (CINCUSAREUR/COMCENTAG), 1952; and Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. European Command (DCINCEUR), from 1952 to 1954.
Thrust reversal, also called reverse thrust, is the temporary diversion of an aircraft engine's thrust so that it is directed forward, rather than backward.
Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The is the primary residence of the Emperor of Japan.
Top Secret was the name of a Boeing B-29 Superfortress (B-29-36-MO 44-27302, "victor number' 72) modified to carry the atomic bomb in World War II.
A is a traditional Japanese gate most commonly found at the entrance of or within a Shinto shrine, where it symbolically marks the transition from the mundane to sacred.
In the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment group(s).
Infections caused by exposure to ionizing radiation can be extremely dangerous, and are of public and government concern.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
(March 16, 1916January 4, 2010) was a survivor of both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings during World War II.
is an American historian specializing in modern Russian and Soviet history and the relations between Russia, Japan, and the United States.
Tube Alloys was a code name of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War.
is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan on the Seto Inland Sea.
Ujina is located at Hodal-Nuh road in National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR), in Mewat district (formerly Gurgaon) in Haryana.
An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was a written report created by a board of experts assembled to produce an impartial assessment of the effects of Anglo-American strategic bombing of Nazi Germany during the European theatre of World War II.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
The is a university press affiliated with the University of Tokyo in Japan.
Urakami was an area in the northern part of the city of Nagasaki, Japan.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
were armed civil defense units planned in 1945 in the Empire of Japan as a last desperate measure to defend the Japanese home islands against the projected Allied invasion during Operation Downfall (Ketsugo Sakusen) in the final stages of World War II.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
Wendover Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base in Utah now known as Wendover Airport.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Wilfred Graham Burchett (16 September 1911 – 27 September 1983) was an Australian journalist known for his reporting of conflicts in Asia and his Communist sympathies.
Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 – July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer who served as the senior-most United States military officer on active duty during World War II.
William Leonard Laurence (March 7, 1888 – March 19, 1977) was a Jewish Lithuanian-born American journalist known for his science journalism writing of the 1940s and 1950s while working for The New York Times.
William George Penney, Baron Penney (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College.
Rear Admiral William Reynolds Purnell (6 September 1886 – 3 March 1955) was an officer in the United States Navy who served in World War I and World War II.
William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor.
Rear Admiral William Sterling "Deak" Parsons (26 November 1901 – 5 December 1953) was an American naval officer who worked as an ordnance expert on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wounded in action (WIA) describes combatants who have been wounded while fighting in a combat zone during wartime, but have not been killed.
The XXI Bomber Command (XXI BC) was a unit of the Twentieth Air Force in the Mariana Islands for strategic bombing during World War II.
was a city in Japan until it was absorbed into the newly created city of Kitakyushu in 1963.
Yahoo! GeoCities is a web hosting service.
is one of the Ōsumi Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.
is the capital city of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.
was a Japanese photographer best known for extensively photographing Nagasaki the day after it was bombed.
Colonel Yi U (15 November 1912 – 7 August 1945) was the 4th head of Unhyeon Palace, a member of the imperial family of Korea, and a lieutenant colonel in the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
The is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities.
Yontan Airfield (also known as Yomitan Auxiliary Airfield) is a former military airfield on Okinawa, located Yomitan, Okinawa Village on the Okinawa western coast.
(January 4, 1882 – January 8, 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
was a Japanese physicist.
is a History Professor at Hiroshima University.
The Cairo Declaration was the outcome of the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943.
The 320th Troop Carrier Squadron (320th TCS) is a former United States Air Force (USAF) unit designation.
The 393d Bomb Squadron (393 BS) is part of the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri.
The 509th Composite Group (509 CG) was a unit of the United States Army Air Forces created during World War II and tasked with the operational deployment of nuclear weapons.
The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.
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