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Atomic nucleus

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The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. [1]

91 relations: Ab initio methods (nuclear physics), Alpha particle, Atom, Atomic orbital, Atomic physics, Baryon, Binding energy, Bismuth-209, Bohr radius, Borromean nucleus, Bose–Einstein condensate, Boson, Cambridge University Press, Charge radius, Chemical element, Chiral perturbation theory, Coulomb's law, Deuterium, Dmitri Ivanenko, Electron, Ernest Marsden, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Schrödinger, Even and odd atomic nuclei, Femtometre, Fermion, Geiger–Marsden experiment, Giant resonance, Gilbert N. Lewis, Hadron, Halo nucleus, Hans Geiger, Helium-3, Helium-4, Hydrogen, Hypernucleus, Hyperon, Isospin, Isotope, Isotopes of boron, Isotopes of lead, Isotopes of lithium, J. J. Thomson, James Rainwater, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Liquid helium, List of particles, Magic number (physics), Many-body theory, ..., Mass, Mass number, Michael Faraday, Millisecond, Nature (journal), Neutron, Neutronium, Nuclear force, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear physics, Nuclear structure, Nucleon, Particle physics, Pauli exclusion principle, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Phase transition, Plum pudding model, Promethium, Proton, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum number, Quark, Radioactive decay, Rutgers University, Semi-empirical mass formula, Spheroid, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Strangeness, Strong interaction, Superfluidity, Technetium, Tin, Tritium, Uranium, Van der Waals force, Wave function, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, Yukawa potential, Zeitschrift für Physik. Expand index (41 more) »

Ab initio methods (nuclear physics)

In nuclear physics, ab initio methods seek to describe the atomic nucleus from the ground up by solving the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation for all constituent nucleons and the forces between them.

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Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.

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Baryon

A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).

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Binding energy

Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.

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Bismuth-209

Bismuth-209 is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α-decay (alpha decay).

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Bohr radius

The Bohr radius (a0 or rBohr) is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the nucleus and the electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state.

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Borromean nucleus

A Borromean nucleus is an atomic nucleus that has a nuclear halo containing two neutrons.

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Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Charge radius

The rms charge radius is a measure of the size of an atomic nucleus, particularly of a proton or a deuteron.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chiral perturbation theory

Chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) is an effective field theory constructed with a Lagrangian consistent with the (approximate) chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), as well as the other symmetries of parity and charge conjugation.

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Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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Deuterium

Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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Dmitri Ivanenko

Dmitri Dmitrievich Ivanenko (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Иване́нко; July 29, 1904 – December 30, 1994) was a Soviet-Ukrainian theoretical physicist who made great contributions to the physical science of the twentieth century, especially to nuclear physics, field theory, and gravitation theory.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Ernest Marsden

Sir Ernest Marsden (19 February 1889 – 15 December 1970) was an English-New Zealand physicist.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

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Even and odd atomic nuclei

In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.

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Femtometre

The femtometre (American spelling femtometer, symbol fm derived from the Danish and Norwegian word femten, "fifteen"+Ancient Greek: μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement") is an SI unit of length equal to 10−15 metres, which means a quadrillionth of one.

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Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Geiger–Marsden experiment

The Geiger–Marsden experiment(s) (also called the Rutherford gold foil experiment) were a landmark series of experiments by which scientists discovered that every atom contains a nucleus where all of its positive charge and most of its mass are concentrated.

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Giant resonance

Giant resonance is a high-frequency collective excitation of atomic nuclei, as a property of many-body quantum systems.

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Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

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Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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Halo nucleus

In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a "halo" of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.

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Hans Geiger

Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Geiger (30 September 1882 – 24 September 1945) was a German physicist.

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Helium-3

Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).

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Helium-4

Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hypernucleus

A hypernucleus is a nucleus which contains at least one hyperon (a baryon carrying the strangeness quantum number) in addition to the normal protons and neutrons.

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Hyperon

In particle physics, a hyperon is any baryon containing one or more strange quarks, but no charm, bottom, or top quark.

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Isospin

In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isotopes of boron

Boron (5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10B and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron.

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Isotopes of lead

Lead (82Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.

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Isotopes of lithium

Naturally occurring lithium (3Li) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.

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J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

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James Rainwater

Leo James Rainwater (December 9, 1917 – May 31, 1986) was an American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 for his part in determining the asymmetrical shapes of certain atomic nuclei.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

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List of particles

This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.

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Magic number (physics)

In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons, separately) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus.

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Many-body theory

Many-body theory (or many-body physics) is an area of physics which provides the framework for understanding the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting particles, often on the order of Avogadro's number.

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Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mass number

The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Millisecond

A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutronium

Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium, also referred to as neutrite) is a hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons.

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Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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Nuclear structure

Understanding the structure of the atomic nucleus is one of the central challenges in nuclear physics.

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Nucleon

In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Plum pudding model

The plum pudding model is one of several scientific models of the atom.

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Promethium

Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

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Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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Semi-empirical mass formula

In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) (sometimes also called Weizsäcker's formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker formula, or the Bethe–Weizsäcker mass formula to distinguish it from the Bethe–Weizsäcker process) is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus from its number of protons and neutrons.

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Spheroid

A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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Strangeness

In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short period of time.

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Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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Superfluidity

Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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Technetium

Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tritium

Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Yukawa potential

In particle and atomic physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form where g is a magnitude scaling constant, i.e. is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range.

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Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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Atom nucleus, Atomic Nuclei, Atomic Nucleus, Atomic nuclei, Baryonic molecule, Nuclear Model, Nuclear model, Nuclear sciences, Nucleus (atomic structure), Nucleus (chemistry), Nucleus (physics), Nucleus model, Nucleus of an atom.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_nucleus

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