142 relations: Abhidhammattha-sangaha, Al-Ghazali, Alchemy, Alexander William Williamson, Ammonia, Analysis, Analytical chemistry, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Antoine Lavoisier, Aristotelian physics, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Ashʿari, Atomic physics, Atomic theory, Averroes, Averroism, Ājīvika, Becoming (philosophy), Brill Publishers, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Charvaka, Chatto & Windus, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Classical element, Corpuscular theory of light, Corpuscularianism, Cosmos, Cube, Daniel Sennert, De rerum natura, Democritus, Dharmakirti, Dignāga, Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis, Elementary particle, Eliminative materialism, Empirical evidence, Epicureanism, Epicurus, Equations for a falling body, F. M. Cornford, Francis Bacon, Fyodor Shcherbatskoy, G. E. R. Lloyd, Galen, Galileo Galilei, ..., Giordano Bruno, Heat, Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, Heraclitus, History of chemistry, History of India, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hylomorphism, Icosahedron, Incense, India, Infinite divisibility, Intensive and extensive properties, Isaac Newton, Islamic philosophy, Jainism, Johann Chrysostom Magnenus, John Dalton, John Philoponus, Kalapa (atomism), Kalpa Sūtra, Kanada (philosopher), Lancelot Law Whyte, Leucippus, Light, Lucretius, Materialism, Matter, Mechanical philosophy, Mechanism (philosophy), Medieval university, Mereological nihilism, Mind–body dualism, Minima naturalia, Molecule, Monism, Natural philosophy, Nausiphanes, Nicholas of Autrecourt, Nitrogen, Nyaya, Occasionalism, Octahedron, Online Etymology Dictionary, Outline of physical science, Oxygen, Pancastikayasara, Parmenides, Physicalism, Pierre Gassendi, Plato, Platonic solid, Pluralism (philosophy), Pseudo-Geber, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Reductionism, Religion, René Descartes, Robert Boyle, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Royal Medal, Royal Society, Samadhi, Samkhya, Scholasticism, Schools of Islamic theology, Scientific demonstration, Sextus Empiricus, Shlomo Pines, Sidereus Nuncius, Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 2nd Baronet, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Substance theory, Substantial form, Tattvartha Sutra, Tetrahedron, The Assayer, The Sceptical Chymist, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Harriot, Thomas Hobbes, Udayana, University of Toronto Press, Vaisheshika, Vācaspati Miśra, W. W. Norton & Company, Water, Will Durant, William R. Newman, Yajnavalkya, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
Abhidhammattha-sangaha (Pali) is a Buddhist text attributed to Acariya Anuruddha; it is a commentary on the Abhidharma of the Theravada tradition.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alexander William Williamson FRS (1 May 18246 May 1904) was an English chemist of Scottish descent.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).
Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.
Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
In philosophy, the concept of becoming originated in eastern ancient Greece with the philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who in the sixth century BC, said that nothing in this world is constant except change and becoming.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
Chatto & Windus was an important publisher of books in London, founded in the Victorian era.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.
Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposes all matter to be composed of minute particles.
The cosmos is the universe.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
Daniel Sennert (November 25, 1572 – July 21, 1637) was a renowned German physician and a prolific academic writer, especially in the field of alchemy or chemistry.
De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Dharmakīrti (fl. c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis (28 October 1892 in Tilburg – 18 May 1965 in De Bilt) was a Dutch historian of science.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Eliminative materialism (also called eliminativism) is the claim that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
A set of equations describe the resultant trajectories when objects move owing to a constant gravitational force under normal Earth-bound conditions.
Francis Macdonald Cornford, FBA (27 February 1874 – 3 January 1943) was an English classical scholar and translator; because of the similarity of his forename to his wife's, he was known to family as "FMC" and his wife Frances as "FCC".
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Fyodor Ippolitovich Shcherbatskoy or Stcherbatsky (Фёдор Ипполи́тович Щербатско́й) (30 August 1866 – 18 March 1942), often referred to in the literature as F. Th.
Sir Geoffrey Ernest Richard Lloyd, FBA, FLSW (born 25 January 1933), usually cited as G. E. R. Lloyd, is a historian of Ancient Science and Medicine at the University of Cambridge.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, KG (27 April 1564 – 5 November 1632) was an English nobleman.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Infinite divisibility arises in different ways in philosophy, physics, economics, order theory (a branch of mathematics), and probability theory (also a branch of mathematics).
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Johann Chrysostom Magnenus (French Jean Chrysostôme Magnen, c. 1590 – c. 1679) was a physician and advocate of atomism.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
Kalapa or rupa-kalapa (from Sanskrit rūpa "form, phenomenon" and kalāpa "bundle") is a term in Theravada Buddhist phenomenology for the smallest units, of physical matter.
The Kalpa Sūtra (कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira.
Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद, IAST: 'Kaṇāda), also known as Kashyapa, Uluka, Kananda and Kanabhuk, was an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher who founded the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy.
Lancelot Law Whyte (1896–1972) was a Scottish philosopher, theoretical physicist, historian of science and financier.
Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The mechanical philosophy is a natural philosophy describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism, or rarely simply nihilism) is the mereological position that objects with proper parts do not exist.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Minima naturalia ("natural minima") were theorized by Aristotle as the smallest parts into which a homogeneous natural substance (e.g., flesh, bone, or wood) could be divided and still retain its essential character.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Nausiphanes (Ναυσιφάνης; lived c. 325 BC), a native of Teos, was attached to the philosophy of Democritus, and was a pupil of Pyrrho.
Nicholas of Autrecourt (French: Nicholas d'Autrécourt; Latin: Nicolaus de Autricuria or Nicolaus de Ultricuria; c. 1299, Autrecourt – 16 or 17 July 1369, Metz) was a French medieval philosopher and Scholastic theologian.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".
Occasionalism is a philosophical theory about causation which says that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pañcastikayasara (en: the essence of reality), is an ancient Jain text authored by Acharya Kundakunda.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.
Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").
Pseudo-Geber (or "Latin Pseudo-Geber") refers to a corpus of Latin alchemist writing dated to the late 13th and early 14th centuries, attributed to Geber (Jābir ibn Hayyān), an early alchemist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Roger Joseph Boscovich (Ruđer Josip Bošković,, Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Rodericus Iosephus Boscovicus; 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath, Fairchild University website.
A Royal Medal, known also as The King's Medal or The Queen's Medal, depending on the gender of the monarch at the time of the award, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
A scientific demonstration is a scientific experiment carried out for the purposes of demonstrating scientific principles, rather than for hypothesis testing or knowledge gathering (although they may originally have been carried out for these purposes).
Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.
Shlomo Pines (August 5, 1908 in Charenton-le-Pont – January 9, 1990 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli scholar of Jewish and Islamic philosophy, best known for his English translation of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed.
Sidereus Nuncius (usually Sidereal Messenger, also Starry Messenger or Sidereal Message) is a short astronomical treatise (or pamphlet) published in New Latin by Galileo Galilei on March 13, 1610.
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 2nd Baronet FRS (5 February 181724 November 1880) was an English chemist.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
A theory of substantial forms asserts that forms (or ideas) organize matter and make it intelligible.
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 and is generally considered to be one of the pioneering works of the scientific method, first broaching the idea that the book of nature is to be read with mathematical tools rather than those of scholastic philosophy, as generally held at the time.
The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes is the title of a book by Robert Boyle, published in London in 1661.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Harriot (Oxford, c. 1560 – London, 2 July 1621), also spelled Harriott, Hariot or Heriot, was an English astronomer, mathematician, ethnographer and translator who made advances within the scientific field.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Udayana, also known as Udayanācārya (Udyanacharya, or Master Udayana), was a very important Hindu logician of the tenth century who attempted to reconcile the views held by the two major schools of logic (Nyaya and Vaisheshika).
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
Vachaspati Mishra was a 9th- or 10th-century CE Indian philosopher.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
William R. Newman (born March 13, 1955) is Distinguished Professor and Ruth N. Halls Professor in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Indiana University.
Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) was a Hindu Vedic sage.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.