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Atrial fibrillation

Index Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria. [1]

182 relations: Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Alfred Vulpian, American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Heart Association, Amiodarone, Amyloidosis, Angina, Anticoagulant, Apixaban, Artery, Artificial heart valve, Aspirin, Asymptomatic, Atrial flutter, Atrioventricular node, Atrium (heart), Auscultation, Beta blocker, Binge drinking, Bisoprolol, Bleeding, Brugada syndrome, Caffeine, Calcium channel blocker, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, Cardiac action potential, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac glycoside, Cardiac monitoring, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac output, Cardiac stress test, Cardiac surgery, Cardiology, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiovascular disease, Cardioversion, Catheter ablation, CHA2DS2–VASc score, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Clinical prediction rule, Coagulation, Complete blood count, Congenital heart defect, Coronary artery disease, Cox maze procedure, ..., Dabigatran, Dementia, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Diastole, Digoxin, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Diltiazem, Dofetilide, Dronedarone, Echocardiography, Edema, Edoxaban, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, Embolism, Embolus, End organ damage, European Society of Cardiology, Exercise intolerance, Fibrillation, Flecainide, Gap junction protein, Gastrointestinal bleeding, GJA1, GJA5, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heparin, Hermann Nothnagel, Holiday heart syndrome, Holter monitor, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypotension, Hypoxia (medical), Ibutilide, Inward-rectifier potassium channel, Ischemia, J wave, Jean-Baptiste de Sénac, Jugular vein, Jugular venous pressure, L-type calcium channel, Lamin, Left atrial appendage occlusion, Left atrial enlargement, Lightheadedness, Long QT syndrome, Lung cancer, Magnesium, Magnetic resonance imaging, Metalloproteinase, Metoprolol, Mitral insufficiency, Mitral valve, Mitral valve prolapse, Mitral valve repair, Mitral valve stenosis, Myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, Myosin, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nebivolol, Obesity, Obstructive sleep apnea, Orthopnea, P wave (electrocardiography), Palpitations, Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, Passive smoking, Pericarditis, Peripheral edema, Pneumonia, Pre-excitation syndrome, Presyncope, Procainamide, Propafenone, Prothrombin time, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary vein, Pulse, QRS complex, Radiofrequency ablation, Refractory period (physiology), Renal function, Renin–angiotensin system, Respiratory disease, Rheumatic fever, Rivaroxaban, Sarcoidosis, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, Sepsis, Shock (circulatory), Short QT syndrome, Shortness of breath, Sick sinus syndrome, Sinoatrial node, Sinus rhythm, Sleep apnea, Smoking, Sphincter, Sphygmomanometer, Stroke, Supraventricular tachycardia, Syncope (medicine), Systole, Tachycardia, Thomas Lewis (cardiologist), Thrombus, Thyroid, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Tobacco smoking, Transesophageal echocardiogram, Transient ischemic attack, Transthoracic echocardiogram, Tricuspid insufficiency, Troponin, Valvular heart disease, Ventricle (heart), Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular tachycardia, Verapamil, Warfarin, Wavelength, Weight loss, Willem Einthoven. Expand index (132 more) »


In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Alfred Vulpian

Edmé Félix Alfred Vulpian (5 January 1826 – 18 May 1887) was a French physician and neurologist.

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American College of Cardiology

The American College of Cardiology (ACC), based in Washington, D.C., is a nonprofit medical association established in 1949.

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American College of Chest Physicians

The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) is a medical association in the United States consisting of physicians and non-physician specialists in the field of chest medicine, which includes pulmonology, critical care medicine, and sleep medicine.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.

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Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.

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Apixaban, sold under the tradename Eliquis, is an anticoagulant for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Artificial heart valve

An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart.

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Atrioventricular node

The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Binge drinking

Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.

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Bisoprolol, marketed under the tradename Zebeta among others, is a medication most commonly used for heart diseases.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Brugada syndrome

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a genetic condition that results in abnormal electrical activity within the heart, increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Canadian Cardiovascular Society

The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) is the national voice for cardiovascular physicians and scientists in Canada.

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Cardiac action potential

The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.

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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.

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Cardiac glycoside

Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and decrease its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump.

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Cardiac monitoring

Cardiac monitoring generally refers to continuous or intermittent monitoring of heart activity, generally by electrocardiography, with assessment of the patient's condition relative to their cardiac rhythm.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Cardiac stress test

A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.

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Cardiac surgery

Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cardioversion is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) or other cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm using electricity or drugs.

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Catheter ablation

Catheter ablation is a procedure used to remove or terminate a faulty electrical pathway from sections of the hearts of those who are prone to developing cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome).

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CHA2DS2–VASc score

The CHADS2 score and its updated version, the CHA2DS2-VASc score, are clinical prediction rules for estimating the risk of stroke in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation (AF), a common and serious heart arrhythmia associated with thromboembolic stroke.

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Chest pain

Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.

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Chest radiograph

A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

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Clinical prediction rule

A clinical prediction rule is a type of medical research study in which researchers try to identify the best combination of medical sign, symptoms, and other findings in predicting the probability of a specific disease or outcome.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Congenital heart defect

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cox maze procedure

The Cox maze procedure, also known as maze procedure, is a type of heart surgery for atrial fibrillation.

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Dabigatran, sold under the brand name Pradaxa among others, is an anticoagulant medication which can be taken by mouth.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).

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Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood effectively.

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Diltiazem (INN) is a nondihydropyridine (non-DHP) calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia.

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Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent.

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Dronedarone (development codename SR33589 and marketed as Multaq) is a drug by Sanofi-Aventis, mainly for the indication of cardiac arrhythmias.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Edoxaban (DU-176b, trade names Savaysa, Lixiana) is an oral anticoagulant drug which acts as a direct factor Xa inhibitor.

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Electrical conduction system of the heart

The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.

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An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "wedge", "plug") is an unattached mass that travels through the bloodstream and is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.

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End organ damage

End organ damage usually refers to damage occurring in major organs fed by the circulatory system (heart, kidneys, brain, eyes) which can sustain damage due to uncontrolled hypertension, hypotension, or hypovolemia.

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European Society of Cardiology

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is a non-profit knowledge-based professional association that facilitates the improvement and harmonization of standards of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

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Exercise intolerance

Exercise intolerance is a condition of inability or decreased ability to perform physical exercise at what would be considered to be the normally expected level or duration.

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Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers.

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Flecainide acetate is a class Ic antiarrhythmic agent used to prevent and treat tachyarrhythmias (abnormal fast rhythms of the heart).

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Gap junction protein

Gap junction proteins;Gap junction α (GJA) proteins.

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Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.

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Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6.

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Gap junction alpha-5 protein (GJA5), also known as connexin 40 (Cx40) — is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA5 gene.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Hermann Nothnagel

Carl Wilhelm Hermann Nothnagel (28 September 1841 – 7 July 1905) was a German internist born in Alt-Lietzegöricke (Stare Łysogórki), nearby Bärwalde in der Neumark (Mieszkowice), Neumark, Brandenburg.

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Holiday heart syndrome

Holiday heart syndrome is an irregular heartbeat pattern presented in individuals who are otherwise healthy.

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Holter monitor

In medicine, a Holter monitor (often simply Holter) is a type of ambulatory electrocardiography device, a portable device for cardiac monitoring (the monitoring of the electrical activity of the cardiovascular system) for at least 24 to 48 hours (often for two weeks at a time).

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Ibutilide is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent that is indicated for acute cardioconversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter of a recent onset to sinus rhythm.

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Inward-rectifier potassium channel

Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium channels.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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J wave

A J wave — also known as Osborn wave, camel-hump sign, late delta wave, hathook junction, hypothermic wave, K wave, H wave or current of injury — is an abnormal electrocardiogram finding.

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Jean-Baptiste de Sénac

Jean-Baptiste de Sénac (1693–1770) was a French physician born in the town of Lombez.

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Jugular vein

The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.

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Jugular venous pressure

The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.

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L-type calcium channel

The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated family of voltage-dependent calcium channel.

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Nuclear lamins, also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus.

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Left atrial appendage occlusion

Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is a treatment strategy to reduce the risk of left atrial appendage blood clots from entering the bloodstream and causing a stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF).

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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) or left atrial dilation refers to enlargement of the left atrium (LA) of the heart, and is a form of cardiomegaly.

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Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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A metalloproteinase, or metalloprotease, is any protease enzyme whose catalytic mechanism involves a metal.

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Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.

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Mitral insufficiency

Mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.

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Mitral valve

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP; a.k.a. floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click murmur syndrome or billowing mitral leaflet) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.

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Mitral valve repair

Mitral valve repair is a cardiac surgery procedure performed by cardiac surgeons to treat stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage) of the mitral valve.

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Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.

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Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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Nebivolol is a β1 receptor blocker with nitric oxide-potentiating vasodilatory effect used in treatment of hypertension and, in Europe, also for left ventricular failure.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.

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Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair.

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P wave (electrocardiography)

The P wave in the ECG represents atrial depolarization, which results in atrial contraction, or atrial systole.

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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.

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Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night.

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Passive smoking

Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.

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Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart).

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Peripheral edema

Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Pre-excitation syndrome

Pre-excitation syndrome is an abnormal heart rhythm in which the ventricles of the heart become depolarized too early, which leads to their partial premature contraction.

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Presyncope is a state of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint (as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting).

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Procainamide is a medication of the antiarrhythmic class used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.

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Propafenone (brand name Rythmol SR or Rytmonorm) is a class 1C anti-arrhythmic medication, which treats illnesses associated with rapid heart beats such as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

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Prothrombin time

The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.

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Pulmonary vein

The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

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In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.

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QRS complex

The QRS complex is a name for the combination of three of the graphical deflections seen on a typical electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG).

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Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).

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Refractory period (physiology)

Refractoriness is the fundamental property of any object of autowave nature (especially excitable medium) not to respond on stimuli, if the object stays in the specific refractory state.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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Respiratory disease

Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.

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Rivaroxaban, sold under the brand name Xarelto, among others, is an oral anticoagulant medication (blood thinner).

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Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Shock (circulatory)

Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Short QT syndrome

Short QT syndrome is a genetic disease of the electrical system of the heart.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Sick sinus syndrome

Sick sinus syndrome (SSS), also called sinus dysfunction, or sinoatrial node disease ("SND"), is a group of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's primary pacemaker.

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Sinoatrial node

The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

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Sinus rhythm

A sinus rhythm is any cardiac rhythm where depolarization of the cardiac muscle begins at the sinus node.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.

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A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Supraventricular tachycardia

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is an abnormally fast heart rhythm arising from improper electrical activity in the upper part of the heart.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Thomas Lewis (cardiologist)

Sir Thomas Lewis, CBE, FRS, FRCP (26 December 1881 – 17 March 1945) was a British cardiologist (although he personally disliked the term, preferring cardiovascular disease specialist).

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A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Transesophageal echocardiogram

A transesophageal echocardiogram, or TEE (TOE in the United Kingdom, reflecting the spelling transoesophageal), is an alternative way to perform an echocardiogram.

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Transient ischemic attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

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Transthoracic echocardiogram

A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is the most common type of echocardiogram, which is a still or moving image of the internal parts of the heart using ultrasound.

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Tricuspid insufficiency

Tricuspid insufficiency (TI), a valvular heart disease also called tricuspid regurgitation (TR), refers to the failure of the heart's tricuspid valve to close properly during systole.

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Ventricular fibrillation

Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is when the heart quivers instead of pumping due to disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles.

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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.

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Verapamil, sold under various trade names, is a medication used for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina (chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart), and supraventricular tachycardia.

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Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven (21 May 1860 – 29 September 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist.

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A fib, A-fib, AFIB, Afib, Atrial Fibrilation, Atrial Fibrillation, Atrial fib, Atrial fibrilation, Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, Atrial fibrulation, Atrial fibulation, Auricular fibrillation, Fibrillation of atria, Non-valvular atrial fibrillation, Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Recurrent atrial fibrillation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atrial_fibrillation

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