130 relations: Alertness, Anne Treisman, Anterior cingulate cortex, Apperception, Arousal, Artificial intelligence, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention economy, Attention restoration theory, Attention seeking, Attention span, Attentional control, Attentional shift, Auditory spatial attention, Autism spectrum, Baddeley's model of working memory, Basal ganglia, Behaviorism, Binding problem, Brain damage, Brainstem, Broadbent's filter model of attention, Cocktail party effect, Cognition, Cognitive inhibition, Cognitive load, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive revolution, Colin Cherry, Coma, Conceptual model, Consciousness, Crossmodal attention, Daniel Berlyne, Daniel Kahneman, Deconcentration of attention, Diana Deutsch, Dichotic listening, Disorders of consciousness, Distraction, Donald Broadbent, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Ear, Education, Electroencephalography, Endogeny (biology), Eriksen flanker task, Executive functions, Exogeny, ..., Falsifiability, Focalisation, Focusing, Franciscus Donders, Frontal eye fields, Frontal lobe, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gamma wave, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Greek language, Headphones, Hermann von Helmholtz, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Informal learning, Inhibition of return, Johann Friedrich Herbart, John B. Watson, John Ridley Stroop, Joint attention, Juan Luis Vives, Jules Henry, Lateral inhibition, Lateralization of brain function, Lawrence Ward, Macaque, Marcus Raichle, Maya peoples, Mental chronometry, Mental health, Michael Posner (psychologist), Microstimulation, Midbrain, Mindfulness, National Institutes of Health, Neural correlate, Neurology, Neuron, Neuron (journal), Neuronal tuning, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Nicolas Malebranche, Nonverbal communication, Norepinephrine, Observational learning, Ovsiankina effect, Oxford University Press, Parietal lobe, Personal equation, Philosophical realism, Philosophy, Positron emission tomography, Psychological refractory period, Psychology, Psychophysiology, Saccade, San Pedro La Laguna, Scholarpedia, Science (journal), Sigmund Freud, Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, Split attention effect, Stroop effect, Superior colliculus, Task switching (psychology), Task-positive network, Temporal lobe, The Principles of Psychology, Traumatic brain injury, Ulric Neisser, Vigilance (psychology), Visual angle, Visual search, Walter Benjamin, Wilhelm Wundt, William James, William Stanley Jevons, Williams syndrome, Working memory, Zoom lens. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Anne Marie Treisman (née Taylor; 27 February 1935 – 9 February 2018)Dean of the Faculty.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.
Apperception (from the Latin ad-, "to, toward" and percipere, "to perceive, gain, secure, learn, or feel") is any of several aspects of perception and consciousness in such fields as psychology, philosophy and epistemology.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Attention economics is an approach to the management of information that treats human attention as a scarce commodity, and applies economic theory to solve various information management problems.
Attention restoration theory (ART) asserts that people can concentrate better after spending time in nature, or even looking at scenes of nature.
Attention seeking (also called drawing attention or garnering attention) is behaving in a way that is likely to elicit attention, usually to hearten oneself by being in the limelight or to elicit validation from others.
Attention span is the amount of concentrated time a person can spend on a task without becoming distracted.
Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.
Attentional shift (or shift of attention) occurs when directing attention to a point to increase the efficiency of processing that point and includes inhibition to decrease attentional resources to unwanted or irrelevant inputs.
Auditory spatial attention is a specific form of attention, involving the focusing of auditory perception to a location in space.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to present a more accurate model of primary memory (often referred to as short-term memory).
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
The binding problem is a term used at the interface between neuroscience, cognitive science and philosophy of mind that has multiple meanings.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Broadbent's filter model is an early selection theory of attention.
The cocktail party effect is the phenomenon of the brain's ability to focus one's auditory attention (an effect of selective attention in the brain) on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, as when a partygoer can focus on a single conversation in a noisy room.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive inhibition refers to the mind's ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant to the task/process at hand or to the mind's current state.
In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the effort being used in the working memory.
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
The cognitive revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950s as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes, which became known collectively as cognitive science.
Edward Colin Cherry (23 June 1914 – 23 November 1979) was a British cognitive scientist whose main contributions were in focused auditory attention, specifically the cocktail party problem regarding the capacity to follow one conversation while many other conversations are going on in a noisy room.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Crossmodal attention refers to the distribution of attention to different senses.
Daniel Ellis Berlyne (April 25, 1924 – November 2, 1976) was a British and Canadian psychologist and philosopher.
Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).
Deconcentration of attention is opposite to concentration and can be interpreted as a process of dismantling of the figures in the field of perception and transformation of the perceptual field into a uniform (in the sense that no individual elements could be construed as a perceptual figure) background.
Diana Deutsch (born February 15, 1938 in London, England) is a British-American perceptual and cognitive psychologist, born in London, England.
Dichotic Listening is a psychological test commonly used to investigate selective attention within the auditory system and is a subtopic of cognitive psychology and neuroscience.
Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness.
Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from a desired area of focus and thereby blocking or diminishing the reception of desired information.
Donald Eric (D.E.) Broadbent FRS (Birmingham, 6 May 1926 – 10 April 1993) was an influential experimental psychologist from the UK His career and research bridged the gap between the pre-World War II approach of Sir Frederic Bartlett and what became known as Cognitive Psychology in the late 1960s.
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
In cognitive psychology, the Eriksen Flanker Task is a set of response inhibition tests used to assess the ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate in a particular context.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
Focalisation is a term coined by the French narrative theorist Gerard Genette.
Focusing is a psychotherapeutic process developed by psychotherapist Eugene Gendlin.
Franciscus (Franz) Cornelius Donders FRS FRSE (27 May 1818 – 24 March 1889) was a Dutch ophthalmologist.
The frontal eye fields (FEF) are a region located in the frontal cortex, more specifically in Brodmann area 8 or BA8, of the primate brain.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Informal learning is any learning that is not formal learning or non-formal learning, such as self-directed learning or learning from experience.
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an orientation mechanism that briefly enhances (for approximately 100–300 milliseconds (ms)) the speed and accuracy with which an object is detected after the object is attended, but then impairs detection speed and accuracy (for approximately 500–3000 milliseconds).
Johann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) was a German philosopher, psychologist and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline.
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
John Ridley Stroop (March 21, 1897 – September 1, 1973), better known as J. Ridley Stroop, was an American psychologist whose research in cognition and interference continues to be considered by some as the gold standard in attentional studies and profound enough to continue to be cited for relevance into the 21st century.
Joint attention or shared attention is the shared focus of two individuals on an object.
Juan Luis Vives (Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Joan Lluís Vives i March; Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands.
Jules Henry (November 29, 1904 – September 23, 1969) was a noted American anthropologist.
In neurobiology, lateral inhibition is the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbors.
The lateralization of brain function is the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other.
Lawrence M. Ward is a neuroscientist and psychophysicist at the Department of Psychology at the University of British Columbia.
The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Marcus E. Raichle (born March 15, 1937) is an American neurologist at the Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis, Missouri.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Michael I. Posner (born September 12, 1936) is an American psychologist, the editor of numerous cognitive and neuroscience compilations, and an eminent researcher in the field of attention.
Microstimulation is a technique that stimulates a small population of neurons by passing a small electrical current through a nearby microelectrode.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
A neural correlate of a content of experience is any bodily component, such as an electro-neuro-biological state or the state assumed by some biophysical subsystem of the brain, whose presence necessarily and regularly correlates with such a specific content of experience.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuron is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cell Press, and imprint of Elsevier.
Neuronal tuning refers to the hypothesized property of brain cells by which they selectively represent a particular type of sensory, association, motor, or cognitive information.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.
Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others.
The Ovsiankina effect is the tendency to pick up an interrupted action again when it has still not been achieved.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
The term personal equation, in 19th- and early 20th-century science, referred to the idea that every individual observer had an inherent bias when it came to measurements and observations.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The term psychological refractory period (PRP) refers to the period of time during which the response to a second stimulus is significantly slowed because a first stimulus is still being processed.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychophysiology (from Greek ψῡχή, psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.
A saccade (French for jerk) is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.
San Pedro La Laguna is a Guatemalan town on the southwest shore of Lake Atitlán.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS (8 March 1788 – 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician.
The split-attention effect is a learning effect inherent within some poorly designed instructional materials.
---- ---- Naming the font color of a printed word is an easier and quicker task if word meaning and font color are not incongruent.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
Task switching, or set-shifting, is an executive function that involves the ability to unconsciously shift attention between one task and another.
The task-positive network (TPN) is a network of areas in the human brain that typically responds with activation increases to attention-demanding tasks in functional imaging studies.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
The Principles of Psychology is an 1890 book about psychology by William James, an American philosopher and psychologist who trained to be a physician before going into psychology.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Ulric Gustav Neisser (December 8, 1928 – February 17, 2012) was a German-born American psychologist and member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has been referred to as the "father of cognitive psychology." Neisser researched and wrote about perception and memory.
In modern psychology, vigilance, also termed sustained concentration, is defined as the ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time.
The visual angle is the angle a viewed object subtends at the eye, usually stated in degrees of arc.
Visual search is a type of perceptual task requiring attention that typically involves an active scan of the visual environment for a particular object or feature (the target) among other objects or features (the distractors).
Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (15 July 1892 – 26 September 1940) was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William Stanley Jevons FRS (1 September 1835 – 13 August 1882) was an English economist and logician.
Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens (see prime lens).
Attention (psychology), Attn, Concentration (psychology), Concentration of the mind, Covert attention, Focus (cognitive process), Focus of attention, Inattention, Interest (attention), Overt attention, Uninteresting.